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Lancaster Farmer, 





VOLUME X.--1878. 


• 1878. 


About Mosquitoes, 2 

About Bats, 3 

Answiv to a Correspondent, 5 

Address, fl 

Airriciiltural Outlook, 13 

A Portable Fence, lo 

A Hint to lirape Urowcre, l-t 

Auiuial InstiiR't, 15 

A New llouseliold Pest, 15 

Around the Farm, 23, 42, 57, 70, 

Aijrieultural Notes, 30 

Airins Beds, 30 

A Horse's I'etitiou to His Master, 31 

Apollo, 35 

A Larce IIorse-Kadisli, 36 

About Dark Bralimas, 40 

April, 49 

Asparagus, 62 

Aboition in Cows, 64 

About Potatoes, 65 

All AL'od Apple, 65 

Attraction Extraordinary, 65 

About May, 65 

A ?50-' Hooster, 79 

Apple Tree Borer, >'4 

Around the F'arni, 88, 119, 133, 151 

A Simple Kefriijerator, 89 

A Hint/o Geranium (irowers, 93 

A Manfmoth Bunch of (irapes, 93 

Arab Maxims for Horse-Keeping, 94 

A Wheal Crop Saved by Skunks, 109 

Aromatic Principles in Milk, 110 

August Caterpillars, 116 

Agricultural Exhibitions, 116 

Asparagus Plantintr in Summer, 137 

A Varied Diet for Fowls, K8 

A Winged Host of Sennecharib, 136 

Agricultural Journals, l.SS 

Agricultural Products of Englaud and 

France, 141 
Among the Points, 143 
An Appeal, 145, IGl 
Acknowledgment, 145 
Amber Sugar Cane, 147 
A Snake in His Eye, 147 
Answer to Correspondent i, 150 
Acreage Kequired for a Cow, 159 
A Gigantic Puff-Ball, 163 
Autumn Leaves and Ferns, 162 
A ChupieronPennsylvaniaSnakes, 164 
Are County Fairs Benefieial to Farmers 

and Fruit-Growers? 164 
Asclepias Tuberosa, 168 
Autumn Top-Dressing, 173 
A Study of Sheep, 175 
As Others See Us, 178 
About Canary Birds, 176 
A Few Words on Bees and Grapes, 181 
A Household Fruit Dryer, 187 
Bury the Kubbish, 14 
Buckwheat, 15, 93 
Brown Leghorns, 37 
Black Hellebore, 41 
Barnyard Manures, 51 
Bleaching Broom Corn, 63 
lieans, 62 

Beautifying the Grass Plot, 62 
Bee-Keepers' Association, 77, 125 
Black Snakcroot, 89 
Balking, 94 
Brighton Grape, 101 
Blackberry Causality, 104 
Building Hoses, 110 
Brine for Bathing the Feet of Horses, 

Bees and Grapes, 130 
British Exports to the United States, 

Bone Meal and Crushed Shells, 144 
Best Watch Made in America, 148 
Blackroot and the Myriapods, 149 
Bad Season for Dairy Farmers in 

Scotland, 160 
Bee-Keepers' Association, 171 
Clubbing, 5, 17, 33, 49, 65 
Care of Domestic Animals, 6 
Communication, 6 
Cholera Among Fowls, 10 

Cost of a Bushel of Wheat, 13 

Cultivation of the Lilac, 13 

Ciicumveniing the Turnip Beetle, 15 

Culibages tor Fowls, 15 

Coal Ashes for Fowls, 16 

Correction, 17, 99 

Controlling Horn (Jrowth, 31 

{'orrespoudenec, 34, 57, 67, 83, 100, 116 

Commercial Fertilizers, 30 

Celandine, 56 

Clothes Moths, 56 

Correction for March, 58 

(Joal Ashes, <!2 

Coal Ashes and Curculio, 63, 136 

Celery, 62 

Corn ({rowing, 78 

Care of Voung Fruit Trees, 78 

Cooked Meats for Fowls, 79 

Charcoal for Poultry, 79 

Cellars, 94 

Curing a Sick Hog, 95 

Cooked Food for Chickens, 95 

Crop Keport, 103 

Chemical Fertilizers, 109 

Cabbage Grubs, 110 

Cooking Potatoes, 110 

Condiments in Poultry Diet, 112 

Crop I*^ailurcs, 113 

Cost of Cows' Milk, 123 

Condition of American Agriculture, 126 

Cottage Clieese, 1-7 

Cheap Poultry Yard, 128 

Correspondence, 131 

Clover and Chinch Bugs, 135 

Care of Fowls in Transportation, 143 

Cornstalks vs. Sorghum, 149 

Chronological History of Tobacco, 151 

Care of Poultry, 159 

Charcoal for Fowls, 159 

Cornstalk Molasses, 167 

Covering the Vines and Plants, 173 

Curious Fact About Potato Seed, 174 

Cultivation of Grain of All Kinds, 178 

Calves, 18s 
■Composition for Hen Roosts, 18S 

Charcoal in Turkey-Feeding, 188 

Cookeil Food for Cattle, 188 

Clover Aftergrowth, 186 

Care of Fruit Trees, 1H7 

Covering SIrawlierries, 187 

Corn Cultivation, 179 

Cliocola'e Sorghum, 181 

Do Bees Really Destroy Fruit ! 1 

Driving Away Rats, 17 

Dark Brahma Fowls, 35 

Drilling Corn, 109 

Dressing Land with Fish Scraps, 109 

Diiroc, or Jersey Red Pigs, 115 

Does Tobacco Impoverish the Soil, 129 

Doctoring Sick Fowls, 143 

Derivation of Common Names, 146 

Dairy Products, 160 

Depth to Sow Wheat, 173 

Di-horning Cattle, 175 

Essay on Manure, 7 

Eureka Tree and Post-Hole Digger, 71 

Excessive Stimulation of Strawberries, 

Externiinatiug Lice, 79 

England's Great Farm, 105 

Error in Wheat Husbandry, 109 

Experimenting on Bees, 117 

Experiments in Wheat and Oats, 121 

Explosive Dust, 136 

Evergreens and Birds, 139 

Eggs in Winter, 143 

English Sparrows, 145 

I'^uropean Sliipments from Philadel- 
phia, 15(j 

Essay, 164 

Export of Breadstuffs, 173 

Elizabeth Stock Farms, 31 

Eggs, All About, ls4 

Fei-ding Young Chickens on Rice, 16 

February Kitchen-Garden Calendar 17 

Forcing Asparagus, 30 

Fowl Feeding in Cold Weather, 31 

Fruit — What Varieties to Grow, 42 

Fertilizers and Manures — Their Appli- 
cations to Corn Crops, 4^! 

Farm Notes, 55 

Facts for Farms, 55 

Flat Irons, 79 

Flower Pots, 93 

Feeding for Eggs, 95 

Feeding Fowls a Little and Often, 95 

Field Mulching, 109 

Figs for Fattening Hogs, 109 

Fat Horses, UI 

Forests and Cultivation, ]'22 

F'ertility <d' Dairy Farms, I2fi 

Feeding Value of Corn and Oats, 127 

Feeding Fowls, 143 

Farm Items, 158 

Fulton Farmers' Club, 92, 108, 172 

Fall Plowing, 173 

Feeding Apiiles, 174 

Frying Raw Potatoes, 174 

Farmer, to the Patrons of the, 177 

Farmer, Our Personal Relations to the, 

Fulton Farmers' Club, 92, 108 

Guinea Fowls, 10 

Give the Fowls Pure Water, 15 

Geo. Stiuton ifc Co., Art Publishers, 17 

(iood Stock, 31 

(iive us a Breed of Walking Horses, 31 

Grafting, 40 

(iardcn Vegetables, 71 

Grain for Poultry, 95 

Good Setters, 95 

Grass Seed lor Mowing Lands, 109 

Growing Chestnuts, 127 

Garden Culture of Strawberries, 142 

(ialley- Worms vs. Wire- Worms, 161 

Game Fowls, 175 

Greeting, Our Annual, 177 

Golden Millet, 186 

Good Fowls for Laving, 188 

Household Recipes, 14, 30,63,94, 111, 
127, 14:1, 1.59, 174, 187 

Home Expressions, 17 

Half-way Plowing, 22 

Hoeing Wheat, 24 

How Fruit (i rowing May be Made a 
Source of Prolit by Farmers, 25 

How to Manage, 31 

Hard Times, "33 

Honey-Bees and Fruit Once More, 35 

How to Use Bone as a F'ertilizer, 48 

Hovey's Seedling Strawberry, 54 

Hard Times of 1M7-IS22, .55 

Hauling .Manure, 61 

How a Water-Pipe May be Cleaned, 63 

How Can Poultry be Made Profitable to 
the Farmer? 71 

How to Plow, 78 

How to Make Trees Fruit E^arly, 78 

Household Hints, 79 

How to Banish Rats, 79 

Hints for Horse Owners, 79 

Heaves, 79 

Hens that Eat Eggs, 79 

Haymaking, 82 

How to Save Plums and Gooscberriet, 

How to Use Fertilizers, 92 

Hoeing Wheat, 92 

How to Keep Eggs Fresh, 95 

Habits of Curculio, 96 

How Superi)liosphate of Lime is Made 
Ineifectivc, 109 

How to Choose a Good Cow, 111 

Humming-Birds, 137 

Hints for Washing-Day, 142 

Hen Roosts, 14^5 

How Plants Provide for theFuturc, 148 

How to Make a Lawn, 158 

Hen Hints, 159 

Hams, 174 

Horses With and Without Shoes, 175 

How to Cure a Kicking Cow, 188 

Home-Made Manures, 182 

Homc-Made Superphosphate, 186 

In-Breeding of Poultry, 31 

Is the Strawberry Wholesome? 93 

If Cows Are Kept, 95 

Insect Pests, 97 

Interior Fences, 126 

Insect Pests and Their Remedy, 135 

If Von Want to Keep Your Hogs, 143 

January, 3 

Japanesi' Persimmon or Date Plum, 4 

J. B. G., el. al., vs. Italian Bees, 8 

Judging Draft Horses, 175 

Keep Borax in the Mouse, 30 

Kitchen-Garden Calendar for March, 34 

Keep llorses'Clcan, 111 

Keep Your Birds Tame, 128 

Keeping Grapes Fresh, 143 

Literary and Personal, 16, 32, 48, 64, 

Sl),'96, 112, 128, 144, 160, 176, 1.88 
Lancaster County Agricultural and 

Hnrtieiiltural l^ociety, 44, .58, 75, 

107,123, 139, 1.5.5, 170, 1S5 
Lancaster County Publications, 18 
Lancaster Park Directors, 30 
Linniean Societv, 47, 61, 78, 108, 126, 

141, 1.5.S, 172, 186 
Lancaster County Beef, Go 
Lice on Cattle, 04 
Late Planted Peaehblows, 68 
Leghorn Fowls, 79 
Lancaster County Cattle, 81 
Lancaster County Farming, 82 
Local Fruit Nomenclature, 86 
Lancaster County Tobacco, 88, 122 
Lancaster Potatoes F'ulters, 110 
Late Hatcbcd Chickens, 112 
Letter from North C'arolina, 120 
Letter from Iowa, 120, 152 
Loss of Phosphate, I'ifl 
Lean Cattle for Europe, 127 
Lime as a .Manure, 130 
Lime as a F'ertilizer, 151, 134 
Lice on Chickens, 144 
Large Flowering Spurge, 151 
Largest Orchard in the World, 173 
Literary Contributions, to our 177 
Livestock Farming, 184 
Livestock in Colorado, 188 
Mysteries of a Cold Air Spring, 4 
More Large Trees, 30 
Manures and .Soil Fertilizers, 52,38 
More About Horned Owls, 41 
Milk, Cheese and Sugar, 49 
Manure for Tobacco, 93 
Mixed Paint, 93 
Money! .Money! Money! 97, 113 
Method of Judging a Horse, HI 
Moscow Pigeons, 112 
Moonshine, 133 
Making Wine from Grapes, 142 
Making Poultry Pay, 175 
Matins; Fowls for Breeding, 176 
Monthly Keminders, 178 
Managing a Small Farm, 184 
New Veifctables, 13 
Notice Extraordinary, 34 
Number of Stock, 95 
Number of Eggs that a Hen Can Lay, 

November, 162 
Notice, 177 

Notice Extraordinary, 177 
New Mode of .Making Butter, 187 
North Carolina Letter, l^'O 
Our Tenth Volume, 1 
Only a Farmer, 2 

Our" Local Organization, 11,27,91,170 
Our Paris Letter, 26, 134, 153 
Oatmeal as an Article of Diet, 30 
Odor vs. Color, 33 
Onions for Poultry, 95 
Our Wheat Crop, 101 
Ordinary Hen's Eggs, 112 
Oyster Shells for Laying Hens, 112 
Ox-eye Daisy, 115 
Origin of the Domestic Turkey, 128 
Of all Domestic Fowls, 144 
Our (ireat Apple Crop, 173 
Our Aggregate, 178 
Our Corn Crop, l^l 
Oatmeal in the Household, 187 



Personal, 1 

Programme of Meetinff of the Pennsyl- 
vania Board of Agriculture, 3 

Pedigree of Sliort-Horned Bull Jave- 
line, i3,5i5, 5 

Pulverizing Manure, 13 

Poultry and Eeg Production, 15 

Pruning and Training Our Grapevines, 

PlantingTreesforTimber and Fuel, 23 

Pruning During Winter, 30 

Pruning Fruit Trees, 30 

Philadelphia Poudrette, 34 

Pennsylvania Apples for Export, 39 

Pennsylvania Leaf Tobacco, 48 

Pennsylvania Wheat Prospects, 61 

Peas, fiJ 

Pruning Dwarf Pears, fi2 

Potato Planting, fi2 

Preserving Fence Posts, 03 

Protitahle Butter-Making, 63 

Propaifating by Natural Selection, 70 

Pop-Corn as a Leading Crop, 78 

Potato Salad, 79 

Percentage of Cream and Butter, 79 

Plymouth P.ock Foivls, 85 

Protecting Cornfields from Birds, 93 

Protecting Trees Against Worms, 93 

Poland China Hogs, 99 

Prickly Ash, 117 

Pleasures in Farming, 137 

Pure Milk for Sickly Children, 142 

Putting Away Winter Cabbage, 158 

Packing Butter, 160 

PreservinET Grapes, 174 

Pear Blitrht, 187 

Poultry Hints, 188 

Queries and Answers, 18, 36, 51, 67, 
83, 99, 132, 162 

Questions Suggested in Conversations 
on Fertilizers, 57 

Quince*, 174 

Rust on Blackberries, 14 

Revu of January Number, 19 

Raising Cloverseed, 30 

Report' of Fruit Committee, 36 

Revu of February Number, 42 

Revu of March Number, 57 

Right Kind of Farm, 61 

Running Beans, 62 

Rats and Harness, 63 

Revu of April Number, 68 

Renovating Black Silks, 79 

Revu of May Number, 86 

Rambling Thoughts Strung Together, 

Reminders for June, 92 

Raising Pork, 94 

Reminder for July, 99 

Revu for June Number, 104 

Random Thoughts, 105 

Restoring Old Trees, 110 

Raspberries, 110 

Recipe for Making Currant Wine, 110 

Reminder for August, 116 

Random Thoughts, 118, 132, 152, 167 

Revu of July Number, 119 
Rapid Growth of the Aloe, 137 
Reminder for September, 131 
Remedy for the Hessian Fly in Wheat, 

Revu of August Number, 138 
Reliable Pears, 142 
Raising Calves by Hand, 143 
Remedy for Choking Cattle, 143 
Reminder for October, 146 
Red Bietigheiraer, 148 
Raising Colts, 159 
Rise and Progress of Bee Culture, 168 
Random Thoughts, 180 
Revised Fruit List, The Germantown 

Telegraph's, 183 
Receipt for Curing Meat, 187 
Special Premiums for 1878, 2, 17 
Standard of Excellence of Berkshire 

Swine, 4 
Specialties in Farming, 9 
Suggestion About Plants, 14 
Sowing Flower Seeds, 14 
Scarlet Fever, 14 
Suggestive to Fault Finders, 14 
Sheep for Profit, 15 
Sheltering Cattle, 15 
Something About Insects, 15 
Something for Poultry Men, 15 
Sore Eyes in Poultry, 31 
Something Good and True, 49 
Scale Insect on the Peach, 50 
Selecting Seed Corn, 62 
Something About Eels, 66 
Scurvy Less in Fowls, 85 
Soot and Wire Worms, 93 
Success of an Exposed Orchard, 93 
Selecting Meats, 94 
Success in Breeding Fine Stock, 95 
Setting a Plow, 103 
Sowins Rye Amonar Corn, 109 
Scientific Potato Culture, 109 
Setting Out Strawberries on Parry's 

System, 110 
Sheep and Soil, HI 
Steady Demand for Sumac, 115 
Strawberry Culture, 120 
Sowing Turnip Seed, 120 
Sugar Beets, 122 
Salt and Soot as Manures, 126 
Sawdust for Cleaning Horses, 127 
Subduing Fractious Horses, 127 
Save the Best Fowls for Breeding, 128 
September Meetingof Fulton Club, 140 
Stormy Days on the Farm, 142 
Sugar from Cornstalks, 146 
Scientific, 148 
Storing Potatoes, 158 
Sharpless Seedling Strawberry, 163 
Saving Cabbage Till Spring, 174 
Storing Turnips, 174 
Strawberries, 181 
Sheep, 188 
The Tomato, 87 

The Utilization of Waste Matters, 89 
Thinning Out Fruit, 93 

To Keep Cabbage, 93 

The Egff-plant," 93 

The Uses of the Lemon, 94 

The Perfect Sheep Dog, 95 

The Keep of a Horse, 95 

The Cherry Crop, 97 

Trial of aSelf-Bindcr, 98 

The Tobacco Horn-Worm, 98 

The Lancaster Cherry, 98 

The Depredations of Insects, 102 

The Honey-Bee, 103 

The Millers' Convention, 107 

The Wheat Crop, 109 

Thinning Fruit, 110 

The LTses of a Microscope, 111 

The Capet Beetle, 113 

The Sparrow Nuisance, 114 

The Crop of the State, 117 

The Wheat Crop in the Northwest, 

The Price of Flour, 121 

The Art of Makinff Cofiee, 127 

To Cure Dogs of Killing Chickens, 127 

The Narragansett Turkev, 128 

Thanks, 130 

The Most Wonderful of Trees, 135 

The Pennsylvania Crops, 141 

The Management of Horses, 143, 159 

The Texas Cattle Plague, 143 

The Average of the Horse, 143 

To Tell the Age of Fowls, 143 

To Make Hens Lay, 143 

The Langshans, i43 

The Sulky Plow, 146 

The Comparative Exaustive Power of 
the Cereals, 154, 166 

The Horned Owl, 2 

The Reliance Raspberry, 7 

Tobacco Growers' Association, 11,28, 
45, 60, 76, 124, 140, 157, 171 

The Linna;an Society, 12, 29 

The Weather, 17 

The Peach Bark-Louse, 18 

The Lumbar Plum, 19 

Thoroughbred Short-Horns, 19 

The Ditanv, 21 

The Coming Tomato, 23 

The Past, Present and Future of Dairy- 
ing, 24 

The Value of Hen Manure, 30, 92 

Tobacco Farming, 37 

The "Short-Palmed Mole-Cricket," or 
" California Potato Cricket," 38 

Times and Seasons, 41 

The Tobacco Fever, 43 

The Cultivation of Wheat, 50, 83 

The Brighton Grapes, 51 

The Oats Crop, 61 

The Benefit of Lime, 62 

Thoroughbred Slieep, 64 

The Cat-Bird, 66 

The Mennouite Grass-Burner, 69 

The Improving of Varieties of Farm 
Crops, 73 

The Dairy Situation, 74 

The State Millers' Association, 75 

The Culture of Cantaloupes, 78 

Things Useful to Know, 79 

To Relieve Choked Cattle 79, 

Tarred Paper for Poultry Houses, 79 

The Robin Doomed to Death, 81 

Two Hundred Thousand Bugs, 83 

Thin Out Your Fruit, 84 

The Game and Fish Laws, as Passed by 
the Legislature of 1878, ^4 

The Wool Product of the World, 155 

The Wairons, 158 

The Coffee Tree in California, 158 

The Guernsev Cattle, 159 

The Hessian Fly in Wheat, 160 

The Vegetable Wax, 162 

The Hessian Fly, 163 

The Kochester Grape, 165 

The Business of Farming, 173 

The Peach Borer, 174 

The Best is Always Demanded, 174 

The Guinea Fowl, 175 

The American Bird Trade, 176 

The Snyder Blackberry, 187 

Tne Cow, 188 

Table Showing Quantity of Wheat to 
Acre, 186 

Useful Hints for Home, 14 

United States Entomologist, 49 

Vermont Wool Growers' ABSociation, 

Vinegar from Sugar Beets, 36 

Virginia Snakeroot, ISO 

Visiting Committee, 18 

Views of a Connecticut Tobacco Grow- 
er, 47 

Various Notes, 53 

Varieties of Fruit for Pennsylvania, 54 

Value of Special Manure, 61 

Verifiable Incidents in Crownology, i:i7 

What a Big Country We Live in, :^0 

When is the Proper Time to Sow Clo- 
verseed, 33 

Wheat in Australia, 62 

Which is the Richest, Morning's or 
Evening's Milk? 6J 

Wind Sucking, 64 

When is the Best Time to Harvest 
Wheat? 85 

Work Baskets, 94 

Wire-worms and Corn, 96 

Wheat Harvest, 98 

Wash for Fruit Trees, 110 

Whipping Horses, 111 

When is the Best Time to Sow Wheat 
and How to Prepare the Soil? 118 

Wheat Growing, 126 

Where to Plant an Apple Orchrrd, 1-7 

White Specks in Butter, 127 

What is Honey-dew ? 139 

Windmills on the Farm, 136 

When a Few Fowls 144 

Waterloo Peach, 149 

What is to be Done ? 165 

Winter Treatment of Poultry, 188 

White Willow for Hedges, 187 

Weaning Colts, 188 

Japanese Persimmons, Frontispiece 
Short-Horn Jersey Bull Javelin, 5 
Reliance Raspberry, 7 
Guinea Fowls, 10 
Lumbard Plum, 19 
Echotf Tomato, 23 
D.irk Brahma Fowls, 25 
Percherou Horse Apollo, 35 


Brown Leghorn Fowls, 37 

Black Hellebore, 41 

Brighton Grape, 51 

Hovey Seedling Strawberry, 54 

Celandine, 56 

Mennonite Grass-Burner, 69 

Eui-eka Post-Hole Digger, 71 

Plymouth Rock Fowls, 85 

The Tomato, 87 
Black Snakeroot, 89 
Poland China Boar, 99 
Brighton Grape, 101 
Setting a Plow, 103 
Jersey Red Boar, Duroc, 
Prickly Ash, 117 
Red Beitigheimer Apple, 



Waterloo Peath, 149 

Large Flowering Spurge, 151 

Sharpless Seedling Stiawberry, 163 

Kocbester Grape, 165 

Tubcred Asclepias, 168 

Virginia Snakeroot, 180 

THE ^i^^k.]VX^^TO. 

THEJ >xik:^^i>o. 

The Lancaster Farmer. 

Prof. S. S, EATHVON, Editor. 


Vol. K. No. 1. 


With tlic initiation ot llie Xcw Year we 
entfi- uiiDH the tcntli voUinie o£ The Lan- 
CASTKK FAiiMEii, iuitl in doing so, \vc con- 
fess that we aiu inlliuncL'd by some of tiial 
confklcnw^ whicli so nnivcr.'iaily attarhos to 
the signilicancu and iiotcncy of the numbur 
10. Ten times 10 make one hundred, and ten 
liu'ndi-eds make a thousand ; a nunicrical 
result that never could occur in the absence 
of the 10. 

2Vh just and Godfearinn; men, wo are ad- 
monished, might have saved even Sodom 
and Gomorrah— miglit have vouchsaled to 
these ancient cities -not witlistanding tlieir 
iniquities— a lime-lease that might have con- 
tinued their prosperity down to the present 
day. If wo are unable to prove this, we 
might reply that the converse is just as dilfi- 
cnlt to prove. But the ten just men could not 
be found within their walls, and tlierelbre 
those "doomed cities of the plain" were con- 
verted into smouldering ruins, and even their 
iiiins were submerged, and their subsequent 
geographical location became questionable, or 
entirely obliterated. 

Is there public patronage enough in our 
"reat county to secure to The Lancaster 
Farmer tlic syndwlic 10 V Will the repre- 
sentative ten men be foiuid within its limits 
who will vouchsafe its salvation fVom the 
fate of Sodom and of Gomorrah ? A\'e trust 
they will— we htjJkvc they will— and this boon 
secured. The Farrier 'may be raised upon a 
wave of prosperity that will carry it over tlie 
"la-Ciikers" of adversity, and eventually land 
it on a friendly shore in triumph. There is a 
wonderful power in the human will; and all 
we need is the irill to enable us to find the 
imi/. Even nund.iers are also believed to be 
om'inous of good, and therefore we look' to 
1878 as the harbinger of a returning prosperi- 
ty to our country— its commercial, agricul- 
tural and manufacturing interests ; and 
through these to a corresponding support of 
its moral and literary institutions and enter- 
prises. With these" hopes we launch our 
bark again upon Uie sea of the unknown 
future for another yearly voyage. Our tenth 
voyage ought to "be crowned with success ; 
and if it isliol successful, it will not be be- 
cause we lucked fnith in the significance of 
numbers, or failed to ultimate that faith in 
■works. But without God, and the people as 
vox Dei, or the voice of God, "we can do 
nothing." We therefore lean upon the sus- 
taining support of the people, and exhort the 
people— and especially those among them who 
compose the farming peoiile- to vouchsafe 
their pecuniary, their intellectual, and their 
moral support. We admonish them that 
nothing can more iirndy est-ablish their indi- 
viduality, their personal identity, and their 
local reputation, than the sustaining of a 
representative journal among them. To do 
this successlully, tlie personal resiionsibility 
is so small, that they nught be jnstilied in 
wishing it were greater. A fraction over 
iiiixe cents n month— the price of a good cigar 
— and the postasie paid. 

Nothing exemplifies more fully and more 
forcibly the prosperity of a community, than 
the reasonable success of its local 'and le^iti- 
male enterprises ; and nothing can contribute 
more to its independence and self-reliance. 
We are not the advocates of a mawkish ex- 
clusiveness, but in the sequence of tlun^s and 
events, there are tliose that are posdrui/-, and 
those that are anterior, as well as that 
are intermcHnt''. There are thiuiis of a pri- 
mary consideration, and other things of only 
a secmdary relation to them. Local interests 
cannot be neglected or ignored, without pro- 
ducing local "disadvantage or distress. It is 

true, that there are those who depend more 
upon a foreign market tliaTi upon a home mar- 
ket, and th se wdl be correspondingly inter- 
ested in foriign journals. Hut this is one of 
those things "which ought to be done, and 
not leaving the other undone." Besides, 
foreign journals that cover most effectually 
the whole joiu-nalistic ground, arc largely made 
up by selections from local journals, and with- 
out local journals and local correspondents 
and contributors, they would furnish but a 
meagre supi>ly to local patrons and readers. 
No matter with what ability a foreign journal 
may be conducted, or with what excellence 
its cohanns may be tilled, if its contents can- 
not be locally applied, it can only he of a 
"imited "use to its patrons. It is like 


plants which bear beautiful leaves and (lowers 
that are never ultimated in useful fruit. It is 
not so much upon what we knoro, as upon 
vvliat we are able to bring down into practical 
uxe, that the success of all our energies and 
our enterprises depends. We desire to make 
our loth volume far superior to any that has 
preceded it ; for, even if we should not go 
backwards, we are not content to stand still, 
but desire to go forward. Even if we shoujd 
be contented with what we have, we are far 
from being contented with what we are; for 
such a mental or moral condition shuts the 
door of both physical and intellectual progress. 
We aim to develop the physical resources and 
moral character of our "garden of the Key- 
stone State," but we also aim to be developed 
with it, in order that our mental garment 
may be ample enough to be worn with coin- 
fort. If our journal is only a "straight 
jacket," we desire to it to the ample 
folds of a "cloak of royalty." We desire to 
realize that 

"No pi'iit up Utica contracts our powers, 
Tlic whole unbounded contineut is ours." 
Whether we ever shall be able to reach this 
goal will depend on circumstances ; but 
whather we shall or not, we deem it no crime 
to entertain or indulge such an ambition, and 
are not resi)onsihle for that which is impossi- 
ble. Whether The Lancaster Farmer 
will be permitted to develop the uses it desires 
to develop, and that a progressive people need 
to have developed, for "ten, ten, double ten, 
forty-live and fifteen" years, will depend en- 
tirely upon its financial basis during the ad- 
vent of its first ten. The farming interests 
of ourtrreat county are becoming such that it 
cannot socially and morally well afford to do 
without its local representative journal, and 
this would become legretfully apparent if its 
present publication should happen to be dis- 
continued. Hence we appeal to our patrons, 
and the friends of agricultural progress, to 
lend a sustaining hand through the New 
Year. Write for it ; talk for it ; secure suli- 
scribers for it ; and convert it into a moral 
and social "engine of strength." Canvass 
for it under our club and [mminm solicita- 
tions. Let our list of subscribers constitute 
themselves a "committee of the whole," and 
"each man firing his other man." 

Whatever we can do through the columns 
of The Farmei:, or otherwise, to make 1878 
a prosjierous, a healthy anil a happy year, will 
be cheerfully, hones'ly, and faithfully done. 
Not forgetful of the past, we desire to ad- 
monish them how to apjireciate and improve 
the present, and to anticipate the future. We 
do not desire to dictate to them what their 
own common sense may suggest much better 
than we can teach ; biit knmcing can accom- 
plish nothing without doing. Even doing 
••little by little," if reasonably persevered in. 
will eventually bring succes.s. That this suc- 
cess mav b.' theirs, and through theirs, ours. 
with a 'I](ipp!l Aeio Tear, is the sincere wish 
of The F^uiMEK. 


We have already given as muih siiace, in 
the columns of TiiE Farmer, to the discus- 
sion of this question, as we can well afford, 
especially at this season of the year— when its 
practical demonstration is almost impossible 
—and we therefore trust that wlio have 
their minds made up, j/ro or co?i, will defer 
an expression of their final sentiments on the 
subject until the next b(e and J'nM season. 
This will attract the practical attention of 
those who have not made any observations 
on the subject, or who may not liave been iW 
thorough in their observations as the necessi- 
ties of the case demands. It is undoubtedly 
a question of importance if, as it is .so earnest- 
ly alleged by such resiiectable authority, that 
bees are very destructive to fruit— especially 
to the grapes— and denied by other authority 
of equal respectability ; because the questions 
whether the culture of bees or fruit should 
be, or should not he, entirely adandoned, seem 
to be inextricably involved in whatever deter- 
miuation may be come to, as the truth of the 
matter— or a safe and certain remedy be dis- 
covered, whereby their culture may bo har- 
monized. We do not thiid< that a single iso- 
lated observation, or even a series of observa- 
tions ma<le in a siugk; isolated locality, and 
made without any referenbc to surrounding 
circumstances, should he allowed to determine 
the question either way. Nor do we think 
that any motive of self-interest shoidd be al- 
lowed in extenuation of the characteristics of 
bees, any more than they should be allowed to 
'be set down in malice.' Ourown experience ia 
our observations of the animal word are to 
the effect that the habits of animals have 'im- 
dergone, and are still undergoing a change, 
and, therefore, what may be true at one time 
and in one place, may be very different at 
another time, and in another place ; and that 
bees may be as much influenced by the causes 
that produce these elfects as other animals. 
Although we think it possible for bees to of- 
fend in the manner charged against them, yet 
we confess that our sympathies are still with 


The proceedings of societies puhlislied in 
The Far.mkr, are of iiermanent value — too 
valuable indeed to be left to the vicissitudes 
of a daily paper, all the copies of whicli, a 
dav or two after publication, are usually de- 
stroyed, and often could not be obtained, 
either "for love or money." Besides, they 
arc corrected and revised, and arc therefore 
more reliable than those which appear in the 
columns of the dailies. Very few people file 
or bind their dailies or weeklies, they arc too 
bulky for convenient handling. In other 
States, in many parts of our own State, as 
well as in some localities in our own county, 
the rerd status of The Lancaster County 
Farmer, is known, and in some instances 
onhi known, as it is reflected through the 
proceediims of our local society, and pub- 
lished in their local journal ; and when they 
are quoted, they arc quoted from that source. 
At the end of each vear we append an alpha- 
betical index, referring to every article in the 
whole vohnne ; our patmns, therefore, will 
act wisely if they iireservc their numbers and 
have them bouiHl. There is not a paper in 
the country that is more compactly and solidly 
made up tiian The Farmer, or of more local 
interest. As to reporters, we cannot control 
them. They go where they list, and report 
what they please, or what they can. We 
cannot, therefore, omit the proceedings of our 
societies, l)ecanse they hai>pen to be first pub- 
lished in other papers"; because, this would be 
manifestly unjust to those of our readers who 
never see any of the dailies. 




Club Rates— No. i. 

To auy one, within ttie county of Lancas- 
ter, sending us a club of Jive new .subscribers, 
accompanied hy four dollars, we will send fve 
copes of TnE Farmer, to any address, for 
one year, from the first of Januaiy next, and 
two copies of "Jenkins' Art of Propagation," 
a beautiful octavo of .32 pages, and 25 fine 
embellishments, which sells readily at .50 cents 
per copy. To any one out of the county, for 
five dollars, copies and too books. 
No. 2. 

For Six subscribers, accompanied hyfiL-e dol- 
lars, we will send six co])ies of The Farmer, 
as above, and one copy of the "Life of 
Charles Dickens," by Mrs. Ilanaford, or 
"Driven to Sea," liy Mrs. Coupples, or "The 
Presidents and their Administrations," or 
"The Declaration of Independence." These 
are royal 12 mo. volumes of about 400 pages, 
handsomely illustrated, and sell for $1.50. 
No. 3, 

For ten subscribers, and ten dollars, ten 
copies, as above, and one box of "Kunklc's 
Celebrated Perfumes. " These boxes contain 
six bottles of perfume, the regular retail price 
of which is one dollar per bottle, or "The 
Century of Independence," price $2.50— very 
desirable premiums for local lady canvassers. 
No. 4. 

For ffteen subscribers, and fifteen dollars, 
we will send sixteen copies of The Farmer 
and a SIO.OO order on Peter Henderson, good 
for twenty-faicr choice flowering green-house 
plants, twenty packages of flower seeds, and 
twenty packages of vegetable seeds. Peter Hen- 
derson is known all over tlie Union, and there- 
fore nothing need be said about the quality of 
his goods. 

No. 5. 

For twenty subscribers, and eighteen dollars, 
ttoenty copies of The Farmer, and one copy 
of "Science in Story," consisting of a series 
of five illustratfed square 12 mo. volumes of 
2.32 pages each (1160 pages). Please see onr 
literary columns for a more full description of 
this desirable series. 

No. 6. 

For twenty-five subscribers, and tweniy-fo^tr 
dollars, tv;enty-five copies of The Farmer 
and one of "Peck's Celebrated Atomizers," 
worth SIO.OO at least. This is the best ma- 
chine ever invented for throwing liquid solu- 
tions and decoctions on insect-infested plants. 
For an illustrated description of this machine 
see the May (1876) number of The Farmer, 
page 69. 

To clubs made up beyond the borders of 
Lancaster county the cash amount required 
will be greater, proportioned to the difl'erence 
in published terms, as to home and foreign 
subscriptions. Our canvassers can make these 
calculations upon the basis of our first propo- 

We are making arrangements for additional 
inducements to subscribers, which, if accom- 
plished, will be announced in our February 
number. We also intend to increase our 
number of desirable illustrations for 1878, and 
add other embellishments, as fast as our 
means will allow, and we respectfully ask the 
public to help us make The Lancaster 
Farjler a credit to tlie "great county," and 
the people among whom it is located. Our 
tenth volume should be the crowning volume 
of the series — so we desire. 


The most abundant, and therefore the most 
common species of the mosquito in this lati- 
tude, is the "Culex pipiens," or "piping mos- 
quito," from the peculiar piping sound it 
makes when it is intent on giving its victim a 
jab in the dark. The cause of these pests 
making their appearance on the 20th of De- 
cember last, was in consequence of the high 
state of the temperature. We noticed bees 
on the wing the same day. Last winter we 
noticed a swarm of bees out on the wing, and 
very active in the month of February. Per- 

haps there is no class of animals that presents 
a greater variety in its developmental condi- 
tions than that of insects. Some produce one 
brood in three, four or five years ; some one, 
two, or three broods -within one year, or a 
summer season ; others again, continue to 
produce one brood after another as long as 
the favorable temperature of the weather 
permits them ; and this is especially the case 
with many species belonging to the order 
"Diptera," which includes all the two-winged 
flies, and to which the mosquito belongs. 
Progressive development depends upon cer- 
tain surrounding conditions, among which 
are heat, moisture and aliment, accordingly 
as the insect, for the time being, may be in 
its oval, its larval, its pupal or its mature 
state. Through the first three states all in- 
sects must successively pass before the last, or 
adult state can possibly be developed. The 
incubation of the egg requires a certain tem- 
perature, and as loug as it continues below 
the incubating degree, the eggs will be in a 
State of functional suspension for weeks and 
months together, and perhaps would continue 
so for years, unless they were subjected to such 
violent conditions as would destroy their 
vitality altogether. 

About one year ago nine carloads of silk- 
worms' eggs arrived at San Francisco from 
China and Japan, from whence they were 
shipped "across the Continent" to New York 
city, and from thence to different European 
ports, where silk-growing is made a specialty. 
AVith these eggs the incubating temperature 
was prevented by the introduction of ice, and 
so long as the temperature could have been 
kept below that point, these eggs might have 
been transported several times around the 
globe without their hatching. The same law 
governs the eggs of mosquitoes, except that 
they will hatch at a lower temperature than 
the eggs of the silkworm moth. There they 
all are, endowed with a vitality that is ready 
for further development as soon as the normal 
conditions supervene. And after the young 
larva; are excluded from the eggs, the case is 
the same. If surrounded by their special 
aliQient, they begin to feed, and if tins is 
not accessible, of course they all must perish. 
But if the temperature becomes too low, their 
further development is arrested, and their 
functions are suspended ; but their develop- 
ment is resumed as soon as the necessary 
degree of heat is restored, no matter what 
the season of the year is. And after the 
larvse are transformed to the pupa state, they 
are governed by the same laws ; and this is 
especially the case with the mosquitoes and 
the house-flies. We have seen the mature 
mosquito developed every month in tlie year. 
They and the "Perlidis" (shad-flies) require 
less heat for their development than perhaps 
any other families tliat belong to the Dipterous 
order. As soon as a few warm days in suc- 
cession supervene, whether in the months of 
December, January, February or March, the 
mosquito and the housefly will evolve from 
their pupal condition and come forth in tlieir 
perfect winged state, and will be ready to ap- 
propriate their accustomed aliment, whether 
it be to lap up "inconsiderable trifles," or to 
pierce human beings and suck their blood. 
But, should a "cold snap" intervene, their 
functions will become suspended and they will 
hibernate in some convenient nook or corner, 
until a return of their normal temperatiu-e. 

The larvfe of mosquitoes hatch, breed, and 
feed in stagnant pools of water, whether in a 
swamp, a pond, a marsh, a sluggish stream, a 
tank, a tub, or a rain stand. But they are 
always more abundant, develop more rapidly, 
and live a shorter period during summer than 
they do during winter. Those that come 
forth during the winter, in the winged state, 
are usually the retarded individuals >of the 
preceding autumn. The larvte of house-flies 
hatch, breed, and feed in cesspools, or in auy 
moist and decomposing and filthy animal or 
vegetable matter, and their sanitary effect, in 
the decomposition and removal of filthy gar- 
bage is incalculable. The larvfc of mosqui- 
toes purify ponds, pools and marshes, that 

otherwise might create miasmatic diseases. 
After flies and mosquitoes have passed the 
nuptial season, and have deposited their eggs, 
their life-lease is usually very limited ; but if 
those periods are from any cause interrupted 
or retarded, their lives may be greatly pro- 
longed. This accounts for the appearance 
and disappearance of house-flies and mosqui- 
toes during winter. It is a mistake to sup- 
pose tliat that these flies breed in the houses 
they occupy. A house that furnishes a nidus 
for the development of these flies, would re- 
quire to be an exceedingly filthy house — too 
filthy for any human being to live in. The 
ooze of baru-yards, pig-sties and slaughter- 
houses are prolific places for flies to breed in, 
but musquitoes must have stagnant water. 
This does not militate against the fact that a 
few flies also liibcruate during the winter 
season. Nor against the fact that those in- 
sects which produce only one brood during 
the year, will not be changed in their develop- 
mental conditions by either heat or cold, 
but will abide their appointed times and sea- 


This is about equivalent to Only a Shoe- 
maker, or Only a Blacksmith, or any other oc- 
cupation by which an honest living may be 
obtained. Now, this ought not to wound the 
feelings of either farmer, shoemaker or 
blacksmith, or any body else who labors for 
a living ; and it iimdd not, if they were all 
endowed with "sound discretion," or common 
intelligence. They might find occasion for 
pity, or even for contempt, but there is no oc- 
casion to feel wounded by such "codfishy" 

"Did these foolish people ever read their 
Bibles, they would find that God himself had 
i-elected his prophets and kmgs from among 
farmers. Noah was a husbandman, and 
planted a vineyard ; Abraham was rich in 
cattle, and Lot had flocks and herds— inso- 
much that there was not pasture enough for 
both, and they divided the country. Lot se- 
lected the plain of Jordan, and Abraham 
took the hilly country of Canaan. ^ 

Jacob was a great cattle-grower, as he pre ■> 
seuted Esau with several hundred cattle. 
Moses was a wool-grower, and Gideon was 
taken from his threshing floor. Saul was a 
herdsman, even while he was king. David 
was a shepherd, and was from that occupa- 
tion to be king of Israel, and the ancestor, ac- 
cording to the flesh, of tli'e Messiah. Uzziah 
was a'' cattle-grower. Elisha was plowing, 
with twelve yoke of oxen before him, when 
Elijah cast his mantle on him and called him 
to be a prophet of the Most High. And yet, 
though God has honored the husbandman- 
selected his kings and prophets from among 
farmers— there are those so foolish as to cry 
ou^'Oh, he's nothing but a farmer !' "—Farm 
ana Shop. 


The following correspondence explains it- 
self : • „ „, ^„^„ 

QUABRTVILLE, Dec. 24, 187(. 
Mr. Rathvon— Si)'.— I send you this morning 
by express a large owl that was cauffht in my poul- 
try yard, and, as it is a tine lonkins; fellow, I thought 
you could make somethinij- of it ; and if not, please 
hand it over to somebody that can. They are rather 
scarce in this neighborhood. I have not seen one for 
several years. Please answer in the Intelligencer, 
srivino- se.t and species, and oblige yours as ever, 
- ° i- ' r.C.Edwabds. 

Tlianks to our considerate friend Edwards 
for his magnificent Christmas gift, although it 
is only an owl. He does not send us many 
things, but what he does send go very far to- 
wards distinguishing Quarryville, for they are 
always the handsomest and rarest of then- 
kind. Your bird is the "Great Horned Owl," 
[Baho viri/inianus) and a male specimen. They 
have a large geographical range, but are be- 
coming rare in tliis locality, which they usu- 
ally only visit in the winter season. This 
species feeds on partridges, rabbits, rats, 
field-mice, pigeons, chickens, reptiles, the 
larger beetles and moths, and whatsoever 



else it can catch and master in an emergcnc)- 
— that is, when inrssod with hunger. Other- 
wise it is rallu'i' sliy of the luiinansiiecios, pre- 
fers remote I'orests, where it Iwilils a very rough 
nest of sticks, on very high trees, usually pine 
tress, which it lines Willi leaves. It deposits 
from three to six almost siiherical eg'j;s, of a 
dirty white, or hluish white color. The sexes 
do liot agree very well together except during 
the nuptial season, and therefore they are 
generally found solitary ; hut when two males 
meet they are almost certain to have a light, 
which often ends in till' death of one or the 
other. The male hird takes little or no inter- 
est in the building of the nest or in rearing 
the young. They seem to have very little af- 
fection for each other and therefore jirefer to 
be "let alone." They generally come forth 
from their retreats in the evening, or in the 
afternoon of cloudy days, in piu'suil of prey ; 
but they can also see in Ijright days, and 
maraud by day as well as night, when necessi- 

They differ somewhat in their nesting 
habits in different localities, adajjting them- 
selves to surrounding circumstances; for in- 
stance, they are said to build their nests in 
clefts or on shelves of rocks, and also to prey 
on fish. In the far north they aie also said to 
become very much lighter iu color, or nearly 

Of course, we have had our owl "dressed 
and stuffed," but in that permanent style iu 
which he may be perpetuated for many Christ- 
mas days, and not in that transient manner 
which continues but a single hour, or for a 
day at most. In this permanent form he 
may be "discussed" over and over again, 
and may constitute the subject of many a 
mental feast. 

"Who would be a turkey hen, 
Fed and fattened in a pen, 
Kill'd and eat liy hunsry men, 
Upon a Christmas day" — 

when he might be as easily "immortalized" 
in a owl in the museum of the 
Linnrean Society V 




The Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture 
will meet at itarrisburg, on Wednesday, .Jan- 
uary 23, 187cS, at -2 P. :M., when the regular 
business of the Board will be transacted, and 
the Secretary will -read his annual report. 
The following essays will also be read : 
Breeding Stock. 

Best methods of inducing farmers to bieed 
better stock, by Prof. John Hamilton, State 

Comparative profit of difl'erent kinds of 
stock, by J. C. Morris, of Snsciuchanna. 

The comparative cost and profit of well and 
ill bred stock, by W. G. Moore, of Berks. 

Conditions and causes which infiuenee the 
character, color and sex of the offspring of 
our domestic animals, by Secretary. 
Sheep Husbandry. 

Breeds best adapted to Pennsylvania soil 
and climate, by Hon. John L. George, of 

Best breed for profit, by Eastburu Tteeder, 
of Bucks. 

Effect of present dog laws, with suggestions 
for their improvement, by J. P. Barnes, of 

Fruit Growing by Farmers. 

How made a source of jnofit, by Rev. J.ames 
Calder, President Pennsylvania .State College. 

Varieties best adapted to Pennsylvania, bj' 
H. M. Engle, of Lancaster. 

How best secured and preserved, by Prof. 
D. Wilson, of Juniata. 

When, where and how to market, by D. H. 
Foresman, of Lycoming. 

Barnyard Manure. 

Best and most economical methods of man- 
ufacture, by Col. James Young, of Danphin. 

Time and mode of application, by E. G. 
Fahnestock, of Adams. 

Effect upon the various cultivated crops, by 
A. llobinson, of Mercer. 

At 7 P. M., Wednesday, January 2,3d, Prof. 
J. P. Lesley, State Geologist and Geologist of 
the Board" of Agriculture, will address the 
Legislature and Board of Agriculture. Sub- 
ject : .Soils, as regarded from the side of 



[The frtllowing article, which is being widely 
circulated through the public press, caimot 
but be interesting to all insect-stricken read- 
ers, especially as it illustrates the great value 
tliat a large conniiunity of bats must be to the 
vegetation in its vicinity, by the niglitly de- 
struction of noxious insects. A "bat-ciive" 
is tho best remedy against nightly insects, in 
the known world, we verily believe. Bats 
hang themselves up, out of the w.ay, during 
daylight, and come forth while we are sIccik 
ing at night, bent on their useful mission. 
The Bexar Bat-cave would be a real godsend 
to Lancaster county, or any other insect- 
ridden locality in the .State. — ^^Ed.] 
A Remarkable Bat Cave in Bexar County, 

A Chicago Times correspondent who has 
been roughing it with General Ord in Texas, 
tells the following : 

Toward nightfall we drove toward tho bat 
cave. There was a thunder shower all around 
the horizon, but the fevered earth appeared to 
evaporate the moisture as it touched the sur- 
face. And the temporary rain brouglit the 
heat of a Turkish bath — the perspiration roll- 
ing down our faces in little cataracts. If any 
of our chilly people want what they call here 
in brief, unpoetic Saxon, "a good sweat," 
let them come down about the middle of 
August and wait here until about this time. 
There will be no superfluous grease left when 
they get through. 

When within less than a mile of the cave, 
which is situated on the crest of a high bluff, 
that may be called an irregular table land. 
General Ord directed my attention to an im- 
mense dark shadow in the horizon, extending 
from the ground line high up into the heavens. 
It had all the appearance of a strong volume 
of smoke issuing from the funnel of some 
gigantic ocean steamer. "It looks like 
smoke," said the General, "but it is simply a 
cloud of bats issuing from the cave." On 
approaching nearer I could distinctly make 
out the flying vermin, which were, truly, 
thicker than the densest swarm of bees I 
have ever seen, and there appeared to be no 
end to them. We soon reached the cave, 
which dips into a brambly gorge, and from 
the capacious mouth shaped like the half 
choked arch of a bridge, we could see the bats 
flying out iu tens of thousands, the column 
growing deeper every second. They rose 
majestically in the ether, and then scattered 
in pursuit of their insect prey, extending 
themselves, doubtless, over an area of coun- 
try simply incomputable. They go in circles, 
or else "zigz.ig" through the air, but they 
find their way home, no matter how far they 
may wander, with unerring in.stinct, guided 
in some measure, perhaps, by the strong am- 
monial odor which arises from the guano 
which they have deposited throughout ages in 
their abiding place. They begin to leave the 
cave every afternoon as .soon as the sun has, 
in some measure, lost his power, and they 
keep leaving at an enormous rate mitil nine 
o'clock in the evening, remaining away until 
the streak of dawn, when they begin to 
return, and do not all get back until the fore- 
noon is well advanced. They are a light-col- 
ored bat, full of parasites, and breed a smell 
not at all calculated to stimulate the appetite. 

The cave is as gloomy a,s the realms of 
Pluto, having a gentle decline for some hun- 
dreds of feet, the roof being quite lofty and 
the floor covered to an inc.^lculable deptli 
with guano deposit, which exhales an efflu- 
viumcalculated to knock down the strongest 
kind of a horse. There are two chambers, 
one opening into the other, the first being the 

larger of the two. Both are oval in shape, 
and would, if the bats were only away, make 
an excellent abode for outlaws. Scott would 
have loved to describe such a retreat in his 
picturesque tale of "Bob Hoy AfcGrcgor." 
The guano will be more eflii-ient as a barrier 
against desperadoes than all the i)Olice in 
Texas. Bats, as you know, do not perch 
singly, but hang to the wall and to each other 
just as bees do in "swarm." Tho tempera- 
ture of the cave is sullicii'utly low to prevent 
them from becoming heated, and how they 
manage to sujiport the enormous weight of 
their own masses is a question which only 
practical naturalists can solve. They manage 
to do it though, without the sliglitest appar- 
ent discomfort. And there can not, at a 
moderate computation, be less than thirty 
millions of bats in those enormous caves ! 
Just think what a destruction they work on 
the insects of the air. Only for them neither 
man nor beivst could stand the couidleas 
swarms of the infernal Texas flies, which 
have no respect for rank, age, sex, color, or 
previous condition, and are perfectly indiffer- 
ent about whether they bite a man with or 
without the beastly prickly heat. 

Before the sun had fairly risen Hennessy, 
the driver, aroiised Gen. Ord thus : "General, 
I think you had better get up. Wc are hav- 
ing a norther." This aroused us all, and wc 
listened. Our camp was full two furlongs 
from the cave, and wc could hear a sound ''.as 
of many waters" — in volume not unlike 
Niagara. Said Gen. Ord: "A norther! 
Why that sound is caused by the returning 
bats." We looked and saw the tremendous 
column pouring down from the skies and 
rushing with amazing velocity into the gorge 
surrounding the mouth of the cave. Wc 
went down to the spot, and the noise became 
.so loud that we almost doubted whether a 
storm was not raging around us. But the 
trees were almost unshaken, and the sun rose 
like a shield of flame, from beyond the heights 
of Guadaloupe. The sweep of the moimtain 
rains through the rocky jaws of the Cihoka 
could not have made such conmiotion, and 
every moment increased the tumult. We 
stood there until we grew tired, and still that 
mighty mass kept streaming from the loaded 
air, while the opening of tho cave was as 
etlectually veiled from us as if a curtain had 
been dropped before, so deep was the volume 
of "the returning janizaries." This con- 
tinued, as I have already remarked, until late 
in the morning, but we could not wait for all 
to return. We loaded up and drove away 
more deeply impressed with the mysteries of 
the great universe than if a hundred long- 
haired professors had lectured us for a month 
in a college devoted to the teaching of natural 




Kitchen-Garden Calendar. 
Ix THE Middle States.— .January is un- 
favorable to out-door labor, in tiie garden es- 
pecially but little is done. The forcing-beds 
and green-houses will, of course, require par- 
ticular attention ; and the active man may 
find something to do in preparing for a more 
congenial season. Poles and rods for be<ins 
and peas may be made ready to use when 
needed ; viamtre collected ; com}X>st lirnps 
formed, (by the way, compost is beyond all 
comparison the best form in which to apply 
fertilizers to most vegetable crops, and ample 
supplies may be readily made by proper atten- 
tion, as the materials present themselves from 
time to time during the year :) fruit trees 
pruned ; /)«?;/« clipped — those formed of ever- 
greens not until the frost has disappeared ; 
(isparar/us-hcih top-dressed, preparatory to be- 
ing dug when frost has ceased ; when new 
ones are to be made, jtlant the calhssal. 
Ilot-brds for early forcing may be made, and 
other jobs will present themselves in anticipa- 
tion of spring. Where there exists the will 
to work, the opportunity for the useful dis- 
position of time is ever present. — Lundretti's 
R. B. .1- A. 




Adopted by the American Berkshire Asso- 

Color. — Black, with white on feet, face, 
tip of tail, and an occasional splash 
on the ami. 4 

Face xsd Sxout. — Short, the former 
fine and well dished, and broad be- 
tween the eyes - - - - 7 

Eye. — Very clear, rather large, darkhazcl 
or gray ...... 2 

Eae.— Generally almost erect, bnt some- 
times inclined forward with advanc- 
ing age, medivnn size, thin and soft - 4 

Jowl. — Full and heavy, running well 
back on neck - - . - 4 

jSTeck.— Short, and broad on top - - 4 

Hair. — Fine and soft, medium thickness .3 

Skin. — Smooth and pliable - - - 4 

Shoulder. — Thick and even, broad on 
top, and deep through chest - - 7 

Back. — Broad, short and straight, ribs 
well sprung, coupling close up to hip 8 

Side. — Deep and well let down, straight 
on bottom line . - - - 6 

Flaxk. — Well back, and low down on 
lesr, making nearly a straight line 
with lower part of side - - - .5 

Loin. — Full and wide - - - - 9 

Ham. — Deep and thick, extending well up 
on back, and holding thickness well 
down on the hock - - - - 10 

Tail. — Well set up on back, tapering 
and not coarse . - - . 2 

Legs.— Short, straight and strong, set 
wide apart, with hoofs erect, and 
capable of holding good weight - - 5 

Symjietry. — Well proportioned through- 
out, depending largely on condition 5 

CoxDiTiON.^In a good healthy growing 
state, not over-fed - - - - 6 

Style. — Attractive, spirited, indicative 
of thorough breeding and constitu- 
tional vigor 5 



We embellish this number of The Farmer 
with illustrations of two of the best varieties 
of this delicious and valuable fruit, (see 
illustrations preceding first page,) which is 
now being grown in different parts of our 
country — especially along the Pacific slope, 
in California — where its successful culture 
seems to be fully established. Competent au- 
thorities claim tliat it commends itself to the 
public in possessing the following qualities : 

1st. The tree is highly ornamental, a pro- 
lific bearer, hardy as the pear, and fruits 

2d. Its fruit is solid, and may be easily 
transported to any part of the country. 

3d. Its season is from October to March, 
when other fresh fruits are scarce. When 
dried, it is equal to figs, and can be kept a 
long time. 

4th. It is of a bright yellow, orange, or ver- 
milion color, according to variety ; is unsur- 
passed for the table, and is considered equal 
to the peach or pear for that purpose; some 
specimens of the fruit have attained the 
weight of one pound each, although the usual 
average is about three-quarters of a pound. 

.5th. The six best varieties are the Im- 
perial, NiiioN, Daimio, Mikado, Yamato, 
and the Taikoon. The two choice varieties 
are those accompanying this numljer of our 
journal, namely, the Yamato, and the 
Mikado, the others being approximations to 
these forms. 

6th. They will fruit in from two to three 
years, and are as successfully grafted as 
peaches or pears. 

Trees can be sent liy mail, on orders to the 
amount of five dollars and upwards ; and 
may be obtained from Ilcnry Leomis, Nos. 
419 and 421 Sansom street, San Francisco, 
California. Trees from 1 to 3 years old, from 

one to three dollars, and seeds, one dollar per 

This fruit is recommended to be planted the 
same as the apple or pear. A light gravelly 
soil is preferable. The older the trees are, 
the better is the tlavor of the fruit. The first 
and second year after bearhig, the fruit is 
somewhat astringent, and contains no seeds ; 
but the older it grows, it improves in size and 
flavor, and is never affected by the curculio. 
The trees are said to attain the age of one 
hundred years, and grow very large. Among 
the testimonials as to the quality of the 
fruit, and the character of the vender of the 
trees, are such names as Prof. Asa Gray, 
Admiral Rodgers, Hon. W. M. Evakts, 
Prof. E. I^^orth, X. Y.; Hon. B. G. North- 
rop, Conn., and many other notable names 
in various parts of the country. 

Japan, or rather, we may say, the Japanese 
Islands — for there are are a number of these 
known to foreign nations under the collective 
name of Japan — lie mainly l)etween the 30th 
and .55th degrees of north latitude ; and be- 
tween the 133d and 1.53d degrees of west 
longitude from AVashington ; or, the 130th 
and 150th east from Greenwich. Between 
the degrees of latitude above named lies all 
the territory belonging to the United States 
(except Alaska,) includhiga portion of Canada 
on the North, and a strip of Mexico on tlie 
South. The peninsula of Florida extends be- 
low the southern line of latitude we have 
above mentioned, a considerable distance. 
The United States lie between the 7th degrees 
east, and the 47tli west, from Washington, in 
their longitudinal location, and between the 
G9th and 127th west from Greenwich. We 
don't pretend that this is geographically cor- 
rect to the minute, but the territories we liave 
mentioned are included within the latitudinal 
and longitudinal lines we have enumerated, 
except, as before mentioned, Alaska on the 
north, and Florida on the south ; and our ob- 
ject in making these geographical notations, is 
to illustrate, not only the pussihilitij of suc- 
cessfully growing the "Japanese Persimmon"' 
in latitudes of our country that are parallel 
with tliose in its native country, but also its 
probability. It is true tliat temperatures of 
latitude are not always the same in difierent 
longitudes, and limited territories surrounded 
by water are also more or less affected cli- 
matically by such situations, and this is also the 
case, in some degree, by coast or inland locality. 
But we may fairly infer that time will as suc- 
cessfully work an acclimation in this fruit, as 
it has done witli melons from Asia, pears 
from the East Indies, filberts from Greece, 
walnuts and peaches from Persia, beans from 
Egypt, cucumbers from the Tropics, apples 
from the East, chestnuts from the Sardis, 
cherries from Asia, apricots from Armenia' 
and many other species of vegetation, now 
successfully cultivated within our territory, 
whicli were originally brought from remote 
localities. The proper northern protection 
and southern exposure are also involved even 
in the successful cultivation of many of the 
fruits which are now acclimated amongst us, 
and we may expect that it will be equally, if 
not more important, in this fruit. We are 
advancing in years — on the downhill of life — 
and we therefore are not sanguine of seeing 
the Japanese Persimmon becoming a subject 
of general culture, but we verily believe that 
our posterity u-ill, and if we can benefit pos- 
terity we are willing to abnegate ourself. 

There is a latitudinal belt including the 
Soutliern and Border States, in which it can 
unquestionably be successfully cultivated, if 
it will not thrive farther north ; in Southern 
and middle California it thrives as well as it 
does in .Japan itself, and as a general rule 
averages larger fruit. Among the liill and 
forest locations of southern Lancaster cAunty 
it ought to flourish, and no doubt will, if pro- 
erly cultivated. We remember well the time 
when our common tomato was regarded as 
exclusively a house plant, and was i)otted 
and raised merely for an ornament. Nobody 
thought of growing it out in the garden, and 
this was the same witli the egg-plant, but 

time and practical experience has solved the 
problem and has wrought such a change as 
demonstrates that there is no crop more hcalth- 
fid than the tomato crojj, and as a general 
thing it is also remunerative. 

If those of our patrons who desire to make 
a trial in cultivating the fruit will send to 
Mr. Loomis, as above directed, for a descrip- 
tive circular, they will learn all the particu- 
lars in reference to its liabits, prospects, and 
sponsors, and may thus be alile to act with 
reasonable intelligence upon the sidsject. 


Interesting Description of the Martic Town- 
ship Cave — Scientific Theories 
Concerning It. 

Hearing wonderful and seemingly reliable 
reports of stalactites, immice or volcanic 
scoria, etc., being found at and in the vicinity 
of the Wind Cave, in the northwestern sec- 
tion of Mavtic townslup, Lancaster county. 
Pa., my mineralogical friend, Geo. S. Lam- 
born, and myself, recently visited the place to 
ascertain the facts. 

At York Furnace station on the Columbia 
& Port Deposit Railroad, we were joined by 
Mr. .James Clark and his son, of Mount Nebo. 
We ascended the river hill to the cave by a 
path purposely prepared for visitors by Mr. 
John Bair, of York Furnace, distant one- 
third of a mile south-east of the station. En- 
tering one of the openings, about large enough 
to admit one man at a time, and creeping 
about fifteen feet, we descended into a cavity 
twelve or fifteen feet in diameter and of equal 
height, from which a number of horizontal 
galleries extend in different directions. The 
largest of these we followed for about eighty 
feet, to a point where it is closed with loose 
stones, the passage way varying in width from 
one to seven feet and from four to fifteen feet 
high. The smaller galleries do not exceed 
twenty feet in length. 

Ten yards northeast from where we first 
entered is another open fissm-e, forty feet of 
which, to where it is closed with fallen stones, 
can be seen from the outside. Beyond these 
stones we descended perpendicularly from an 
opening above to a depth often feet, by means 
of a pole and the assistance of the Messrs. 
Clark. Here the fissure is four or five feet 
wide, narrowing and deepening as we proceed- 
ed until it became so narrow that we could not 
get fiu'thcr. This point we estimated to be 170 
feet distant horizontally from the place where 
wu ent(-red, and 85 feet belovv the top of the 
ground, directly overhead. At least a hun- 
dred feet of this gallery is so narrow that but 
one man can pass at at a time, being from ten 
to thirl y feet high. Tlie sides are regular and 
mostly solid. We concluded that with proper 
appliances the narrow point, which was at 
the extent of our exploration, might be 
passed. Beyond, as far as we could see, 
there seemed to be more room. 

There are, however, no indications of a 
very extensive cave here — a thing not to be 
expected anywhere in the oldest stratified 
rocks. The dip of the rocks is from northeast 
to southwest, with many parallel seams ex- 
tending northwest and southeast. It would 
seem that at some great upheaval two of 
these seams opened, when large blocks of 
stone fell in and prevented them from clos- 
ing when the rocks subsided. On the hill 
above, there are a number of "sinks," show- 
ing that the stones and earth have subsided 
into openings below. 

These caves or crevices have been known 
for forty years as the Cold Air Spring, so 
named on account of a cold current of air 
which issues from the openings at times. 
There was no such current at the time of our 
visit, but Mr. tUark informed us that lie had 
observed it so strong as to disturb the leaves 
around the opening. Our theory for this 
strange current was that the northwest wind 
would drive tlirough the lower crevices of the 

'Read before the Linuffian Society Decerober 29, 1ST7, by 
W, P. Bolton. 



rot:ks wlieu, dining: warm wenlliei-, it would 
be warnun- tliuu the air iiisiilo. aii<l would 
pass out at the openings above with uousidera- 
ijle force. 

As we exppoted, we found no stalactites in 
rocks so slijjbtly solid)U' iu water. The steel 
ore on another part of the hill iiroved to be 
granulated quart/, colored with iron and 
manganese. The volcanic (?) scoria, speci- 
mens of which liLive been |)urchased by some 
of our acfiuaintances, could not Ije found. 
Persons who were reported as knowing its 
whereabouts had never heard of it. Indica- 
tions seemed to be that the volcano from 
which it was emitted was York Furnace. 


Some days auo a correspondent m.ade the 
followiiiij inciuiry : "Why is it that on a frosty 
morniuj: ice is formed around the stalks of 
Dittany (Ciniila Jfo'itoia) ; on last Thursday 
I found it eneircliui;' every stalk that came 
under my notice in funnel-like tbrui V" Our 
corrcspoiident further (pieries whether this 
can be caused by the heat of the jilant con- 
gealing the moisture in the surrounding atmos- 
lihere. We have gone to the trouble of inves- 
tigating the suliject, and here give the result 
of our research- 

opinion o f t h e 
ablest vegetable 
l)hy.siologists 1 s 
that i)lants and, 
indeed, vegeta- 
ble substances of 
all kinds, gener- 
ate no inconsid- 
eral)le degree of 
heat while grow- 
ing. The atmos- 
phere is all the 
while absorbing 
this caloric. E.\- 
pe r i m e n t s by 
able botanists 
have clearly l)ro- 
veu that while 
the gro wtli of 
vegetation is ap- 
pare u 1 1 y s u s- 
])ended during 
the winter sea- 
son, nevertheless 
thi.s is not the 
case. A certain 
amount of 
growth is neces- 
sary to sustain 
the plant's vi- 
tality >uitil the 
approac h i n g 
spring. While, 

therefore, they do not evolve the same amount 
of heat during winter as in the sunmier sea- 
son, there is still a certain portion constantly 
thrown off during cold weather. Tn proof of 
this fact, we need only call attention to the 
fact that snow always melts more rapidly 
around the stems of plants and vegetables, the 
trunks and limbs of trees, and, in short, of all 
vegetable substances having life, than when 
brought into contact with any other class of 
inorganic matter. 

Dr. Darliu;:ton, in his Flom Cestrica, in 
speaking of the Dittany saj's ; ''In the begin- 
ning of winter, after a r.ain, very curious rib- 
hruiiJn of Ice may often be observed attached 
to the base of tlie stems — prodnced, I presume, 
by the moisture of the eartli, rising iu the 
dead stems liy capillary attraction, and then 
beinsi gi-.idually forced out liorizontally, 
through a .slit, by the process of freezing." 

The Dittany is not the only plant that pre- 
sents this curious and beautiful ]ieculiarity. 
The Frost Wred (Ilelianthemum C'anadense) 
also has it. and doubtless the striated ice crys- 
tals that our cnrrespi>ndent speaks of, have 
their origin in the cracked bark at the roots 
or stem of the plant close to the surface of 
the ground. 

If our correspondeut has access to a file of 

the Si-ientijic Amfriran, he will lind in No. 14, 
bearing date of April 7, l>i77, an article by 
the eminent naturalist Dr. Le Conte on the 
subject, and in Xo. 8, February ■J4, 1877, of 
the same pi'riodical, another article on the 
same subject by ,J. Stauffer, esq., of this city, 
who as long ago as 18.')7, in tlie FelMuary 
number of the lli'dictdtitriHt, took tlie ground 
we have advanced above. — Ke^c Era. 

JAVELINE, 23525. 

Ked Roan, calved April SHth, 187.") ; bred 
by W. C. Allen. Buffalo ; sold to S. .J. Whee- 
ler, Kinnedy, \tw York ; got by Patrician, 
12.")7I), out of Undine 1.")tli l)y Prince of Wales, 
00(j4— Undine 7th by Duke, 470'.)— Undine 3d 
by Snowden, 12U.'i7 — Undine by Fiery Comet, 
.3i>.'?2 — Wilhelmina by imp. liuckingham 2d, 
297 — Arabella 5th by Oregon, ISKU — Princess 
by Young Norfolk, ll.'itV— Arabella 4ih by 
Shaks|)eare. 21'.<r> — imp. Arabella by Victory, 
■'J.dG.^— Sally by Major, 22.j2— Old Sally by a 
grandson of Favorite, 2.52— by Punch, 531 — 
liy Hubback, 8IJ'.). 

This bull was sold to John 
Dauphin county. Pa., by S. J. 

Allwine, of 
Wheeler, of 

SHORT-HORN BULL JAVELINE, 23525, owned by Henry Kurtz, Mount Joy, Pa. 

New York, and by him to Henry Kurtz, of 
Mount .Toy, Pa., October 20th, 1877. 

It wi'l be seen from the foregoing that the 
above named animal has a very distinguished 
ancestry, and therefore those of our patrons 
who desire to breed good stock, will know 
exactly where to go to secure that end. 

AVc ofler TnR F.vumer, clubbed with other 
first-class publications, at the following prices : 
Phrenological Journal and Fahmer - 8^? 00, $2..')0 
Harper's Monthly an^VKmnTM - - - 5.00, 4 00 
Harper's Weekly and Farmer - - . 5.00, 4.00 
//ai/jfr'.s jSa^ni- and Fahmeu - - - . .5.00, 4.00 
Herald of Health &wAYKYK-iiv.H - - - 2.00, 1..50 
Xathmal TAve Stoek Jorirnal a.nAYk'R^^v. 3.00, 2..50 
J/biiH/ Jbi/ 7/ti"a!J and Farmer - - 2.50, 1.75 

The first column indicates the regular 
prices of the two journals respectively, and 
the second column the club rates if the two 
are ordered together. 

1^ Canvassers wanted for The Far.ver. 
Send i'or circular. Liberal inducements. 


Gentle.mkn : In siccordancewith a custom 
adojited by my predecessors, it Incomes my 
duty to address vou at this, the beginning of 
the new year. J)oublle.'w many of yon would 
much rathi'r listen to an e.ssay on some agri- 
cultural topic, such as many of you an; much 
more able to compose than I, tlian to thus ad- 
dress you at this, the lirst meeting of the j-ear 
1878, and the twelfth since the organization of 
the society. The year just closed has been one 
that the agriculturist should look back to with 
grateful remembrance. If not one of gene- 
ral commercial ])rosperity, the cultivator of 
the soil has certainly been blessed with remu- 
nerative crops, considerably above the aver- 
ago of the last ten years. The i>rices, loo, 
realized have been sutiicient to encourage (he 
the husbandman to pro.secute his calling with 
renewed energy and thankfulnes.s. The many 
evidences of prosjierity among the rural dis- 
tricts show unmistakable signs of the ability 
of our farmers to command the respect of all 
unprejudiced Americans. They that possess 
a few acres, and are able to till'it under their 
own supervision, may be happy in the name 
that classes them witli the progi-cssive agri- 
culturLst, while the turbulent mercantile 

world is search- 
ing every avenue 
to avoid the 
muiky Hood of 
seems likely to 
swallow those 
who have been 
extra v.agant and 

— i. improvident 

y housekeepers. I 
am sorry to see 
the great ambi- 
tion of mankind 
of the present 
age seems to be 
to excel each 
oth e r in fine 
"turnouts," as 
if that alone 
would establish 
a name, r a n k 
and title to re- 
would give them 
a posi t i o n of 
(•([uality among 
the so-called 
aristocrats of 
the day. I am 
reminded just 
here of the 
words of the 
poet Young — 
"The man who builds and wants wherewith to pay, 
Provides a home from which to run away." 

In looking over the past year, I cannot but 
refer to the great loss to our society of the 
mild, genial and ever-i>leasant countenance of 
our late departed memlter, Levi Pownall. 
His presence among us was always an omen 
of interest in the proceedings ; his gentle dis- 
position, and good, sound judgment on all 
matters under consideration by the society, 
could not but command the admiration of all 
whose privilege it was to commune with him. 
His heart being always in the right place, ho 
ever had words of kindness to all who ap- 
proached him, and his amiable disposition 
and dignitied and quiet manner commanded 
the respect of every one. 

In referring to the past year, I trust the 
success of the thrifty husbandman will stimu- 
late a new era in agriculture. Let there be a 
di-spositioii among the tillers of the soil to 
excel in the ]>roduction of crops. If one acre 
can be made to produce over sixty bushels of 
wheat (while the aveiage is less than twenty- 
five), why cannot whole fields be made to yield 
likewise "? The very best methods of cultiva- 

'Rend before the Lsnraeter Conntj- .\KriculturaI and 
KorticiUtursl Society, by I'lesldeut C»lvin Cooper. 



[ January, 

tion should be adopted that will produce the 
largest result. If improved machiuery and 
modern modes of cultivation can achieve a 
revolution in the productiveness of the soil, 
he who adopts them must certainly have 
greater chances of success than the one who 
pursues the old rut and complains that his 
farming "don't pay." There is evidently 
much room for still greater improvement. 
Careful experiment on a small scale at tirst, 
would cost but a trifle, while the result might 
be a field of great benefit to a community. 
Occasionally, we hear of other sections pro- 
ducing great crops of corn, yielding in some 
instances over one hundred bushels to the 
acre. If that, however, should be the stand- 
ard, I fear there would be few to reach it, 
but this .should not deter any from making 
every eflbrt within his means to take the most 
that can be produced from every acre under 
cultivation. I do not wish to insinuate that 
our farmers are not progressive, but I think 
there is still a wide field for improvement. 

With the noted fertility of our soil, much is 
expected of us ; hence we should show to the 
world, by our products, that this truly is the 
garden spot of the great State of Pennsyl- 
vania. I also wish to commend the growing 
disposition of the ruralist to adorn their 
homes with the more modern style of archi- 
tecture. I look forward with pleasure when 
this county will compare favorably with any 
of the State, in its handsome "country 
villas," with neatly clipped lawns, with a few 
specimen shade trees, shrubbery or flowers, as 
the taste .and purse of its possessor can afford. 
"What adds so much to the attraction of a 
home as neat, well kept grounds ? Ten yards 
of sward, in good order, will soon suggest 
other little improvements, such as a flower 
here, a bush there, soon a bed of annuals 
that can be grown at the expenditure of a 
few pennies, at most, which will add more to 
the comforts and real enjoyment of home than 
dollars spent in the vanities of the present 
day. What man returning in the evening to 
his home, weary of his labors of a hot sum- 
mer day, but will be attracted and refreshed 
by the delicious fragrance of an ever-blooming 
heliotrope, a choice rose, a modest carnation 
or the thousands of other plants that are 
given us to make pleasant and adorn the 
home ! 

"Be it ever so humble, 
There is no place like home." 

The growing interest in the proceedings of 
our society suggests a wider field of useful- 
ness ; hence it becomes our duty, as it should 
be our pleasure, to open wide the door of 
welcome to all who encourage us with their 
presence at our meetings. An essay on some 
subject of interest might be a part of the 
exercise of every session. A lecturer from 
abroad occasionally (if publicly announced,) 
would have a tendency to bring out many that 
have not as yet graced our rooms with their 
presence, and foster that social feeling that 
induces mankind to mingle together as one 
family, and exchange views and opinions that 
may result in a mutual benefit to all. 

You could also add spirit, and very much 
assist the chair, by a little more prompt action 
on the various subjects that are brought up 
for your consideration. I find too many 
among you who do not seem inclined to take 
part until called upon by the chair. This to 
me does not seem proper, but at times is the 
only alternative I have to bring out the sense 
of the society on the numerous subjects under 
discussion. I therefore trust in the future 
you will not wait an invitation, but promptly 
act, and to the point, on axl matters brought 
to your attention. 

In conclusion, I tender 3'ou my most heart- 
felt thanks for the uniform kindness and re- 
spect you have shown me during the two 
years I have had the honor to preside as your 

I also renew my appeal for pardon for any 
act that would wound the feelings of any 
member or others taking part in the proceed- 
ings, and humbly trust that you will believe 
that it has ever been my desire to increase 

the usefulness of the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society. 


As a rule, domestic animals fare better in 
the summer than in winter. When they 
have access to pasture and water in the sum- 
mer season, they will generally take care of 
themselves, and go into winter-quarters in 
from fair to good condition, but these same 
animals, in many instances, come out the fol- 
lowing spring with barely their frames. 

This picture applies not only to owners of 
stock that are possessed of limited means, 
and can ofttimes not obtain the necessary 
provender for even a few animals ; but there 
are many who have good farms with abund- 
ant means, and provisions to bring llieii' 
stock out of winter-quarters as well as it went 
in, but prefer to add the "mighty dollar" to 
their pile by selling more hay and grain at 
the expense of the flesh on their animals, ex- 
cept such as are intended for the shambles. 
This short-sighted policy, if not killing, is at 
least starving the "goose that lays the golden 
egg." It has been proven beyond contradic- 
tion that the cheapest method to raise live 
stock, is to keep it in a thriving condition, by 
which there is a saving of both time and 
feed. Milch cows, especially good ones, will 
only pay well when well fed. Working ani- 
mals will do more work and are less liable to 
disease when well fed and cared for. 

If, however, dollars and cents were the 
only consideration in this connection, we 
might let the matter rest, and let everybody 
conduct the management of his own animals 
in his own way ; but in this enlightened age, 
where the law takes cognizance of inhuman 
conduct towards dumb brutes, it would be 
well for every one to know to what extent he 
can starve his animals and remain within 
the pale of the law. Societies for the preven- 
tion of cruelty to animals have done very 
much to educate public sentiment to a higher 
standard. Although there are still manj' 
who claim the right to do with their own ani- 
mals what they please, there are not a few 
who have been taught very different lessons, 
and many more there are that should be 
taught, in this nineteenth century, where 
cruel inflictions of punishment are no longer 
tolerated by law and public sentiment, is it not 
high time that a similar law be extended to 
our dumb animals ? and also the masses be 
educated up to the same standard V From a 
humane stand-point, it does seem cruel to e.^;- 
pose animals out doors in the winter season, 
to rain, sleet and snow, with only coarse feed 
that will barely sustain life until again the 
earth puts forth vegetation ; and when such 
animals, sometimes by great effort, .succeed in 
getting a better morsel, by accident or other- 
wise, they are clubbed by their inhuman 
masters, as if they perfectly understand their 

Our noble animal, the horse, is ofttimes 
subjected to treatment by men of ungoverna- 
ble passions, that should not fail to call forth 
to his protection not only the strong arm of 
the law, but also of public sentiment. Many 
cases may be seen that are similar, but much 
more inhuman than the conduct of Baalam 
toward his ass. The Arab treats his horse 
with such kindness that would put to shame 
a majority of horse owners in Christendom. 
The circumstance related of the Arab who 
refused to sell Ins horse to a Christian, lest he 
would beat him, is no compliment to the 
Christian name ; neither does it place the lat- 
ter in a very enviable position, when he applies 
heavily his whip to his horse through mud or 
rain, in order to be in time for religious ser- 
vices. The horse, after a fatiguing trip, 
ofttimes must stand exposed to rain or sleet, 
while his master is edified with the G<.ispel of 
mei'C}', love, and kindness to all. Of all the 
domestic animals, none has been more cruelly 
tortured than the swine. A gate or bars is 
left open, or a rail is out of the fence, the 

"Read before the LancaBter County Agricultural and 
Qorticsajtiual Society by K. M. Engle. 

dumb brute gets to where are not her assigned 
rations, another brute or two, perhaps not 
quite so dumb, are sent to bring her out of 
mischief ; the consequence often is an ear or 
two partially torn from her head with other 
lacerations that may cause intense suffering 
tor weeks or months, and all this because the 
brutes had presumably not as much sense as 
their owner. This is not an over-drawn pic- 
ture of what has happened hundreds of times. 
Fortunately, however, in this section, swine 
are mostly kept in confinement, hence such 
inhuman scenes as were formerly common, are 
now rarely transacted. The assertion is 
hereby boldly made, that any person that 
causes, knowingly, any unnecessary suffering 
to be inflicted upon man or animals, is not 
worthy the name of moral, let alone the name 
Christian. As the finer feelings are cultivated 
in man, the effects upon domestic animals 
must be obvious, in consequence of their more 
humane treatment, for there are few animals 
that do not recognize kindness, but above all, 
he who bestows the most of it will invariably 
reap the greatest benefit. There is, therefore, 
a wide field open for the promotion of happi- 
ness to man, and the comfort of his servants, 
the domestic animals, besides the enjoyment 
of dollars and cents derived by keeping them. 


Editok Lancaster Farmer. — Please ac- 
cept the greetings of your old friend "Hum- 
bolt." After so long an absence he again of- 
fers you his services to the support of The 
Farmer, and hereby proposes to review im- 
partially each number, with the object of im- 
pressing its contents more emphatically upon 
its readers. Very valuable matter in publi- 
cations is ofttimes entirelj' overlooked, unless 
special attention is called thereto, while 
questionable articles frequently passed un- 
challenged. He does, however, not intend to 
criticise any editorial matter intentionally, 
nor assume any editorial functions, but will 
ape a little after editors in using the word we, 
instead of ■/, which you know appears more 
authoritative, and assumes somewhat of dig- 
nitj'. He will also prefix his name with some- 
thing of a title, but tlie most important part 
of his communications will be their style. 
You know, Mr. Editor, that many of the 
words in our language,, have more letters 
than is convenient for expression. Phonetic 
is, therefore, destined to be the style of our 
language by and by, and for the purpose of 
educating our young farmers up to that stan- 
dard, has this method been decided upon for 
our future writing. It is, however, not the 
common phonetic, but a kind of fonetic of 
our own, which we think will be highly ap- 
preciated by our young friends. You will 
observe that we have omitted the letter d, 
which is useless in the word Humholt, and we 
expect to save the writing of many a letter 
by our improved method. Annexed hereto, 
you will find a sample of our future style and 
manner, which the readers of The Farmer 
may expect in the forthcoming numbers. — 
Von Humbolt, Jan., 1878. 

Revu of a fu Articles in the Dec. No. 

The article of "Ruralist" is to the point, 
and any farmer hu has neglected his hints, 
has dun so at his own expens, only we dont 
understand his "fowl air." 

We wonder how al the riters on bees would 
work together, if tha wcr put into won hive ? 

Oleomargarine seems destined to take care 
of itself, but if we must eat tallow instead of 
butter, we wud lik to no it. The man hu 
sold dog fat for lard, did not tel the bj'er, so 
the latter never got either wors or better for it. 

"Ten Rules for Farmers," page 186, shud 
hav bin printed in capitals. It is tu v.aluable 
tu be overlooked. — V. II. 

[We admire the orthographical economy of 
Von Hiimcolt, but \vc are astonished at his 
extravegauce in wasting the letter W on 

"tallo."— Ed. 


We would ask every reader of The Far- 
mer to try and procure us a new subscriber. 




This rasi)beny lias never been known to 
"winter-kill," and we place this statement 
here in the foreground, lieeaiise, with all 
imaginable exeellenec in all other respects, of 
wliat value is it if held by .such an unstable 
tenure as winter-killing '? 

In the opinion of the (\'ntennial .ludges, 
who awarded it one of the prize medals, it 
approaches the "Philadelphia" in general 
appearance, but is a mueli finer berry, and 
the judges were also impressed with the be- 
lief "that it would 
]n-ove a valuable va- 

Tlie Reliance is of 
a stalky habit, very 
short jointed, with 
lironiinent buds and 
dark, heavy foli- 
age, great vigor of 
growtii, and perfect- 
ly hardy, showing 
perfectly heal thy, 
uninjured buds on 
tlie very tips of the 

Fruit large, many 
of them two and a 
half inches in cir- 
cumference, round- 
ish, with large, 
fleshy seed-beds.'ad- 
liering slightly to 
the germ. Color, 
dark re<l, with rich, 
sprightly acid llavor; 
entirely free from 
the insipid sweet, 
characteristic of so 
many varieties ; and 
will remain in good 
condition tluee or 
four days on the 
bushes after they 
are rijic, and can be 
shipped in perfect 
order hundreds of 
miles to market. 

The introduction 
of Feltou's new *■ 
seedling rasplieiiics 
—"Early Prolihc' ^^ 
and "Reliance — 
will doubtless mark 
an epoch in the his- 
tory of raspbeiiy 
'culture in our coun- 

Th e s e hemes 
ought to find a con- 
genial soil in Lan- 
caster county, est n 
in those localities 
which have been 
considered the least 
fertile, cspeciallj ni 
those that mak( an 
appro.ximat i on to 
the sandy loam of 
New .Jersey. 

Our illustra t i o n 
represents two clus- 
ters as they usually 
oecair, although it 
may not represeu t 
the general average, 
but as the variety is 
always re li a b 1 e — 
hence its name — it 
will be found so on a fair trial. 

" The Early Prolific and Reliance, 

To all others bid defiance, 
And we aslc the wise compliance 
Of Columbia's every son. 

" For we often shall repeat, 

With the two your list's complete, 
Both for iiKuket and to eat, 
Till the pleasant work is done." 

For circulars and prices, address Gibson & 
Bennett, Xurserymen, Woodbury, IST. J. 


The term manure coiniirehends any particle 
of matter tliat enriches land. In all ages and 
in almost all countries the cultivators of the 
earth have found it expedient to use the ex- 
crement of animals ami minerals to force the 
growth of vegi'tables. 

In our country, it is true, tlieve is an exten- 
sive region which has been and is fat enough 
in its virgin state to yield abundant crops for 
a generation or two, without the application 
of any fertilizer ; but it eciually true that 

f\\ . 4 

large areas of land of a good iiuality, under a 
favorable sky, need constant manurial food to 
keep it in heart. Manure is the farmer's 
wealth to a great extent : but it must not be 
entirely depended upon. There are considera- 
tions besides, to be heeded. Thorough culti- 
vation and rotation of crops must give assist- 
ance to the manure pile. 

It is, besides, a matter worthy of the study 
of every farmer to acquire a better knowl- 
edge of the land he cultivates and the dill'er- 
ent manures be judiciously used. If the land 
was all alilce in quality, the vatious modes of 

applying fertilizers and cultivation would not 
be deemed necessary ; but as land varies very 
much in quality, even within th» limits of a 
county, different systems of farming are prac- 
ticable or expedient. 

A better knowledge of agricultural chemis- 
try would greatly facilitate our labor in ap- 
plying the the necessary (luantity of fertili- 
zers to the soil, (.'ertain plants grow best in 
a particular soil, and consetpiently a manure 
which lias the most a.stonishing ell'ect upon 
one kind of land may be comparatively use- 
less ui)on another, 
and so on indefinite- 
Ij'. It is not enough 
to liavo good land, 
but is indispensablo 
to have a knowledge 
of the capacity of it, 
and the proper ma- 
nure to be applied 
has enriched many a 
farmer, and the 
want of that know- 
ledge has impover- 
ished many more. 

Rich fields are 
well fed, and, as 
there is an abun- 
dance of material for 
making and apply- 
ing manure, it is the 
fanner's mistake not 
to use them. It is 
the useless waste of 
materials that im- 
poverishes fhe dung 
pile. If the weedH 
and other matter 
aboiil our farms that 
rare unsightly and 
out of place were 
removed to the ma- 
nure heap, they 
could be made avail- 
able as manure, and 
tell on the crops. 
It is not the farmer 
possessing the rich- 
est lands who al- 
ways shows the best 
conditioned fields. 
Fields originally 
yielding meagre 
crops to their own- 
ers, by untiring and 
ceaseless diligence 
and .skillful husban- 
dry, have increased 
more than double 
the yield per acre. 
Instead of exhaust- 
ing, he etuiches his 
fields, and what may 
be wanting in fer- 
tility is more than 
supiilied by judici- 
ous manuring and 
management. I n 
different quartet's of 
the globe labor and 
cultivation have 
produced effects ob- 
viously different. In 
Xew England the 
harsh climate, the 
rocky soil, and the 
rugged topograpliy 
present nothing en- 
couraging to the 
agriculturist, but by cultivation and incessant 
toil of two hundred yeai-s many acres have 
teen made highly productive. 

Here in Pennsylvania the farmer is favored 
by nature with a better soil, a more congenial 
climate and a more even topography ; and by 
his labor and skill has improved his acres into 
a real paradise. The bulk of all fertility, it ij 
said, consists of three earths — silica, alumiila 
and lime ; and as lime enters into the compo- 
sition of all plants, it necessarily occupies a 
large place in nature's lalwratory. The earth 
is full of seeds, and well-showered earth is 



[ January, 

deep enriclied with vegetable life. Some 
plants flourish most vigorously in a particular 
locality or soil, and it is almost impossible to 
eradicate them fi'oni it, which is doubtless 
owing to the soil being agreeable to their 
nature ; hence tlie importance of applying the 
proper compost to sustain the soils in fertility. 
Some soils may be most benefited by vegetable 
manure, other soils by animal, and otliers 
agaiu by mineral manures. And as the sources 
from which to obtain fertilizers are numerous, 
they may be given guano, gypsum, lime, salt, 
cattle dung, chicken dirt, slaughter-house re- 
fuse, boue-dust, wood ashes, forest leaves, 
green sand or marl, sea weeds or kelp, char- 
coal, offal of breweries and tanneries, of cot- 
ton, woolen and paper mills, clover and other 
grasses, blood of animals, urine, dead car- 
casses, human ordure and the useless plants 
which grow spontaneously in our fields and 
highways. There are other ingredients be- 
sides the above that are profitably employed 
as laud enrichers. But the most important 
consideration with farmers should be the most 
useful manure for the least money. It is not 
every fai-mer that can aflbrd to buy guano 
and other high priced fertilizers. Cheap land, 
cheap manure and skillful culture are abso- 
lutely essential to ensure success in farming. 
The manures which are best known and 
universally used l)y our farmers are the barn- 
yard pile and burnt lime, and their value 
upon the land is incalculable. Large farms, 
o\'erwrought and impoverished by overcrop- 
ping, have been made highly productive .sim- 
ply by the liberal application of lime. With 
lime and an abundance of stable manure no 
farm need be yioor. How important then that 
nothing should be left to waste about the 
stalls and the manure pile. Let no fertilizing 
water escape from the manure heap, for all 
that is washed away by drenching rain is lost 
to the farm.* 

For The Lancaster Faumer. 
J. B. G. et. al. vs. ITALIAN BEES. 

Me. Editor. — In our defense of the ''busy 
bee," we have chosen the above title and pro- 
pose to treat the subject in something of a 
legal form. The plaintiff has laid down his 
sweeping charges, and asks as the verdict of 
an intelligent people that the accused shall 
die, and voluntarily proposes to be the execu- 
tioner, so far as his locality is concerned. 

Having taken no part in the controversy 
heretofore, you will allow me to state or re- 
peat the charge as made by Mr. J. B. G. and 
others, viz.: "That Italian honey bees do cut 
the skins of soutid grapes and suck out the 
liquid portion of the fruit." This is the 
charge as we understand it, and the question 
is '■'GuilUj or Not GidH;/.'" We will promise, 
Mr. Editor, to study briefly, all that the case 
will admit of, but its great importance de- 
mands move than a hasty article. 

The products of the honey bee, (and most- 
ly from tlie Italian variety,) in honey and 
wax, is estimated at .§20,000,000 per annum in 
the United States, and the value of bees them- 
selves much greater. Hence, if innocent of 
the charge, their destruction would be a pub- 
lic calamity and a gigantic folly. If guilty of 
committing oucasiimal depredations, such as 
complained of, it still remains a question of 
law, whether the bee-keeper has not rights 
that a "white man is bound to respect." 

Before introducing testimony for the de- 
fense, we will cross-question the witness on 
the stand. 

He says in the November Fakiier, "For 
over fifcy years I had from five to forty hives 
of black bees in a season; I then also had lots 
of grapes, but the bees did not molest the 
fruit." The above statement being admitted; 
it follows as a sequence that either a different 
variety of grape is cultivated, or that the 
Italian bee is more industrious than blacks, 
for it is a fact we shall not take time just here 
to prove, that the physical construction and 
instincts of black and Italian bees are the 
same, they diftering only in color and size. If 

'Read before the Lancaster County AgriQlUtural and 
HortioiUtuvaJ Society by C. L. Hunsecker, 

the black bee can not cut the skin of a perfect 
grape, neither can the Italian "or the dill'er- 
ent crosses of that variety. " Their mandibles 
are the same. 

Again, in the Decembe'r Farmer he says, 
"Of course I alluded to the Italian variety, 
and when these cut the skin, the lilack bees 
will also come and get a share of the sweet 
juice. Exactly, Mr. G., you admit that their 
tastes and instincts are the same. This is 
equivalent to saying that when the skin of 
the grape is broken, honey bees will sip its 
juices. This we all admit, but that any kind 
of hive bees gnaw through the skins of grapes, 
not knowing what is inside, we must emphati- 
cally deny, and demand better evidence than 
the casual observations of one or two wit- 
nesses, in one or two localities, and in one or 
two seasons. The counter experiences of 
thousands of years, and in thousands of locali- 
ties, cannot be thus ignored with impunity. 
Even if bees were guilty, as charged, the 
indiscriminate resort to jwison, suggested, will 
not bear the test of either moral or economical 

The honey bee has been given us by a wise 
Providence as one has said, "to gather up and 
convert to the use of man those scraps and 
fragments of creation that would otherwise 
be scattered by the merciless wind or lost on 
the ambient air;" and we may add, that no 
creature more fuliy obeys the Divine com- 
mand to "gather up the fragments that noth- 
ing be lost." When the cliosen people of 
God entered the land of promise, aland where 
milk and honey flowed, the mammoth clusters 
of Eschol testified to the innocence of honey 
bees of that time of the charge now made 
against them. Although many years after 
the vines of that same land "east their fruit 
before the time in the field," not from the 
depredations of bees, but as we are informed, 
as a punishment for some sin of the people. 
We do not wish to be understood as in- 
timating that for some iin of Mr. G. his 
grapes have "6((.s? their peeling." Our hon- 
orable and intelligent jury (your numerous 
readers) will bear with me in bringing evi- 
lieiice even from remote centuries, 1;o estab- 
lish the good character of the defendant in 
this case, for be it remembered that the honey 
bee is a creature governed by instinct, and not 
an animal that reasons from cause to effect, 
and goes on increasing its stock of knowledge 
for three score years and ten. I have not a 
doubt but that that antediluvian swarm that 
had their snow-white combs in the attic of 
Noah's ark, liuilt the same hexagonal cells that 
the honey bees have in this year of grace, 
1877, and that under favorable circumstances 
they sallied forth in quest of the nectar of 
flowers. The ancients called the bee "De- 
borah," or she that blesseth, and truly she 
has come down through the centuries to us, 
as a blessing to the cottager and fruit-grower. 
She goes forth as a blessing to fertilize the fruit 
blossom, and returns as a blessing with her 
load of nectar. If the honey bee depredates 
on fruit this year, she has always done so 
under like circumstances. That grapes do 
sometimes burst their skins under certain cli- 
matic influences, is a matter we think will be 
denied by no one, just as apples some seasons 
decay early, as was the case the past autumn. 
Baldwins and russets, which are usually our 
longestkeepersin western Pennsylvania, rotted 
badly before the first of December, but we 
did not think the bees were to blame for it, 
though they worked busily upon the piles of 
rotten apples that were thrown out when- 
ever the weather would permit them to fly. I 
am credibly informed that in some of the 
.south-western counties of this State, where 
grapes used to flourish, they have rotted so 
badly that growers have removed thei^' vines, 
deeming the land more profitable for other 
purposes of agriculture. 

In this county (Warren) there are but few 
black bees to be found, but in all parts of the 
county the Italians are kept, and have been 
in my locality for the past eleven years; yet 
the complaint lias never been made of them 
destroj-ing a single grape. Judging from the 

amount of bees and queens shipped by me to 
Lancaster county, I infer that the Italian bees 
of said county must be largely of my strain of 
that variety. They do not destroy grapes 
here, and why there V In Erie county, Pa., 
and the counties of New York and Ohio bor- 
dering on Lake Erie, large quantities of fine 
grapes are raised and are not injured by bees, 
notwithstanding Italian bees are kept" there; 
in fact, they are the only kind worth keeping. 
But the charge made by Mr. G. against bees 
destroying grapes, is not new, farther than 
confining it to the Italian variety. In 1867 
.some of the people of Wenham, Mass., waxed 
very wroth about the busy bee, and asked the 
"city dads" to expel every bee from the cor- 
poration. But their wrath subsided from 
some cause, and Wenham is the home of one 
of the most extensive Italian queen breeders 
in the United States. It was the ophiion of 
some that the skins of the grapes were cut by 
honey bees, and the opinion of Dr. H. A. 
Hagen, of Cambridge, Mass., formerly of 
Konigsberg, Prussia, a learned and distin- 
guished German entomologist, was asked, who 
gave it as his opinion that honey bees could 
not cut the skins of grapes. (See American 
Bee Journal, vol. 4, page 18.) At Virden, 
Illinois, in the summer of 1870, bees worked 
the grapes, and Mr. J. L. Peabody writes : 
"It was very dry when grapes began to ripen, 
and a shower of rain cracked open a great 
many of them. At first it was laid to the 
Italian bees, but in some places I noticed 
more blacks than Italians." Under date of 
March 7, 1871, Mr. H. Nesbit, of Cynthiana, 
Kentucky, writes : "I have had grupes in my 
garden for twenty years, hut I never knew the 
bees to injure the grape. I keep Italian bees. 
I think tlie troiilile witii Mr. Peabody was in 
the grapes and not in the bees. It is likely 
that his grapes had taken the 'grape cholera,' 
or some other disease, that caused them to 
burst open, and give the bees admission to 
the sweets." We will next bring upon the 
stand, Mr. Charles Dadant, of Hamilton, 
Illinois, a competent witness in the case, who 
says he has cultivated bees in a part of France 
where grapes arc the main crop, near the hills 
of Burgundy, celebrated for tlie wine pro- 
duced by tlie cidture of the sugared pineau, 
a grape richer in sugar than all the American 
kinds. He declares it a fact well established 
in that district that Sees are unable to cut the 
skin of grapes. In order to establish the fact 
the most juicy and s-ugared grapes, pears, 
sweet cherries, plums, apricots, etc., were put 
iniiide the hives (out of the reach of other 
insects and birds) and never have the bees 
attacked them if they were not previously 
scratched. The experiment was repeated 
again and again, to establish the fact beyond 
the possibility of a doubt. It was also ascer- 
tained that the first cutting of the skin of 
fruits was made by a kind of wasp, or by birds, 
or caused by rain falling when the fruit was 
ripe. In Italy the same experiments have led 
to the same results. (See the 17 years French 
Journal V AjrieuUenr.) 

We will next call up statistics of the ex- 
ports of Italy, the home of the Italian bee, 
from whenee she has been distributed largely 
through Europe and America, and we find 
one of her largest exports to be icine. We 
might multiply our evidence, for we have a 
very large supply at command, but we deem it 
quite unnecessary, and fear lest we weary 
your patience. We think we have established j 
these facts : || 

1st. By the evidence of Mr. J. B. Gaibcr " 
and Mi: Peabody, that when the Italian bees 
work grapes the blacks worki d also. 

2d. By the evidence of Mr. Garber, that 
black bees have worked upon grapes but one 
year in fifty. 

'M. By the evidence of Mr. Nesbit, that 
his Italian bees never disturbed his grapes. 

4tli. By the evidence of Dr. Hagen and 
Charles Dadent, that honey bees can not cut 
the .skins of grapes. 

5th. By the above named witnesses that 
climatic or thermometric influence in con- 



iiection witli luiniidity, may cause a rui)ture 
of the skills of £rva]i('S and otlu'V fruit. 

Tlif only loL'ical conclusiou to be deduced 
fi'oin ((// the evidence availal>le, pro and con, 
is that no kind of hive or dntnestlcated bees 
attack Of despoil sound fruit of any kind. If 
they did one year, they would every year. If 
Itiiliaii bees destroy sound grapes in" Lancas- 
ter county, they siu'ely would the jirapes of 
our lake rci^inn, where tliey attain such per- 
fection, and also the more su^rary varieties of 
France and Italy, else we muxt admit tliat 
tlieir instincts chanpe. A kind Providence 
has fjiven to man the honey bee, and furnished 
its natin'al food «'»;"//.< in «(»», x'l'.ssela. Hut 
when we liiid her indoniilable industry 
l)roinptinL; hi-r to save what she finds vfoins to 
loss, we oufiht to coniniend. not. censure. We 
shall ask, then, as tlie verdict of your readers, 
tliat the defendant, Italian bees, "i\o( Guil- 
fy, " and that they be discharged from the 
odium heaped upon them; tliat when the 
circling year sh.all usher in the fjlad spring 
time, witli its beauty and its bloom, she may 
jjo forth on her mission of love, i>rovidin2 a 
bouutil'ul harvest of sweetness for herself, for 
her friends and her foes, — W. J. Davis, 
Youngsvilh', Fa. , Dec. 1.S77. 



Dear Sir. — It gives rae pleasure in ac- 
cordance with your cxprcsaecl wish, to .state 
the results of my experience in the chemical 
fertilization of wheat. 

I began in the fall of 1870 the application 
of chemicals to the soil, with view of increas- 
ing its fertility. I had perceived beiiellts, 
more or less marked, arising from the appli- 
cation of various patented an<l compounded 
mixtures, passing under the name of Raw 
Bone, Excelsior, Magnum Bonura, Super- 
phosphate, etc.; but of their com|)onent parts 
I could form no ide.a, save at the hi-avy ex- 
pense of a chemical analysis. It came at the 
.same time to my observation, that these com- 
pounders, without exception, had grown 
wealthy in a short time, and it seemed a fair 
deduction, lliat if it would jiay the farmer to 
use them saddled with such heavy [irolits, 
that tlie use of chemicals, to which they owed 
their entire value, at a very much less cost, 
must prove remunerative. Chemistry, through 
analysis, had estat>lislied the food of jdants, 
and_it only remained for iiractical experiment 
to determine the proportions. There was no 
mysterious secret tiiat coulil embrace the 
"value of a ton of such compounds from ten to 
thirty dollars a ton over the cost of ingre- 
dients, and the manipulations of the chemi- 
cals were so simiile as could be done by any 
man of average intelligence. Ex]ii rience has 
demonstrated that the manure of cattle, pro- 
perly fermented and rotted, is a universal 
manure ; or to speak more plainly, it contains 
all the elements lliat are necessary to ))lant life. 
Taking this as a basis, I prepared a formula, 
comprising all its organic and inorganit ma- 
terial, and in as near the same proiiortion as 
analysis had establishc-d it. Jly phosiihoric 
acid was derived from burnt bone ; ammonia 
from sulphate of ammonia ; potassa from 
muriate of ])otash — 87 ' ; niagnesia from crude 
sulphate. When formula! ed the mixture 
showed 10 per cent, of suljibate and pho.s- 
lihoric acid, 4 per cent, of ammonia and 
liotassa, 1^ per cent ammonia and potassa, 1.4 
per cent, of magnesia, etc. The cost of mix- 
ture w-as forty dollars per ton. and I applied 
it to my wheat at the rate of 3.")0 jionnds per 
acre, drilling with seed, with the following re- 
sults : The Hrst field contained iii) acres, hilly, 
of light sandy soil, and from which, prior to 
drilling, I had removed over two hundred 
loads of quartz stones. This Held had been 
cropped four successive years, anil eaiOi time 
was seeded to clovir withoui any result. In 
rye in '73 it yielded 12 bushels. The crop of 
wheat for '74. '7") and '76 were resjiectively 
12. 8 and 41 bushels to an acre. The land 
.seemed a fair speeiiuen of utter exhaustion, 
and thus peculiarly adapted for exiieviment. 
To demonstrate beyond doubt the eflects of 

the chemicals, I left a belt of land, running 
the entire length of the held, tlirough its 
middle, wliieh, though unfertilized, received 
the same culture and seeding. The heavy 
equinoctial storm tlrat prevailed shortly after 
seedini;, washed and indicted very considera- 
ble damage. The fertilized portion showed 
its siqieriority from its appearance above 
ground, and at the time of harvest the lield 
liresented the appearance as if a land had 
been cradled through it. The wheat on the 
unferlilized belt was not over 12 inches high, 
and the most scrutinizing examination failed 
to detect a single clover plant ; its iirodiict in 
wheat was nil. The firtilized portion showed 
a heavy stand of straw and good head, W('ll 
lilled, and when harvested, the average of the 
entire lield was 2bA bushels — thresher's meas- 
ure, weighing 02| liounds to the bushel. 
The stand of clover was sjilendid, more lux- 
uriant than 1 had ever before seen. 

The second tield contained 20 acres, but of 
land in mueli better order. It had yielded 
thirty-live bushels of corn, followed Ijy a crop 
of oats — twenty-seven bushels. The soil was 
medium heavy and micaceous ; the surface 
rocks of quartz and sandstone, and with a 
northern exposure. The same culture and 
quantity of fertilizer was applied, and seeded 
to timothy at the time of drilling. The 
growth of grain was continuous from its lirst 
appearance above ground, and a short time 
before harvest was pronounced the lincst show 
in our county ; it was estimated from 40 10 45 
bushels. A violent storm, however, pros- 
trated nearly one half of it, and compelled 
the use of scythes to secure it. The heads of 
prostrate wlieat did not mature, aud in many 
cases not half tilled. Tlie portion uninjured 
was very fine, but the yield was not kejit 
separate. The average of the entire tield was 
30^ bushels, weighing 63 pounds to the 
bushel. The timothy was most luxuriant — 
over 18 inches in height. 

Tile third experiment was ou 20 acres in 
two iilots, one of 22 acres was in corn, of a 
light soil and micacecms, with a surface rock 
of quartz and limestone, and southern hill- 
side. The yield of corn was 25 bushels to an 
acre, and owing to its removal, the wheat was 
not drilled till October 2d. The other plot of 
8 acres was a strong tenacious clay, with 
limestone surface rocks, and which was in a 
tough blue grass sod. It had been in wheat 7 
years prior, ami liad then produced 14 bushels 
of wheat without manure. The .same applica- 
tion was made as before, and seeded to clover. 
Being of southern exposure, it escaped the 
siorm ; the growth of straw was very heavy. 
The i>roduct of both patches was threshed 
together, and the yield was 32J bushels per 
acre, weighing 64 pounds to the bushel. The 
stand of clover on corn land was very indif- 
ferent, and upon the clay sod the natural 
grasses choked it out entire, so I plowed u)) 
both pieces and reset with wheat. In order 
to ascertain if increased quantity of anv one 
of ingredients in fertilizer were needed liy the 
land, I top-dre.sscd in March, each field with 
each ingredient separate. There was no re- 
sponse save in the, two fields of clay, heavier 
soils, where the potash showed the straw full 

inches higher, and a perceptible larger and 
heavier he:id of wheat. Tliis leads me to tlie 
concdusion that a heavier administration of 
potash would be beneficial, and possibly a 
diminution of ammonia and phosphoric acid 
might not injure the yield. The wheat .seeded 
was the Fultz, and was of superior quality. 
These results have satisfied me that a crop 
could be produced, and tlie next question was, 
would it jiay V I am satisfied from a know- 
ledge of my lands, of past average pro- 
ductions of wheat, that 1 liad an exce.«s of 
wheat over what I should have had without 
the apidication of chemicals, of lUOO bushels. 
This surplus lirought me .?1. .500: the cost of 
chemical aiiiiiieation was St20, and allowing 
S80 for extra threshing and lalxir would leave 
SIOOO as a profit ou an investment of .*420 for 
twelve month.s — and besides, in this e.stimate, 

1 have charged the entire manure to this one 
crop. Jfor have I included the increased 

value of 40 acres set in grass, one iialf of 
which I could in no event have succeeded in 
setting; nor liave I included the increased 
weight of straw, whieli if sold, would have 
yielded near one half cost of fertilizer. 

Tlie season was a most propitious one for 
wlii-al, and may liave added very considerable 
to the yield, but there is still a very large 
margin of prolil after any such deductions. 
I can but believe in very heavy benefits yet 
to accrue to soil where ajiplied such clover 
and timothy never before stood on my farm. 
1 have seeded this year lOil acres to wheat, 
and have ai>plied the formula (with some 
variations lor experiment) to all of it. 

I experimented upon three half-acre 
plots of jiotatoes, apjilying a formula which 
lepresenled the ash. and adding 5 per cent, of 
anifuonia. The soil in each were entiiely dif- 
ferent, one sod, one clay, one sandy. The 
results were at the rate of 2t)5, 255 and 210 
bushels to an acre. The heaviest yield I had 
ever before olitained by the most lavish appli- 
cation of manure, was 85 bushels. The results 
in my vi getable garden were even more, 
marked. The application of muriatic potash 
85"^, one ta\jlespoonful rii hill, produced Early 
York cabbage, one of which measured in cir- 
cmnference, around the outer extremities of 
leaves 14 feet U incdies. Its effect ou sweet 
potatoes was also great. 

The exhaustion of lands must soon form a 
serious question in the older .States, the steady 
decreasing yields pi)int in one direction, either 
bankruptcy or eiiiigiation. The fertile lands 
of tlie West are hastiiiiiig its solution. They 
are our competitors, and cheap freights have 
brought them to our doors. We must pro- 
duce more at cost — it must become a 
struggle for life, in which, as Darwin says, 
the "fittest will survive." The old routine 
will be superseded, and those who do not fol- 
low will go under. I^urope has already solved 
and met the question. The fertility of the 
land must be restored, in returning that which 
has been abstracted — there is no other road 
save through chemicals. Prussia, Germany 
and France havd so decided and acted. In 
Prussia alone, there are sixty experimental 
stations where the farmer can have his chem- 
icals analyzed at the expense of the (iovern- 
inent, (and no one farm is without them). 
Connecticut has already profited by Prussia's 
experience, and estalilished a station, which 
last year saved to its farmers over ^200,000 in 
the manures they purchased for the tobacco 
and other crops. We are making an effort in 
the .same direction. Our iKu>r, worn out lands 
have invited the enemy to our doors. Your 
State, with its rich lands, is undergoing ini- . 
poverislinient. In another generation, you 
will iirobably mark on the thermometer of 
luoduction, as low a degree as ounselves. Wc 
have only antedated you in squandering the 
organic wealth of oin- land. — Yours truly, J. 
I. W.. (MkojaviUe, MiL, Dec. 24. 1877. 

I'ov The Lancastkr Farmer. 

The tendency of fanning and kindred occu- 
pations seems to lean towards specialties. 
Like in trades, I siqijiose greater proficiency 
is thus acquired by the individual, but unlike 
in trades, any tmtoward circumstances are 
accoiiipanied with many times more disastrous 
results; as commonly all the ca|)ital pos.sessed, 
and perhaiis a great deal borrowed, is em- 
barked in the enterprise. 

Many sharp men engage in these specialties 
with the purpose to make money when the 
lidi' is rising, but quit as soon as there is any 
sign of ebbing, but in most there is no 
sign of this ebbing any more than there is a 
sign of a coming financial crash — there is a 
sudden downfall in prices fhrough over-pro- 
duction or other causes, and the iiroduet that 
had liefore jiaid well on the investment, is now 
the cause of far greater loss than the gains of 
previous years. And to make bad worse, 
tiiese very men, when such an event hap]>ens, 
instead of getting out of the business as best 
they can. reason thus : "'Xow this is a pretty 
mes.'>, but there is tlie consolation that I have 




fared as well as the rest — am disgusted — won- 
der if the others have an intention of quitting. 
I believe that most of them will, and com- 
mence on something else. Shouldn't wonder 
but what this will be the case, and then there 
will be a rise in prices. Guess I will try it 
another lick." 

And he does try another "lick," but hosts 
of otliers have djue this also, and the conse- 
quence is there is a still further decline in 
prices, sweeping away all but the tirmest. 
This was the case in the hop business, in Wis- 
consin, a few years ago. Hops had been 
bringing thirty to forty cents n pound, paying 
extraordinary profits and attracting many 
into the business, until at last there was an 
over-supi)ly, and prices fell below the paying 
point. The course of reasoning indicated 
above, was adoi)ted by many, and the conse- 
quence was still lower prices, and in the third 
year of the decline, I believe some were sold 
as low as live and seven cents a pound for the 
new crops, and two and three cents for the 
cl I (one old) crop. Great distress re- 
sulted in the hop districts, as not only the 
farmeis failed, but also merchants, who ad- 
vanced goods on long credits in expectation 
of being paid when money came in from crops 

In this county the tobacco fever is raging 
at present, ;\nd there is scarcely any doubt 
but what there will be another hop story, with 
the variation of a dilference in crop and terri- 
tory, and yet there will be more than this 
difference. As is well known, hops are at 
their best and consequently at the highest 
price just after they are harvested and until a 
new crop comes in ; the one year old crop sel- 
dom brings more tliau one-tliird to one-half 
what the new incoming crop can be sold for, 
and when two or tliree years old is scarcely 
looked at. Tobacco, on the contrary, when 
cased, becomes more valuable for a number of 
years, in comparison to the new crop, but just 
here the danger is the greater, for there may 
be a large accumalatiou before prices shovv 
any slacking off, but when the downward 
course has begun it will be a long time before 
bottom is reached. Of course the reasoning 
on the hop question will be applied to the 
tobacco, iiud it will be a few years over- raising 
before tljt re is a halt called; and to make mat" 
ters wort e tobacco is a somewhat easier though 
not less costly crop to raise than hops, when 
laised anf tended as it now is. This will 
tempt new districts to come in, and such dis- 
tricts are proverbial for careless handling, but 
Ihey may make what thf,y consider pretty fair 
protits ai:d continue to raise this low quality 
and throwing so much on the market, tliough 
much of it would be only called "stulf" by 
the more experienced growers, help to depress 
the prices of all but perhaps the very finest 

This crash in toliacco may not happen for 
years, particularly if otlier" crops are fairly 
renmnerative, but should tliese latter bring 
low prices for some years, there will then be 
attention turned to the better paying one of 
tobacco, and this is one of the crops that can- 
not bear the increase of area that wheat, corn 
or cotton can. 1 believe that the oidy safe 
coiu-se for the farmers of this county and 
other tobacco growing districts lies iu less 
acreage and better farming. 

The raising of sheeii for their wool has at- 
tracted a great deal atteutiim in parts of the 
far west for a number of years and there 
have been individuals wlio counted them by 
the thousands. Several times witliin our re- 
collection has wool fallen to such low prices 
that whole flocks have been slaughtered for 
pelts, in some cases the tallow biing saved, iu 
others not. Tliis killing is not to be con- 
founded with that whicli is done to work oft' 
old sheep, whose best days are over, and are 
therefore consianed to the tallow kettle, as 
there can be more money made by this course 
than to keep them. Aside from the waste of 
good meat, many condemn this on the score 
of inhumanity, ba' the same plea could be 
nrged in favor of supcianuuated horses, which 
are usually killed when their working days 

are over, or when there is a loss in keeping 
them longer. 

Just now there is an unusual interest taken 
in chickens, &c., and one^can scarcely take 
up a paper devoted professedly to agriculture 
without seeing the headings: "Profit in 
Raising Fowls," "Profit in Raising Egn-s " 
"Profit made from a Dozen Hens," &c. Some 
of these articles are written by persons who 
have really made money from raising fowls or 
eggs, or that have known others to do so ; but 
there are also many articles sent in lo the papers 
by fanciers who raise and sell a particular 
breed and recommend these as the only ne 
2)lus ultra for all purposes, or the only kind 
out of which profit is sure when raised for 
market fowls, or when raised for eggs. My 
make up may be at fault, but I am always 
suspicious when a particular thing is so 
strongly urged to the exclusion of all others 
of the same kind. There is no doubt tiiat 
many of those that go into the business of 
exclusively raising fowls, will find in this as 
in ail other business ventures, that the sun 
does not shine all the time. 

It may be claimed by some that specialties 
are a necessity in some parts, as nothing else 
can be raised that will pay. This may be in- 
deed the case in a few, very few, places, luit 
may not the majority of cases be the result 
of popidar (sectional) opinion, and not based 
ou real and trustworthy experiments '? 

When we look to tlie rice fields of Carolina, 
the cotton acres of the "Cotton Belt," the 
sugar cane bottoms of Louisiana, or any 
other place where specialties are carried on to 
the exclusion of nearly all other farm produc- 
tion, we find that the few become vastly 
wealthy ; some make a living but the majority 
remain poor, and the majority of people in 
such districts are bound to remain poor; for 
those that have been more successful will in 
time possess the lands, and they or their 
children will be at the beck of the few who 
have made a specialty pay. 

It may be claimed by some that introduc- 
ing the cultivation or raising of something 
new to the district is rather risky, on account 
of ignorance in cultivation, harvesting and 
disposing. This might have been the case 
years ago, but now there is hardly a product 
raised that has not a special treatise thereon 
l)y which any ordinarily intelligent person 
can learn all the ins and outs of the same, and 
the only contingencies that must be .settled 
by the undertaker are climate, soil and situa- 

Variety is the antidote of the poison — 
specialty, and in the district where the great- 
est variety is raised will be comparatively the 
greatest number of the class of well-to-d<i and 
independent farmers found. Another happy 
result from viiriety will be that the area of 
land possessed will become less and less, as in 
a \'ariety one man cannot oversee so much. 
This will make a closer neigliborhood, land 
will rise in value with the increase of conve- 
niences, such as churches, schools and stores, 
and individuals possessing small farms who 
have not made much money, but a good liv- 
ing merely, will find as old age comes on that 
they arc really pretty well off, on account of 
the increased value of their possessions. — A. 

B. K. 


FoH The Lancaster Farmer. 

This disease, so common among fowls of 
late years, is not, in my estimation, neces- 
sarily fatal. It may continue on the premises 
for years and break out occasionally among 
the fowls, with but little loss, if proper care is 
extended to them. In this disease, an ounce of 
preventive is worth far more tlian a pound of 
cure. A flock of common fowls, especially, 
win and do become naturalized to the disease, 
so that but few cases prove fatal, though the 
whole flock are somewhat affected by it; as 
for turkeys, and the web-footed family, I can 
not speak, 

I have a cheap and simple remedy for the 
prevention and cure of cholera, which I can 

recommend to the readers of The Farmer 

as one, if properly used, that will always 

prove effectual. If the disease is bad among 

them, and there are many deaths, tupentiue 

should be poured quite fi-eely on their perch, 

if they roost iu a house, that they may be 

compelled to breathe its fumes during the 

night. All whole grain, particularly corn, 

should be kept out of their reach as much as 

possible ; and feed them twice a day, with a 

wet feed composed principally of wheat bran, 

with the addition of a little corn meal to 

make the particles adhere better, and render 

the food more edible. This food should always 

be wet, in part at least, by water that has had 

asafoetida in it. For this purpose, a small 

lump of this gum should be kept in a quart 

bottle, fllled with water, and one quart of this 

water will contain a sufficiency of asafcetida 

for one feed. Under this treatment the deaths 

will rapidly decrease, and in less than a week, 

though the disease may still prevail to some 

extent, yet no deaths iuay occur. The cure 

behig now eftected, a return can be prevented 

by using this kind of food occasionally, at 

least once in every two weeks, or every week, 

particularly iu the spring and fall, when the 

disease is most likely to prevail. Tliis food 

is the cheapest that can be provided for a 

flock of fowls, and if they were fed two or 

three times a week with this kind of food, I 

am confident that no deaths will ever occur 

from cholera.— IT. M. W., Fulton, 1st mo. id, 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
Were it not for the great prejudice to 
Guineas, on account of their cruelty to other 
poultry and their disposition to wander afar 
from home, they would certainly be one of our 
most popular barnyard fowls. As it is, we 
consider that the Guinea is judged of much 
more serious drawbacks than it possesses. 
Both the faults named can, to a great degree, 
be overcome — the first by kind treatment and 
liy hatching the eggs under hens. This also 
has t!)e eifect of making them more domestic, 
and then, if they have secluded nests, or there 
are bushes or coarse grass near Ijy, where they 
can make their own nests, there will be little 

trouble on account of their roaming. Now, 
for the merits of the Guineas — no donresli- 
cated fowl furnishes such rich, game-like 
flesh, or is so prized by epicures. Their eggs 
also iiartake of an elegant, rich flavor, highly 
esteemed. Wliile their eggs are not so large 
as ordinary hen's eggs, yet they are pro- 
duced in great abundance, which more than 
compensates. In rearing young chicks they 
should be fed very often, as they have small 
crops and can digest only a small amount at 
each time. Guineas make excellent " watch 
dogs," so to speak, giving ample notice of the 
apiiroach of hen-roost roljbers. In the wild 
state they mate in pairs, but a domesticated 
male will readily serve a couple of hens. The 
small cut given lierewith was drawn from life 
of a couple of snow white Guineas. These, 
with their spotless plumage, form a most 
pleasing contrast on the green grass of the 
lawn or field. Tliey are more rare than the 
common pearl Guineas, and while they have 
no extra merit, yet their beauty will commend 
them to favorable notice. — W. Atlec Burpee. 

i^ Readers of The F.-vrmer will do well 
by consulting our club rates. See page 5. 





Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society. 

Tbc Lancaslcr Comity AirriculUiriU iiml Ilorllciil- 
tural Society was lielii 11 meeting in the Atlieiueum 
library rooiu on Monday afternoon, January 7tli, 

The following mcmhers and vinilors were present : 
Calvin Cooper, president, Bird-in-Haud ; Johnson 
Miller, secretary, Warwiek ; Levi W. tiroH', West 
Earl; Hcury >f. Engle, Marietta ; Martin I). Ken- 
dig, Manor; Casper Ililler, Conestogu ; Simon P. 
Eliy, eity ; Daniel Smeyeh, city ; Jacob liollinger, 
Warwick; Win. MeConisey, city; Hcin-y Kurtz, 
Moniit Joy; Heiny Shitl'ner Leacock ; C. L. Hun- 
seeker, Manbcini ; Levi S. Reist. Oregon ; L. Wit- 
mer, I'aradise ; Peter 8. Heist, Jlanbeim ; Prof. S. 
8. Ratlivon, eity ; D. L. Resb, Bird-iii-IIaiid ; Hem-y 
Erb, Maubeim ; B.Frank Laiidis, East Lampeter; 
Wm. Bush, Uruinore ; John Moore, Mount Joy; 
Christian Hostettcr, Eden ; Samuel Erb, Warwick ; 
John Miller, Oregon ; D. S. Dysart, eity ; John M. 

Stehinan, East Hemplield ; E. S. Hoover, ; 

David G. Swartz, city; I. L. Laudis, Manheim ; J. 
F. Hess, Mauheun; Hon. David Mumma, State 
Senator, Harrisburg. ^ 

On motion the reading of the minutes of last 
meeting was dispensed with. 

Wm. McComsey, from the committee appointed to 
make inquiries as to whether a more eligible and 
convenient room in which to hold the meetings of 
the society could be secured, reported that the Board 
of Trade Room, No. ;i8 East King street, could be 
had at a rent of §-'.50 for for each meeting, includ- 
ing fuel, furniture and the services of a janitor. 
The room is large, plasaut aud nicely carpeted. If 
a change of meeting-place should be made the com- 
mittee would recommend the Board of Trade room, 
but it might be advisable before doing so to look at 
the condition of the society's finances, and see if they 
will warrant tl.e proposed change, as the society has 
not heretofore paid any rent, and has been some- 
what negligent in tlie management of its finances. 

On motion of H. M. Engle, the further considera- 
tion of the matter was postponed until after the 
report of the treasurer shall have been read. 

On motion the presentation of crop reports was 
not made, there being little or no change since last 
month . 

H. M. Engi.e reported the rainfall for November 
to have been 7:).16 inches and for December 15.10 

Mr. C. L. HtJNSECKER read an interesting essay 
on manures. (See page 7 of this number.) 

Mr. Levi S. Keist luid not looked up the exact 
meaning of the word "manure," but had examined 
into the meaning of the word dung. It is a popular 
belief that this word means ouly the excrement of 
animals, but this is a mistake. Dung means any- 
thing that enriches soil, and comes from a (ierman 
word meaning to serve. It means anything that 
will help the farmer liy improving his ground.* 

Mr. Kl'utz said that if a farmer had plenty of 
burnyard manure he could raise any kind of grain, 
and it was wisdom to make all tlic manure possible. 
You cannot get loo much of it. It is to our interest 
to have a large manure pile. 

Mr. HiLLER thought the essay was very good aud 
to the point. Wc are just beginiiing to know the 
value of manure. Now we all have toljacco on the 
brain. He did not know bow long this would last or 
what we would profit by it, Ijut one thing we would 
learn — how to cultivate and manure properly. And 
if we learn that it will certainly be of great use to 

On motion, a vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. 
Hunsecker for his essay. 

Mr. H. M. Engle then read a humane essayon tlie 
"Care of Domestic Animals." (see page 6 of this 

S. P. Eby' agreed with all the essayist had said 
about the cruelty and foolishness of those who 
neglect or missuse their stock ; but he thought there 
were some who erred on the other side by overfeed- 
ing them and keeping them too fat, thus making 
more uncomfortable and more likely to contract 

The matter was further discussed by Henry 
Kurtz and P. S. Reist, both of whom agreed in the 
main with the essayist. 

On motion of J. L. Witmer, the further considera- 
tion of the matter was postponed to enable the so- 
ciety to go into an election of officers for the ensuing 

Previous to which the president read the usual an- 
nual address. (See page 5 of this number.) 

The address was received with applause and a 
vote of thanks awarded the president. 

On motion of Wm. McComsey, Calvin Cooper was 
unanimously re-elected president, notwithstanding 
that gentleman's earnest appeal to select some other 
aud abler presiding officer. 

S. P. Eby and Prof. S. S. Rathvon were appointed 

♦Wethiuk Mr. Rpiat is mistukeu iu this. Websler'a Una- 
bridged Dictionary gives the rteiiuition as follows: Dung — 
The excrement of animals.— Z'rf. 

a committee to audit the treasurer's account and re- 
port the result. After examining the vouchers the 
committee reported the books correct, the balance in 
the treasury being iV.\.Hi. The committee further 
stated that the society would receive from the Coun- 
ty Commissioners a gratuity of S>:i9.50. 

On motion the cliair appointed Peter S. Keist, 
Henry Kurtz, M. D. Keiidig, J. L. Witmer and 
Ephralm Hoover a committee to select and report to 
the society the other officers for the ensidng year. 

The committee after consultation reported the 
following, and they were unanimously chosen : 

Vice Presidents — H. M. Engle, Casper Hillcr, Levi 
S. Reist, J. C. Linvill, William McComsey. 

Recording Secretary — J. F. Witmer. 

Corresponding Secretary — Johnson Miller. 

Treasurer — Levi W. (irotV. 

Entomologist — Prof. S. S. Rathvon. 

Librarian— S. P. Eliy. 

Botanist — J. S. Staull'er. 

Business Committee — M. D. Kendig, Ephraim 
Hoover, Jacob Bollinger. 

Messrs. Henry M. Engle, Jacob Bollinger and B. 
F. Landis, appointed to test and re[X)rt on fruits ex- 
hibited, made the following report : 

Three varieties of oranges, from St. Augustine, 
Florida, by J. F. Hess , common grajie and Manda- 
rin, two specimens measuring from lifteen to sixteen 
inches in circumference. Three specimens of apples 
Cart House and Seedling Rambo, by Levi S. Reist. 
Eleven varieties of apples from Kansas, by J. H. 
Moore, very fine ; among which are Rome Beauty, 
Belle Flower, Cart House, Swaar, .lennison, (iolden 
Pippin, and others new to your committee. Pears — 
Beurre Clairgau, and one for a name by Daniel 
Smyech. H. M. Enoi.e, 

B. Frank Landis. 

The question of changing the place of meeting 
having again come up, S. P. Eby moved that the 
society continue to meet in the Athenseum. 

Johnson Miller moved to amend by leasing the 
board of trade rooms. 

After a long and spirited debate, in which Messrs. 
Eby, Kurtz, L. W. Reist, Engle, Swartz, .MoComsey, 
Kendig and Hunsecker took part, Mr. Miller's 
amendment was rejected and Mr. Eby's motion 

A bill for $2 due Jacob Heliue, janitor, was ordered 
to be paid, aud Mr. Heline was re-elected janitor so 
long as the society continues to meet in the Athenaeum. 

Messrs. C. L. Hunsecker, S. P. Eby 
Swartz were appointed a committee to confer with 
the city authorities, the Athemeum and Linniean 
societies, and make such arrangements for leasing 
the room as may be necessary. 

The chair called attention to the meeting of the 
State Board of Agriculture at Harrisburg, on Janu- 
ary 2o, and of the Pennsylvania J'ruit Growers' 
.Society at Williams|iort, on January 16. 

Mr. Engle presented a petition for the passage of 
an act of assembly enlarging the powers of the State 
Board of Agriculture. 

After discussion and explanation of the projxjsed 
law, a motion was made and carried that the olTieera 
sign the petition in the name of the society, and that 
members of the society sign it in their individual 

A Little Spice by Way of Variety. 

I. L. Landis wished to make a statement and 
have it answered. Some three or four months ago a 
member of this society wished to exhibit a useful 
agricultural implement and the chair would not per- 
mit him to do so. At a following meeting a si ranger, 
who does not belong to the society, brought before it 
another agricultural implement, and he was permit- 
ted to exhibit it and explain its merits. Mr. Landis 
would like to know why this discrimination was 
made in favor of an outsider and against a member 
of the society. 

President Cooper explained that when Mr. 
Landis offered to exhibit a patent post-hole digger, 
he (the president) had told bim that it would not be 
permitted while the society was in business session, 
but that if he could get an audience during the re- 
recess, while the society was engaged in social inter- 
course, he was welcome to exhibit the implement. 
M. the 8ubse(iuent meeting, when Mr. Sutton exhib- 
ited a model of Mr. Giotl's improved grain drill, be 
had previously obtained unaniiiious consent of the so- 
ciety to do so. The president said he had always 
ruled against perraitliugagentstoexhibitand explain 
patent articles during the session of the society, be- 
cause he believed a great deal of time would be 
thus consumed and that the regular business of the 
society would be interfered with. 

Mr. Landis replied that if this was an agricul- 
tural and horticultural society, every new and valua- 
ble invention relating to those suljjects should be in- 
troduced aud explained for the benefit of members. 
They were of as much importance, at least, as the 
fruits and vegetables which are regularly exhibited 
and reported upon by a special committee. 

.Mr. Engle said he concurred with Mr. Landis 
that there was as much impropriety in showing 
fruits and vegetables as agricultural" im])lements. 
They often interfere with other business, and though 
he likes to see fine fruits, he had often thought it 
would be better to dispense with their exhibit. If 

the society permitted ogents to exhibit at its meet- 
ings all the implements or other patents they chose 
fu bring, the entire time of the society wotdd be thus 
taken U|i to the exclusion of other business. 

.Mr. Exoi.K suggested that, as the society Is now 
entering upon a new year, It would be well lo take 
measures to cut out business for the year, and have 
it pnlilisheil beforehand, so that members and others 
would know what subjects Jwere to be eoneidered at 
any particular meeting, and prepare themselves 

Senator Mumma. 

Levi S. Reist Introduced State Senator Mumma, 
of Dauphin county, aud Mr. Engle called upon him 
for a speech . 

.Mr. .\li!MMA responded at some length, saying that 
he had been a farmer for many years, though he 
was not now actively engaged in that jmrsult. He 
gave a brief statement of his own experience in 
planting orchards, growing tobacco and using fer- 
tilizers. He congratulated Lancaster county on 
having such a live agricultural society, and encotir- 
agcd the society to continue its good work. Ho re- 
garded the Lancaster county tobacco as being the 
best in the country and the most profitable crop that 
could be grown. Societies such as this are the best 
means of ilissemimiting useful iuformatioD among 
agriculturists. If farmers thoroughly understood 
the nature of tlieii- soil, buudi'cds of thousands of 
dollars now wasted in the misapplication of manures 
might be saved, and larger clops grown at much less 

The chair appointed M. D. Kendig, Casper Ililler 
and P. S. lieist delegates to the fruit growers' con- 
vention, Williamsport. 

On motion of Mr. Witmer, a paper on "Soiling," 
by Levi W. Groff, deferred at a former meeting, was 
selected for consideration at next meeting. 

Tlie president announced that iin iiileresling paper 
(m grape culture, by a practical grape grower, would 
also be ijresented at next meeting. 

The following question was chosen for general dis- 
cussion at next meeting : 

"How shall the farm be conducted to produce the 
best pecuniary results i" 

Till' following quest ions were referred : 

"What produces abortion in cows?" Referred to 
Johnson Miller. 

"When is the proper time to ajiply barnyard 
manure, and how '." Referred to Jacob Bollinger, 


A stated meeting of the I.,aiica6ter Comity Tobacco 
({rowers' Association was held in the Athcnieum, on 
.Monilay afternoon, December 17th. The following 
members and visitors were jiresent : 

M. D. Kendig, president. Manor; W. L. Hershey, 
secretary, East llempHeld ; Henry Shiffner, Leacock ; 
A. U. Yeager, East Lampeter; J. .M. Joliuston, city ; 
A. P. Mcllvaiue, I'aradise ; A.H.Suininy, Manbelm ; 
Harry Mayer, East llempfield ; J. (i. IJush, Willow 
Street; J. M. Frantz, Lancaster; Henry Kurtz, 
.Mount .Joy ; Wasbini;ton Hershey, West Hemplield ; 
John Brady, .Millersville ; .Michael Landis, {..aueaster; 
Elias Hersbey, Paradise ; A. C. Stone, Salisbury ; M. 
G. Miller, Manbelm ; Jr.eob llcss, Manheim town- 
ship; Moses Garber, .Mount Joy: S. G. Garher, 
Mount Joy ; Christian Musscr, Earl ; .John Senor, 
Willow .Street; C. L. Hunsecker, Manheim ; John 
Kean, Bart; A. H. Cain, Christiana ; M. A. Frantz, 
Dauphin county; .\ndrcw F. Frantz, Lancaster; 
Amos i;. Frantz, Waynesboro, Franklin county; 
Samuel Wolf, Akron; Samuel Bushong, Cpper Lea- 
cock; Mr. Lefevrc, Lampeter; J. M. .Staufl'er, New 
Holland; J. Hartman Hershey, Kohrerstown; Frank 
R. Dilfenderffer, eity ; Clare Carpenter, cily ; Abra- 
ham Weideuer, Nen'syille. 

Crop Reports. 

Crop reports being called for, Henry Kiutz, of 
Mount Joy, said the tobacco in his section is nearly 
all stripped, and is good iu color and quality. Some 
farmers have sold a little and otlieri" have had 
good offers. One man received ;iO cents for a lot ; 
another L'O cents round ; another, 5, 10, aud 18 cents. 
In the neighborbood of Akron he saw some good 
tobacco and also in other sections of the county 
which he had visited. 

Mr. A. H. YEAiiEH, of East Lampeter, sold about 
one half the crop was strippeii. It looks very well. 
He knew of none being sold, but the buyers had 
been around looking at it. 

W. L. Heksuey, of northern East Hemplield, 
said two-thirds of the crop in that district Is stripped. 
Has seen no buyers yet. The crop Is in good condi- 

Utilizing Tobacco Stalks. 

"What is the best method of utilizing tobacco 
stalks '■" was the question referred at last meeting to 
A. H. Summy, but that gentleman not being present 
President M. D. Kendig said in answer to it, that he 
would spread the stalks on the grass lawn as a top 
dressing. They will kill noxious weeds, enrich the 
soil and protect the grass. He would also place the 
stalks around the buts of shrubs and young trees to 
keep the mice away. If he had any left he would 



[ January, 

cut up and use them as a concentrated manure by 
mixing: them with hen manure and putting them in 
the rows of'tlie new tobacco. 

Henrv Shiffnek had disposed of the sialics in 
three difTerent ways : a part of tlicm he put on tlie 
manure pile; another part he cut up tine, spread 
over the ground and plowed under for the next year's 
crop ; and a third portion lie burned, and ajiplied the 
ashes to the land. The result was equally good in 
each case. 

John Sf.neu, Willow Street, said that he gen- 
erally hauled o\it the saltl<6, spread them on the 
ground, and plowed them down. Last year after 
plowing a tract of giound he made furrows with a 
shovel 'harrow and plowed the stalks under. He 
found that they did as well as the bainyard 

Lime on Tobacco Land. 
"Is lime beneficial in the culture of tobacco, and 
how should it be applied to produce the best results ?" 
■was the next taken up for discussion. 

Heki!Y Kurtz had no doubt that lime was an 
excellent fertilizer for tobacco. His plan was to 
spread manure on the land, plow it down, and dress 
on top with lime. One hundred bushels per acre 
was not too much. He generally put it on in the 
spring, but believed it would do belter if time could 
be spared to put it on the preceding fall . 

Henhy JShiffxer regarded lime as being very 
beneficial in the eultivat on of tobacco, and he 
thought that top dressing was the best way to apply 
it. Tobacco requires a great deal of moisture, and 
lime has a tendency to keep the ground moist. 

Sylvester Kennedy said that lime was the best 
of fertilizers. Its good effects are felt longer than 
those of any other manure. Ten or twelve years 
after lime has been ap])lied its action can still be 
seen in the soil. In Chester county and in the east- 
ern and southern parts of Lancaster county the 
copious use of lime is a necessity. They sow it on 
the ground and let it lie on top for a year or two 
before plowing it imder 

John Sener said that he derived more benefit 
by slacking the lime, spreading it broadcast and 
plowing it under at once. He had followed this plan 
for thirty years with good results. 

President Kendig spoke in favor of the free use 
of lime in the cultivation of toliacco, and believed 
that very strong barnyard manui-e had a tendency to 
produce coarse and undesirable leaves. 

Mr. Kennedy- said there was a gieat diiference in 
the quality of lime, and there should be dirt'erent 
modes of applying the difTerent qualities, as they 
will act difl'erent^iy on different kinds of soil. He 
knew that the yellow, sandy-looking lime would act 
quicker tlian the wliite Pequea lime, but that its 
ellects would not last half as long. He had noticed 
that crops liberally limed remained greener and 
matured less slowly than those on which no lime was 

Henry Kortz said that in his profession as a 
tanner he had occasion to use large quantities of 
lime, and that his experience was that the while lime 
was much stronger than the yeUow. By using one 
half the quantity of the former the hair could he 
reiuoved from hides much more rapidly than by the 
use of vellow lime. He believed its action on the 
soil was similar, and that white lime would show 
results twice as long as yellow lime. He thought 
the white lime of Mount Joy was much stronger 
than that of Pequea. 

A. H. Yeaoer agreed that white lime was the 
stronger, hut he feared it was too strong for some 
soils and did more harm than good. 

A. P. M(_Ir.vAiNE had used both white and gray 
lime in dill'erent parts of the same field. The gray 
acted much more rapidly and for the first year or so 
showed the best results, but it soon ran out and had 
to be renewed, while the white lime, acting more 
slowly, lasted much longer. He would use a much 
smaller proportion of white than of gray lime. The 
latter would be preferable for temporary tenants, as 
it would act at once, but the .white lime was better 
for land-owners. 

.\t this point of the proceeding Mr. A. H. Summy 
entered the room, and, heino: <'allcd upon answer the 
question as to the best mode of utilizing tobacco 
stalks, said that his only experience in the matter 
was that, having a bad plot of ground on which 
nothing hut sorrel would grow, he strewed it with 
tobacco stalks, plowed them down and planted corn. 
He got a pretty good crop, and this was followed 
next year by a first-rate crop of tobacco. 

The discussion of the lime question was resumed. 
Mr. C. L. Hunsecker said that if all soils were alike 
the proper quantity of lime to be used niiirht be 
easily deternuned ; but the great diflereuces in soil 
make the question one to be governed greatly by 
judgment and experience. While some farms have 
been ruined by the too free use of lime, others have 
been greatly benefited. When judiciously applied 
he believed it to be the best of fertilizers. It tends 
to keep the ground cool and hastens the maturity of 
some crops as wheat and oats. The theory that good 
tobacco cannot be grown without barnyard manure 
he looked upon as "all fudge." 
Michael f ka^tz, of Uarrisburg, had been in the 

lime business and shipped great quantities of it. 
Where white and gray lime came into competition 
the latter was regarded as being about one-half the 
value of the former. He had not had much exper- 
ience in tobacco-growing, hut as lime was known to 
keep the soil cool and moist, and as tobacco required 
coolness and moisture, he had no doubt that great 
benefit would result from its use. 

A. M. Frantz thought the subject a very impor- 
tant one and deserving of a more critical discussion 
than was possible in a public meeting. It should be 
scientifically and ehenucally considered, and made 
the subject of an essay by some one fully competent 
for the task. He does not think, as been said to- 
day, that lime tends to mature wheat or oats, but 
rather that it retards its maturing. He had limed a 
part of a field of oats and left the other unlimcd, 
and on that part which was limed the crop did not 
mature as rapidly as the other. 

C. L. Hunsecker looked upon lime as the great- 
est of fertilizers for almost any crop. In answer to 
a remark made by one of the speakers he said that 
lime has no effect in producing mildew in wheat. 
There is less trouble from mildew now than there 
was thirty o.i forty years ago, though ten times as 
much lime is now' used as was then. He eulogized 
the "Pennsylvania Dutch" farmers who had done so 
much lor the county by their practical farming, and 
stated that the rich" Irish men around Lancaster, who 
boasted of their fine farms, had been taught how to 
farm by their German neighbors. 

On motion of Harry Mayer, Mr. Hunsecker was 
requested to prepare an essay on the subject of "ap- 
plication of lime to laud" and read it before society. 
Mr. Hunsecker consented to do so. 

Sylvester Kennedy said in reply to Mr. Hun- 
secker that the Irish and Scotch-Irish farmers of 
Lancaster county were fully as intelligent and pro- 
gressive as their Dutch neighbors, and their farms 
would show as good results as can be found any- 
where among the Dutch. The soil of the lower sec- 
tion of the county settled by the Scotch-Irish was 
naturally thinner and poorer than that of the central 
and upper townships, and required a different treat- 
ment in cultivation. He mentioned a plan of liming 
adopted by a Jersey friend of his, on poor, thin land. 
In the spring he limed it and let the lime lie on top 
two years. Then he put it in corn and sowed it in 
grass. He got a pretty good crop of corn, while the 
grass grew very rank.' On the following October he 
plowed down the grass and .sowed wheat, getting a 
very good crop. Mr. Kennedy believed the plan to 
be a good one, and recommended its adoption by 
those having thin soils. 

A. H. Summy knew of a ease in which a man had 
purchased a tract of worn-out York county land, on 
which nothing would thrive. He put on it 100 
bushels of lime to the acre, and got a good crop of 
corn the first year. Mr. Summy followed his exam- 
ple by liminir in the same proportion a barren tract 
on Chestnut Hill. He raised a good crop of corn 
the first year, and the next year put the ground in 
tobacco, and had a fine crop. 

Tobacco in Bulk. 

A. P. MoIlvaine, who had not had much experi- 
ence in curing tobacco, asked if it would be injured 
by heatina: in bulk, and if so how the heating could 
be prevented. 

Mr. Kurtz advised that it be shifted around until 
it cooled oft", and then repack it. 

Mr. Sms'TNER said tobacco would not sweat much 
in bulk if it were properly dried before stripping. 
A mistake made by many growers is that they strip 
too soon. It is better that it should not sweat in the 
cellar, for if it does it will be apt to smell of the 
cellar. The sweating may be prevented by prop- 
ping up the hands as they' lie in bulk, by putting 
shingles under the butts of them. He thinks the 
tobacco should not be taken out of bulk and scat- 
tered around, as recommended by Mr. Kurtz, after it 
begins to sweat, as the leaf will become coarse and 
rough. It is not so apt to sweat if the bulk in which 
it is put down is not too large, say not more than 
three feet in height. 

President Kenijio said that on one occasion 
before he had much experience in curing tobacco he 
had his crop pnt down in bulk about five feet in 
height and in good condition. It began to sweat, 
ami, becoming alarmed lest if should rot, he called 
in a neighbor who had had more experience. His 
neighbor said, " Let it alone, it will come out all 
right." Mr. K. determined to let one-half of it 
alone and repack the other h.alf. That which lie had 
not disturbed, and which he feared would rot, cured 
finely, while which he had repacked became 
rouirh and worse. 

Mr. Suiffner said that last year there were but 
few chances to strip tobacco until very late in the 
season. The result was there were no complaints of 
sweating in bulk. This year the weather has been 
favorable for stripping ; much of the crop has been 
stripped too earl V, aud we hear many complaints of 
its sweating. He had already stripped some of bis 
own tobacco, but he believed it would be better not 
to strip till after the holidays. 

J. G. Hush favored early stripping if the tobacco 
was sufficiently dry to warrant its being stripped. 

He presented a hand or two of his own tobacco which 
was very fine. 

Bills Paid. 

The following bills being approved by the Finance 
Committee were ordered to be paid : Jacob Hcline, 
services as janitor, §5 ; subscription to N. Y. Tobacco 
Leaf, $i.lO ; subscription to the U.S. Tobacco Jour- 
nal, §2. 

Business for Next Meeting. 

The following questions were announced for dis- 
cussion at next meeting : 

"Is the manure made from feeding grain with 
straw aud hay any richer or stronger than that made 
in the stable with the same substances without 
grain?" Referred to Jacob M. Frantz. 

"What variety of tobacco should we cultivate?" 
For general discussion. 

The committee appointed at a former meeting to 
visit the principal tobacco growers in different sec- 
tions of the county, and report to the society, re- 
ported progress and asked to be continued, as they 
had not yet been able to complete their labors. They 
promised to report at next meeting. 

The President called attention to the fact that at 
the next stated meeting the society would elect 
officers for the ensuing year. He also stated that a 
few of the members had neglected to pay their annual 
dues, and hoped they would come prepared to settle 

On motion, adjourned. 


The annual meeting of the Limiiean Society was 
held on Saturdiiy, December 29th, 1877. President 
Rev. J. S. Stahr being absent, Vice President Prof. 
T. R. Baker took the chair. Nine members present. 
After collecting dues and reading of the minutes, 
the donations to the museum w^ere examined. First was 
one bottle containing six Salamanders, which were 
found in the city limits, by Masters Jas. Stewart aud 
Jas. Kelly , who deserve encouragement for the interest 
they take in natural history. These specimens have 
the brick red dorsal stripe, and arc not rare under 
stones, and are named by Prof. Cope, Dcsmagiialhns 
ochropkcm. The novelty is in finding them out and 
lively so late in the year as December 28 ; hut this 
mild winter, so far, has brought out the "daudcliou" 
and blue-field violets. Mr. James Stewart, Sr., 
when in Northern Texas, last fall, obtained a large 
fossil-like part of a Ram's horn, which he donated ; 
Dana, in his Geology, page ■172, says some of the 
"Ammonite" found beyond the Mississippi, are over 
three feet in diameter. The genus Orioccras, which 
name refers to a ram's horn, aud has an open coil, 
aud his Figure 786 of 0. Diivulli, comes very close to 
this specimen. An immalurcd fruit of the Banana, 
grown in the hot-house of Geo. O. Hensel, the Masa 
snpiendu of the Palm family, was preseuted. .Mrs. 
Gibbons presented some fossil shells and belemnites 
found near Vfoodstown, New Jersey. Quite a varie- 
ty of ibssils are found abundant in many of the 
arenaceous beds, called Green mnid or 7Harl, which 
sometimes contain ninety per ceut. of a greenish 
silicate of iron and potash, with a trace of phos- 
phate of lime ; hence valuable for fertilizing pur- 
poses. She also presented beautiful thin, tran.spar- 
cut shells, formingthe entire external eoveringof the 
young of the Hoffce-shoe crab, Linmhis pohjphciitns, 
which are as prettv as they are curious. Mrs. Dr. 
Sarah Taylor, of \Voodstown, New Jersey, sends us 
per -Mrs. Gibbons, what she called a leaf and fruit 
pods of the Egyptian Lotus or sacred bean of India 
(said to have sprung fromseeds thrown into a pond), 
which a gentleman brought from the Kiver Nile. 
Mr. Staulfer said all this might be true, only that the 
Xeiumbiuia hilemii, which grows in the Delaware 
river, known as water chinquapin, and sometimes 
called lotus, and sacred bean, is so much like the 
specimen, that he doubts the story. Dr. Gray does 
say that the Nebimbmm Kpccioxnm or X Lotus, the 
sacred beau of India, is cultivated in choice conserva- 
tories. Now about a mill-pond, in New Jersey, Mrs. 
Gibbons had also a large full top of one of the tall 
growing comiiosite plants, called Alder in New Jer- 
sey. This is evidently a cacaliu. As the radical 
leaves aud cauline were absent, it wasnot deiermined 
whether it was Caculia atripHcifoUa, the great Indian 
plantain, or the O renifonnis. Both grow in New 
Jersey and attain a height of nine feet. Mr. Bolton 
also desired to know th(^ name of a LiUiaccous plant, 
that has small axillary flowers, and elongates the 
flaccid stem, until the c'nd bends down and sends up 
a tuft of leaves, propagating a new plant; flowers, 
minute ; no means to analyze them in their condi- 
tion without a fresh specimen. Other plants were 
discussed. S. S. Hathvou donated to the Historical 
branch a fancy Revolutionary dress buckle, also two 
envelopes containing twenty or more historical clip- 

To the Library was presented a copy of the U.S. 
Coast Snrvey for 1874. By request, Rev. J. H. 
Dnbbs, A. M., presented a copy of each of three 
several addresses, delivered bv hiin at various times 
on topics of genera! interest. The Lancaster 
Farmer for December, 1877, and sundry American 

and European Book Catalogues, from publishing 

houses, were presented. 




Papers Read. 

Misrellanooiis notes on Jcposits, liy S. S. nathvnn, 
No. 4S:^. Notes on rom;irkal)le niikl weallicr for 
Dceember, 1877, by Mrs. V. E. (iililions, No. 4S1. 
Mr. Wilnier P. Bolton rtiul ii piiper on tlie explora- 
tion of a eave near llic river in Maitic townsliip, 
nearly opjiosite to York Furnace, ealleil tlie"colU 
winil cave." Tliia is publisljeil in the present number 
of TiiK Fahmkh, page 4. Notations of a [{evolu- 
tionary relie on an olil-faBliioned dress "buckle" de- 
posited by S. 8. liatbvon, No. 4S.5. The annual re- 
ports of tbe Curators ami ici'ord of Secretary and 
Treasurer were read, Nos. 48(1, 487 and 488. 

ConsidcrinsT the few meuitiers that actually meet 
and keep the society alive, the limited workine 
material and the small incomeof ten cents per month 
per member (and this fee is withheld by many of the 
members) the progress of the society is snriirising. 
Here are object lessons of value to the community 
and pupils of the schools, if a public spirit could be 
aroused and made to see its utility, and eoinc to the 
front to aid and assist us to jilaee it in a more \iseful 
position, so as to he more available to the putilic. 

Keeeipts for the entire year, S44.U) ; balance of last 
year, :?l:i.44 ; expenses paid still leaves a balance of 
5l0.!l4 in the treasury. This was the time for clcet- 
ine new olliecrs for the ensuiujc ye;ir, and as no 
elcetioneeriiiii; or ambition was manifest, and all 
present holding ollice were willing to confer the 
honor on others, could such others liave been found, 
on motion the old olliecrs were nominated, and, no 
one ojiposini,', on eastini; the ballot, tlie result was: 

I'resideiil— Kev. J. S.'Stalir. 

Vice Presidents — Kev. J. II. Dubhs, Prof. J. B. 

Kecording Secretary— J. Stauffer. 

Assistant Secretary — Mrs. P. E. Gibbons. 

Corresponding .Secretary — Rev. D. Geissingcr. 

Treasurer — S. S. Rathvon. 
1 Librarian — Mrs. L. A. Zell. 

I* Curators— Messrs. C. A. Heinitsh, S. S. Kathvon 
and W. P. Bolton. 

Keys are wanted to some of the drawers, and on 
motion the treasurer was authorized to procure such 
keys as were needed, at the expense of the society. 

Under scientific gossip mention was made, with an 
expression of thanks, to the press for publishing our 
proceedings as a local matter, free of charge. 
Botanical, Geological and Historical questions were 
discussed by members present. On motion, ad- 
journed till Saturday, January 3iith, 187S. 

agrici7i7t uraL. 

Agricultural Outlook. 
Advance sheets of the reports of the department 
of agriculture show the enormous aggregate yield of 
three hundred and sixty million bushels of wheat 
for 1877, or lifly million more than ever before pro- 
duced. The corn jiroduct was thirteen hundred 
bushels with corresiiondingly large yicldsof oats and 
potatoes. The report states that there never was a 
greater abundance in the land.' Out of the wheat 
I'roduct, it is estimated, deducting for home con- 
^Mmption, that upwards of one hundreil and ten 
million bushels of wheat can be .spared for export. 
The largest export yet made in one year was ninety- 
one nnllion bushels, with an average of sixty-three 
million bushels. The department is also in receipt 
of information from the wheat producing sections of 
Euroi>e, from which it is ascertained that the wheat 
crop in Southwestern Europe which produces the 
largest amount of surplus, is good, and in Southern 
Russia amounting to twenty-live i)er cent, above the 
average crop. In Northwestern and Northern Eu- 
rope it is poor. Jt is also stated in communications 
from the Southern sections of Russia that if the 
war should stop shortly there will tie a large ship- 
ment, and that the shippers are now ready to take 
advantage of the first opportunity, (jrcat Britain, 
oll'ering the largest market for wheat, will, it is 
stated, require about one hundred million bushels of 
the present season's yield. American surplus wiil 
have, as usual, a demand in English markets, with 
an increase subject to the contingencies of the exist- 
ing struggle in Southwestern Europe being prolonged 
into another season. The department is also in re- 
ceipt of very flattering accounts of the eueourage- 
nienl which the great yield of last season is having 
upon every class of enterprise. The average of winter 
wheat for this year is greater than that of last year. 

A Portable Fence. 
A correspondent of the Contitry Gentleman 
writes : As far as my observation extends, the fol- 
lowing kind of fence is little used among farmers, 
notwithstanding it is very cheap and handy to have, 
for dividing a lield, enclosing stacks of hay or grain, 
or making enclosures for sheep or calves. I take 
three hewed or sawed sticks, four or Ave feet in 
length, placing one at each end of the boards that I 
am about to use. and one in the centre ; fasten them 
down securely for a platform. 1 then tiike 14-fpet 
hoards, G inches wide, (I prefer that length to 12 
or Ifi feet,) and lay them on this platform, leaving 
spaces between the boards of 7, t> and .5 inches. 1 
use three cross pieces, 4 feet long and .5 or tj inches 
wide, securely nailed with annealed or wrought nails, 

and clinched, placing one at each end and one in the 
centre. The bottom board will be five Inches from tlie 
ground, ami the section or panel will rest on the cross 
pieces. When putting up this fe ce, I let It hip the 
width of the cross pieces, and drive two stakes, one 
on each side of the jiancls, and fasten with withes, or 
wire, and I then have as gooil a fence as I want for 
turning stock. Where a fence is needed only for a 
short time, one stake is all that is necessary. Two 
men can dr.iw and bulM fifty rods fif this fence in a 
day, and not work very hard at that. This fence can 
be made in a different form where a man has plenty 
of short pieces of boards, say 'Ay^ or 4 feet long, by 
nailing them to two 'Z by 4inch scanllingR 14 feet 
long, leaving spaces between the pickets or boards I! 
inches wide. In loca'itics where fencing is scarce, 
and the farmer has not the means to fence his entire 
farm, this kind of fcneinir is very handy, as fields 
that arc oecuiiicd with grain can be stripped of theii' 
fences, and good enclosures made for the pastures, 
ami whenever other liclds are wanted for grazing 
this fence can be easily changed. 

Pulverizing Manure. 

A farmer in an adjoining town was harrowing his 
barley stubble the other day before jilowing. I asked 
him win he did so, and he f,aid it was to break the 
clods of manure as spread from the heaps. The idea 
is an excellent one, and worthy of adoption wherever 
possible. A large clod of manure has enouirh ma- 
terial to fertilize ten or twenty or more wheat plants, 
but if left unbroken it will probably be reached. by 
only one or two. The "patchy" appearance of wheat 
which has been recently manured is well known, and 
it results from the unequal distribution of the ma- 
nure. The grain is uneven, some places ripening 
earlier than others, and hence it cannot be harvesteil 
without loss. A more serious matter isthe waste of 
the manure itself. To be sure it is all in the field and 
will be available sometime, but that is not what the 
good farmer wants. It is said that it is better to 
have a nimble sixpence than a slow shilling, but in 
most farming operations it is getting a nimble shil- 
ling or a tardy sixpence. If a lot of lumpy manure 
is broken into pieces one-fourth as large as before, its 
direct value is increased four-fold. Before the crops 
have extracted the fertility of the dressing of ma- 
nure the farmer is or should be ready to supply them 
with more. I have no doubt that by the simple act 
of harrowing, that manure more than doubled its 
value for next year's wheat and clover, and the har- 
rowins: did not cost .50 cents i)er acre. 

Where winter grain is top-dressed the manure is 
usually dragged about in cultivatinir until it touches 
nearly all the surface soil. What is left on the sur- 
face has its fertilizing elements washed into the soil 
as evenly as possible. This is one reason why top- 
dressing is generally reckoned the liest method, mi- 
less the manure is mixed with long straw, which 
will clog the drills in sowing. 

Cost of a Bushel of Wheat. 
Richland county, Illinois, is called a fair region for 
wheat, but where the average yield of the State is 
taken, it is about 14 bushels to the acre. This county, 
during the last two years, has done a fraction better. 
Wheat was worth with us, last fall at seeding time, 
SI. .W per bushel ; harvest hands were paid from SJ 
to $3.50; for a man and team we paid ?u'.50 and 
board, and for other kinds of work in the same pro- 
portion. I will now give the cost of raising wheat in 
this part of Illinois, takins: one acre as a basis for 
calculations, and estimating the yield at l.'i bushels, 
which is a large average for the township, county, or 
Stiite : 
Plowing one acre, - - - - - - SI .50 

Harrowing, ..-.-- 50 

1'.; bushels seed at 51.50^ bushel, - - 3 L'.5 

Drilling, 50 

Board, -------- 1 00 

Cutting, 75 

Binding, 75 

Shocking, 25 

Hauling and stacking, - - - - .50 

Threshing, 15 bushels, - - - . 1 87 

Hauling, ------ - 1 00 

Kent, 3 .50 

T.)tal, - - . - - 
Or a fraction over 90 cents a bushel. 

SI 4 .'57 

Improving Wheat. 

It was 'stated by a visiting farmer to our county 
fair, one of the judges from Lancaster county, that 
Levi Groir, of Earl township, that county, had 
adopted the Heiges plan of cultivating wheat with 
good result. The gain was about 11 bushels to the 
acre ; he had aliout six acres cultivated, and about 
the same drilled on the common plan ; the cultivated 
wheat yielded MO bushels to the acre, and the drilled 
and imcultivated yielded 35 bushels to the acre. 
The cultivating at this rate would give a large profit 
to the farmer. 

Another statement by a Maryland farmer, one of 
the judges, was that of mixing the seed, the Lan- 
caster wheat with the Fultz, hail improved the size 
of the heads and quality of the Fultz, producing a 
better yield. — York Deapatch. 


Cultivation of the Lilac. 

In an admirable jiaper on the Lilac, read by Geo. 
Ellwaiiger before the recent meeting of the Western 
New York Horticultural Society, tlie following diree- 
tions are given for Its culture and management : 

It Is adapted to almost any soli and climate. In 
park or garden, lawn or hedge, it lays claim to dis- 
tinction for clfectlvcness and beauty. In city gar- 
dens, where there Is only limited space. It Is one of 
the cleanest and most satisfactory of shrubs, either 
as a well-hhaped bush or a low tree with nearly bal- 
anced head. 

But It is in large places that Us charms can be dis- 
played to the best advantage. In lawns, where 
large clumps of the snowy-colored varieties can be 
planted, it has few superiors in point of brilliauey 
and fragrance. Clumps of lilac, .losika'a arc intro- 
duced with line etreet in the C'cntral Park, and, 
when In flower, are among the finest attractions. 

In this climate it takes the place of the rhododen- 
dron, .so much prized in England. Besides being 
very hardy, it has the additional advantage of its 
fragrance, which the hardy rliododcodrous do not 

In grounds sufTicienlly large. It can be used for 
oniamcntal hedges. Its dark green foliage is not 
affected by atmospheric changes, nor has it any in- 
sect enemies. It, therefore, always forms a clean 
and handsome background, aijd, when in llower, is a 
feature of the park or garden. 

Where privet hedges are already grown, the lilac 
can be grafted w ith no little efleclivcness, at intervals 
of about ten to fifteen feet. The lilac grafts, when 
grown, project over the privet, and form round or 
jiyramidal heads varying the monotony of the ordi- 
nary formal hedge. 

By many the lilac and other highly fr.agrant flower 
shrubs are eonsidcrcd invigorating and healthy as 
atmospheric puriliers anddispcllersof noxious vapors. 
I well recollect when the cholera was raging through- 
out Europe in, I think, 1^:10, the savants of the city 
of Stuttgart, where I was then residing, ordered the 
burning of fragrant herbs in the market place, to 
prevent infection. Wliellier owing to this means or 
not, the city escaped the dreadful scourge. 

Culture and Manwjciiient. — -Although it will thrive 
and flower in any soil, an annual top-dressingof stable 
manure will well repay the trouble and expense, iu 
the fuller development and beauty of both flowers 
and foliage. 

Half standards, for single specimens, can be grown 
either on their own roots or iriafted on the common 
sorts, as well as on the ash or jirivet. In order to 
render them attractive they must have well balanced, 
bushy heads, and be kcjit in form liy regular thin- 
ning and pruning, .\fter the flowers have faded they 
should be removeil, in order to cause new growth that 
will insure profuse blooming the following season. 
By this means the flowers may also be very much 

Fur Winter Flowering. — In all large continental 
cities, and iiarticularly Paris, the lilac is in great re- 
quest for winter lloweriug. The common purple is 
generally used for forcing, and when kept in houses 
darkened by mats or otherwise, produces pure white 
flowers. In order to produce the best results the 
]ilants should lie carefully selected in the spring and 
planted in jiols ; then phiimed in the ground during 
the summer, and kept well watered. In September 
they should be rciKittcd info rich compost and in suc- 
cession, according as required, be placed in an atmos- 
phere of 00 to 70 degrees Kaiirenheit, which should 
gradually be increased to SO deirrccs, and even as 
high as 100 degrees. Tlie rmits should be well 6Ui>- 
plied with water, and the plants should receive fre- 
quent syringing with tepid water. They may also 
be taken up carefully with balls in the fall to bo 
forced the following winter, but we recommend the 
former method. When no forcing house is accessible 
a warm room answers very well in its stead. 

New 'Vegetables. 

The past season's experience has proved the value 
of at least a few of the newer vegetables brought out 
by the seedsmen. Among tomatoes the Troiihy is by 
far the best of all the newer varieties, although ihis 
is now well established. Tlie "Little Gem," for 
Iwenty-flvc seed of which I gave twenty-five cents, is 
lit lie, and a gem certainly, sweet-flavored, solid, 
smooth, and bears abundantly; but it is no better 
than the Trophy. The "One liundred Days Tomato" 
is good for uothinu', being late, small, and very much 
misshapen. "Key's Prolific" is good, bears abun- 
dantly; but is not "preferable to the Trophy. It was 
the only variety, out of a dozen or more, that the 
l>otato bugs took a fancy to. Of pens, Laxton's 
"Alpha," the "Little Gem," a dwarf, and Laxton's 
"Supreme," have turned out excellently. The second 
needs no bushing, bears large pods very plentifully, 
and is very sweet. For early, second early, and late 
I shall plant "Little Gems" next year. " The "Su- 
preme" is a fine pea, having long, full pods. It grows 
alKiut three feet liiirh. Dreer's improved dwarf Lima 
bean is an acquisition. It is very prolific, the pods 
are closely filled, »nd it bears about double the crop 



[ Ja nuary, 

of the common sort. But of all the prolific vege- 
tables the "green prolific cucumber"' has taken the 
palm. For pickles, either for use or for sale, there 
can be none better. One hill of three plants has pro- 
dueeJ more than half a bushel of cucumbers, which 
grew in bunches and with remarkable rapidity. Pe- 
ruvian guano may have helped, but there is a great 
deal in the variety itself. Of squashes, a new cross- 
breed of Mr. (iregory, of Marblchead, named the 
Butman, has proved better than theMarblehead,one 
of its parents. For pies it is superior to any that I 
liave grown. The flesh, when cooked, is dry, sweet, 
and very full of flavor. This variety is vigorous 
enough to withstand a hundred borers in each vine 
without perishiug. The "Early Peabody' ' sweet po- 
tato is another acquisition. It is red-skinned, and 
early enough to permit of its growth far north, I 
doubt not, even in Canada. It is too soon, as yet, to 
decide as to its cpiality. 


Suggestions About Plants. 
To succeed well some judgment is required in 
choosing proper stems. Old wood will grow if taken 
at the right lime, which is when new leaves are just 
forming on it; they will take longer to grow than 
young shoots, but will eventually make nice plants. 
It is well to know this in case of a large plant get- 
ting broken. Take the .«lip from the lower part of 
the plant, as near the root as you can choose one. 
When slips break off short and crisp they are sure 
to root, although this rule will not hold good for 
wooded plants, such as roses, azaleas, &c. Set the 
cutting, before they wilt : if you carry them any 
distance, sprinkle them with water as soon as 
taken from the bush, and wrap up tightly 
in paper, putting an extra dry piece of paper 
outside, tying it tightly. You can carry slips three 
daj's in this way, not opening the parcel until 
you are ready to set them out at once. Take any or- 
dinary dish, either earthenware or tin, about an inch 
and a half deep, fill with silver sand, adding water 
sufficient to completely saturate the sand, but the 
water must not stand on top of it. Be sure it does 
not get dry. Place the slips in the sand almost up to 
the second eye — if the eye touches the sides or bot- 
tom of the dish they will root quicker ; keep the dish 
in the sun, even if you have to move it from spot to 
spot. In from five to eight days the roots will have 
appeared or will be ready to do so, when you can pot 
the slips, using one-half good garden soil and oue- 
half sand, setting in a shady, cool place for three 
days, and gradually bringing into warmth and light. 

Sowing Flower Seeds. 

The rule which we have adopted for beds in open 
ground is to cover all seed from three to five times 
their short diameter, small seed receiving only a 
slight sprinkling, and larger a more copious sifting 
of the fine mould . No seed should be sown when the 
soil is not dry enough to be reduced to fine powder. 
The best soil is sandy loam, but a large proportion of 
clay makes a good material if dry enough to be made 
perfectly mellow. The addition of sand and leaf 
mould will make any soil of proper consistency. 
The best way to sow seeds is, in the first place, in 
drills or circle ; then the weeds may be easily taken 
out. If sown it will be more difHcult to 
keep the bed clean. Provide a quantity of finely pul- 
verized mould in a basket or barrow, and cover by 
sprinkling it evenly with the hand. Avoid soaking 
the beds with water until the plants are dry. If the 
surface is likely to become too dry after sowing, 
which is often the case, put on a thin, gauzy mulch- 
ing. This may be pulverized moss, thin canvas, or 
even a newspaper. Every person who plants a 
flower garden should know the hardy plants — which 
usually come up soon, and may be sown early — from 
the tender, which are often more tardy in appearing, 
and should be sown later. 


Burry the Rubbish. 
Hundreds of insect pests find safe winter quarters 
in the rubbish of the fields and g.ardens. The prim- 
ings of currant bushes, raspherries and blackberries, 
dead squ.ash vines, loose pieces of bark, bunches of 
weeds, and such ruhhisli, hide multitudes of eggs, 
larva^ pupa; or perfect insects. Such loose stufl'had 
better be burned ; to consign them to the manure 
heap is only to propagate the pests. When burned 
there is an end of them, and of much unsightly waste 
which no neat person should have about his premises. 

Rust on Blackberries. 

Charles Phelps in the Frnil Recorder states that 
he has dealt with rust as follows : " The first year of 
rust I cut the bushes ofli' and burned them, as recom- 
mended in the Recurder last year. I cut ofiT the 
leaves, and left tlie canes standing. The result was 
the canes leafed out again, wifhoitt rust. I think it 
is worth other persons trying the coming summer. 

Scarlet Fever. 

The Boston Board of Health has issued the follow- 
ing as a circular, sending it to every house in the city. 
It deserves a careful reading : 

Scarlet fever is like small pox in its power to spread 
rapidly from person to person. It is highly contagious. 
The disease shows its first signs in about one week 
after exposure, as a general rule, and persons who 
escape the illness during a fortnight after exposure 
may feel themselves free from attack. Scarlet fever, 
scarlatina, canker rash and rash fever are names of 
the one and the same dangerous disease. 

When a case of scarlet fever occurs in any family, 
the sick person should be placed in a room apart 
from the other inmates of the house, and should be 
nursed, as far as possible, by one person only. The 
sick chamber should be well warmed. Its furniture 
should be such as will permit of cleaning without 
injury, and all extra articles, such as window drapery 
and woolen carpets, should be removed from the 
room during the sickness. The family should not 
mingle with other people. Visitors to an infected 
house should be warned of the presence of a danger- 
ous disease therein, and children especially should 
not be admitted. 

On recovery the sick person should not mingle 
with the well until the roughness of the skin, due to 
the disease, shall have disappeared. A month is con- 
sidered an average period during which isolation is 
needed. The clothing, before being used by the 
patient or the nurse, should be cleansed by boiling 
for at least one hour, or if that cannot be done, by 
free and prolonged exposure to out-door air and sun- 
light. The walls of the room should be dry rubbed, 
and the cloths used for that purpose should be burned 
without previous shaking. The ceiling should be 
scraped and whitened ; the floor should be washed 
with soap and wat£r, and carbolic acid may he added 
to the water — one pint to three or four gallons. The 
infected clothing should be cleaned by itself, and not 
sent to the laundry. 

A Hint to Grape Growers. — A vine grower 
under glass, writes that it is now generally admitted 
that inside borders, which have been properly drained 
and constructed, can hardly receive to much water 
when the vines are in active growth, 

Useful Hints for Home. 

To Cure Bilious Headache. — Drink the juice of 
two oranges or of one lemon, about half an hour be- 
fore breakfast every morning. 

Cuke for Bilious Headach, II. — Dissolve and 
drink two teaspoonsful of finely powdered charcoal 
in one-half a tumblerful of water ; it will relieve in 
1.5 minutes ; take aseidlitzpowderan hour afterward. 

Cure for Chronic Rheumatism. — Dr. Bonnet, 
of Graulhet, France, recommends and prescribes for 
chronic rheumatism the use of the essential oil of 
turpentine by friction. He used it himself with per- 
fect success, having almost instantaneously got rid 
of rheumatic pains in both knees and in the left 

To Cure Hoarseness. — Beat well the whites of 
two eggs, add two tablespoonfuls white sugar, grate 
in half a nutmeg, add a pint of lukewarm water, stir 
well and drink often. Repeat the preparation if 

Asthma. — One ounce flour sulphur, one ounce 
pulverized sugar, small quantity of ground capsicum, 
enough to barely flavor it ; dose, as much as a three- 
cent piece can hold, every two hours; rub the chest 
and spine with butter and salt. The homreopathic 
remedies are arsenicum and capsicum ; avoid sauces, 
cheese, cakes, pies and gravies as food. 

To Prepare MulleIn Leaves. — Mullein leaves 
for catarrh are to be dried and powdered as fine as you 
would powder sage, and the smoke drawn through 
the nostrils from the mouth, but not swallowed. 

To Make the Hands Soft. — Take equal portions 
of glycerine and alcohol ; mix well ; before retiring 
at night wash the hands in warm water and rub well 
with the lotion. 

To Keep the Hands Soft, II. — Take three 
pounds common yellow soap, one ounce of camphor 
dissolved in one ounce of rose-water and ounce laven- 
der water ; beat the above in a mortar until it be- 
comes a paste ; make it into balls to dry, and place 
it in a cool place for the winter. 

Hair Invicorator. — Bay rum, one pint; alcohol, 
one-half pint ; castor oil, one-half ounce ; carbonate 
of ammonia, one-quarter ounce ; tincture of cantha- 
rides, one-half ounce ; mix them well. This mixture 
will promote the growth of the hair and prevent it 
from falling out. 

Suggestive to Fault-Finders. 

" Now, deacon, I've just one word to say. I can't 
bear your preaching ! I get no good. 'There's so 
much in it that I don't want that I grow lean on it. 
I lose my time and pains." 

" Mr. Bunnell, come in here. There's my cow 
Thankful — she can teach j'ou theology." ' 

" A cow teach theology ! What do you mean ?" 

" Now see ! I have just thrown her a forkful of 
h.ay. Just watch her. There now ! She has found 
a stick — you know sticks will get into the hay — and 
see how she tosses it to one side, and leaves it, and 
goes on to eat wliat is good. There again ! She has 
found a burdock, and she throws it one side and 
goes on eating. There again! She does not relish 

that bunch of daisies, and she leaves them and — goes 
on eating. Before morning she will clear the man- 
ger of all save a few sticks and weeds, and she will 
give milk. There's milk in that hay, and she knows 
how to get it out, albeit there may be now and then 
a stick or a weed which she leaves. But if she re- 
fused to eat, and spent the time in scolding about 
the fodder, she, too, would ' grow lean,' and her 
milk would be dried up. .Just so with our preach- 
ing. Let the old cow teach you. Get all the good 
you can out of it and leave the rest. You will find a 
great deal of nourishiuent in it." 

Household Recipes. 

Doughnuts. — Three eggs, two cupfuls sugar, one 
and one-half cupfuls milk, butter size of a small egg, 
two teaspoonfuls cream tartar rubbed into a quart of 
flour, one teaspoonful soda dissolved in milk, a little 
salt, and one-half nutmeg; use flour enough to roll 
out soft ; cut in fancy shapes and drop into boiling 
lard. A slice of raw potato put in the fat will pre- 
vent it from burning. 

Almond Maccaroons. — Scald 12 pounds of 
almonds ; take off skins and throw into cold water 
till all are done, then pound them with one table- 
spoonful essence lemon to smooth paste, add equal 
weight of powdered sugar and \yhites of three eggs ; 
work the paste well with the back of a spoon, then 
dip fingers into cold water and make into little halls 
and lay on white paper ; dip hand in cold water and 
pass over each one ; bake in cool oven three-quarters 
of an hour. 

Lemon Puddins.— One-half pound sugar, one- 
quarter pound butter well creamed, yolks of eight 
eggs. Pour this mixture into a rich crust of pastry, 
after adding the grated rind of two lemons. Then 
partially bake it. "Beat the whites very stiflT, and add 
a spoonful of sugar for each egg. Then add the 
juice of two lemons, pour this meringue over the 
pudding and brown it quickly. 

Silver Pie. — Peel and grate one large white 
potato. Add the juice and grated rind of a lemon, 
the beaten white of one egg, one cupful of white 
sugar, and one of cold water. Bake in a nice paste. 
After baking, spread on top the whites of three eggs, 
frothed, sweetened and flavored with lemon. Set 
again on the fire and brown. Lay on small pieces of 
jelly or jam, just before taking it to the table. 

Rice Croquetts.— Wash well one teacupful of 
rice ; put it to boil in a pint of milk, the same of hot 
water, until quite tender, but dry ; while hot add a 
piece of butter the size of an egg, two tablespoousful 
of white sugar, two eggs, the juice and grated peel 
of one lemon ; stir this up well ; have ready the 
yolks of two eggs, beaten on a plate, some fine 
cracker crumbs on another ; make up the rice with 
your hands in rolls about three inches long and two 
inches round ; dip into the egg, then into the crumbs; 
fry them in hot lard to a light brown. Served hot. 

Cubes for Household Pests. — Kals are said to 
have such a dislike for potash that if it is powdered 
and scattered around their haunts they will leave 
them. A piece of rag well soaked in a solution of 
cayenne is a capital thing to put into rat or mice 
holes, as they will not attempt to eat it. A plug of 
wood covered with a piece of flannel so prepared may 
be used to fill up the holes. Cockroaches and ants 
have a similar dislike to cayenne, and a little strewed 
about a cellar will keep it clear of them. 

Lady Fingers.— Rub half a pound of butter into 
a pound of flour ; add half a pound of sugar ; grate 
in the riud of two lemons, and squeeze in the juice of 
one ; then add three eggs ; make into a roll the size 
of the middle finger; itwill spread in the oven to a 
thin cake ; dip in chocolate icing. 

Short Cakes. — One pound sifted flour, quarter of 
a pound butter, and half as much lard, very little 
salt, a pinch of soda, well dissolved in just vinegar 
enough to cover it ; work all well together with ice- 
cold water enough to make a stitf dough ; roll it into 
paste half an inch thick : cut it into round cakes ; 
prick the top with a fork, bake in a quick oven. 

To Prepare Squash for Pies. — Saw a squash in 
half, clean out the seeds, etc., then place one end 
down in a pan containing an inch or so of boiling 
water, placing small strips of wood or thick wire 
underneath them, so that the edge will not burn on 
the pan. Let it steam until thoroughly tender. The 
flesh of the squash is then easily scraped out with a 
spoon, and run through a colander, if thought desi- 
rable, though it is not necessary, there being no hard 
lumps in 117 By this plan none of the aronia of the 
squash is lost, while it greatly reduces the labor of 
preparation. Another plan is to take the two halves 
after cleaning from seeds, etc., join them together 
and bind firmly with twine, and place in the oven to 
bake until tender. There is little, if any difl'erencc 
in the result, hut 1 give the prcfercBce to the first 
method as being much the easier. , 

Moths in Carpets.— A good way to kill them is 
to take a coarse towl and wring it out of clean water. 
Spread it smoothly on the carpet, then iron it dry with 
a good hot iron, repeating llie operation on all sus- 
pected places, and those least used. It does not injure 
the carpet in the least. It is not necessary to press 
hard, heat .and steam being the agents, and they do 
the work effectually on worms and eggs. 






Sheep for Profit. 

In a paper rcconllv reail lieforo tlic Hillsilalc! 
(Miehlfran) institute, Alexnnder Hewitt^ yave tlie 
following leasons for Iceejiinir sheep : Init wlille 1 
advocate mixed Inislmnary as a rule, there are pre- 
ferences ainonp farmers with regard to tlie kind ol 
etock most profitable for them to keep, which is 
very proper ; lor while one man can sec certain sne- 
cess in the future from hreedin;; good horses, another 
can see it much more clearly in the production of 
good cattle. The man who would go aside to kick a 
sheep has uo business with the care of that inotleii- 
8ive animal. Sheep give <iiiiekcr returns than cattle 
or horses. Suppose, for illustration, that a farmer 
pays S4 per head for twenty-live good sheep soon 
after shearing, consisting principally of grade .Merino 
ewes and a lull-liloodcd ram, AlHO, and that he also 
paj-s the same sum for lour steers, say llftceii months 
old, and keeps them on his farm for a period ol two 
years and tliree moni lis. Now at the end of the lirst 
year his sheep will produce, at six pounds per head, 
one hundred and fifty pounds of wool, and that 
at forty cents per pound, which is lielow 
the average price for the last twenty years, 
would he SOO; and during the next three months 
he sells the increase, or a part of the original 
stock and a part of the lambs, as he shall deem 
best— say 15 in number— at ••?:! per head, which would 
be $45 ; this added to the SGO received for wool, 
makes «105. Continue the experiment another year, 
with the same result, and wc have ^J-W received for 
wool and sheep sold, and the original stock, worth 
*1U0— altogether §310. Now the steers are three 
years and six months old, and we will estimate them 
at thirteen hundred pounds each, at five cents a 
pound, or §65 per head, making for the four SL'lin, or 
|50 in favor of the sheep, allowing the interest on 
the $105 first received to pay for shearing, tagging, 
etc. The question I have for solution is. 'Which 
has cost the most in time and feed, the twenty-live 
sheep or the four steers ?' Never having demon- 
strated an experience of the kind myself, I am una- 
ble to say, but from general knowledge and observa- 
tion, should think them about equal . Another point 
in favor of the sheep is they do not usually die in 
debt to the farmer, for we see from above calcula- 
tions that they are a sort of pay-as-you-go invest- 
ment, which system ought to have a prominent place 
in all business transactions." Some will object to 
Mr. Hewitt's estimation in considering twenty-live 
sheep as equivalent to four steers. Where the ewes 
and lambs are in pasture during the spring and 
early summer, we would prefer to furnish pasture 
for four steers ; but during the winter we think the 
advantage would be on the side of the twenty-five 
sheep;, ewes and lambs arc close nippers of early 

Animal Instinct. 
The mysterious provision in the life of animals 
which is called instinct has always challenged the 
wonder of man, and piiiued his curiosity as to its na- 
ture and operation. The carpenter-bee— as an in- 
stance hardly more striking than numberless others 
—never beholds her young; but, after hav- 
ing laid her own eggs, she deposits a store of 
food such as they w ill rc(iuire, of a peculiar kind 
which she has never tasted since the larva-period of 
her own life, and dies. In the construction of the 
cell, too, there is a marvelous forethought shown. It 
is bored with herculean lalior into wood, and the 
eggs are deposited, on after the other, in closely- 
scaled apartments, each with a ration of food. Her 
wisdom is not balked, even by the necessity that the 
first-laid eggs, at the bottom of the long tube, must 
hatch out their larvae before the others ; for she pro- 
vides a back door for their exit at that end. The 
common thery is that instinct— apparently so wise 
and far-seeing— is a blind, mechanical impulse, im- 
planted at the creation of nninial races for the pre- 
servation of life ; and, viewing them in the wild 
state, the answer seems adequate. 

Sheltering Cattle. 

Farmers who look after the comfort of their cattle, 
but rarely suffer pecuniary loss by disease or death. 
In the stable cleanliness and ventilation are, witli an 
occasional currying, the important requirements that 
promote health. Experiments have proven that 
cows in milk and old oxen retain their condition in 
confined and warm quarters during winter, while 
animals under three years thrive better in a well 
sheltered yard, with shed attached, the floor of 
which should be covered with dried leaves, or refuse 
straw, which would afl'ord them a resting place dur- 
ing the nights. Leaves make an excellent winter- 
bedding and every farmer should have a sujjply on 
hand to renew the beds from time to time. A shel- 
ter from the rain and snow and northeasterly winds 
is the only protection the younger animals require 
during the inclement season, as Iheir blood circulates 
more freely than that of the oli'.er cattle and possess 
greater powers of endurance. 


Something About Insects. 

An old frienil of mine, an ' enthusiastic philo- | 
aparian, told me that lieiiig at a fricmrs house one 
dry summer, when all the field flowers were nearly 
scorched up, he saw thousands of bees busy in a 
licid of I'lover then in bloom. 

"I wish my bees were here," said my friend. 

"Probably they arc," replied the gentleiimn. 

"VVliat, at forty miles distance J" 

"Yes," said his friend. "On your return liome 
dredge the backs of your bees witli flour as they 
issue from the hives iii the morning, and we shall 

Tliis was done, and his friend wrote him directly : 
"There are plenty of your while-jacket bees here in 

the clover!" 

But whatever Is the fact with bees, ants follow 
their noses much more than their eyes. In my gar- 
den I saw a train of ants ascending an apple tree ; 
go up by one track, and descend by another. As in 
ascending they passed between two small shoots that 
sprung from the bole, I stopped their jiassage with a 
Iiiece of bark. The anis did not see this oljstruction 
with their eyes, but ran bump against it, and stood 
still, astonished. Soon a crowd of them had thus 
been suddenly stopped, and were anxiously searching 
about for a passage. By various successive starts 
forward, they eventually get around the olistruetion 
and reached the track on the other side. The line of 
scent was renewed, and thenceforward, on arriving 
at the barricade they went without a moment's hesi- 
tation, by the eirciilar track. I then took my pen- 
knife and pared away a piece of the outer bark on 
the open bole where the ants were descending. The 
effect was the same. The scent being taken away, 
the ants came to a dead stand, and there was the 
same eoafounded crowd, and the same spasmodic at- 
tempts to regain the road, which being efleeted in 
the same way, the scent was carried over the shaven 
part of the bark, and the train ran on as freely as 
before.— iri/(i((m HowiU, St. Xkholns for January. 

A New Household Pest. 

The Troy Times tells of the new carpet bug as fol- 
follows : . 

A new pest has made its appearance in various lo- 
calities of the State, doing great injury to carpets, in 
the shape of an insect heretofore unknown to this 
continent, and bearing the scientific name of Anthre- 
inis wrophidiiriic. It is not in the least allied to the 
well-known carpet worm, though the damage 
it inflicts is much greater, whole breadths of carpets 
being cut through as neatly as if done with a scis- 
sorsT If discovered in their habitations un 'er the bor- 
ders of carpets, their rapidity of movement carries 
them out of reach beneath the base boards. The or- 
dinary applications of camphor, pepper, tobacco and 
turpentine are powerless against it. The free (use 
of benzine and kerosene has been recommended to be 
employed in the saturation of cotton with which to fill 
the joinings of the floors and crevices beneath the base 
boards, but this is objectionable from the fact that 
both of these subs aiices give off an inflammable 
vapor at a point of temperature below that of some 
of our summer days, and consequently are liable to 
produce spontaneous combustion. Corrosive subli- 
mate is said to have been used with success, but the 
only sure remedy will be found in the powder of 
I'eretlirnm roxcnm, which is certain death to all in- 
vertebrates, while it has the surpassing merit over 
all other insect poisons of being perfectly harmless 
to the higher forms of life. The cost of this pre- 
parations should not exceed 75 cents per jiound. The 
iuseet is described as resembling in form and size the 
beetle, with wing cases prettily marked in spots of 
white and black, and wilii a red line bordering the 
inner margins. 

Poultry and Egg Production. 

We have frc(iut*ntly urged upon fiirmers aial others, 
the importance of greater atleiition and the devo- 
tion of more "lime and space," so to speak, to the 
growing of poultry and the resulting produellon of 
eggs. As a matter of iileasure or prollls arising from 
well stocked poultry yards, there can be no very 
rilausible argument, urgcil on the negative slile of the 
question. There is no one liraiieli of "lireeding" on 
the farm with so lilllc care that will produce so good 
results, or that with greater care and attention, con- 
sidering the capital reiiuircd for a start, that can be 
maile to yield such large profits as may he obtained 
from thc"iioullry yard, by Intelligent and judicious 
management. Nearly every farmer keeps a larger or 
smaller number of fowls, and in spite of poor manage- 
ment, or jierhaps no management at all, many an 
article that enters inio the economy of the house- 
hold, is luirehascd from the pioduels of straggling 
llocks of [loullry. .\ few moineiits' thought, ami 
very little argurneiit ouglit to convince any person of 
ordinary intelligence, that their income might bo 
largely increased and their pleasures much enhanced 
by making this branch a specialty, or if not a 
specialty, giving it a proportionate share of attention. 
Early ebiikens always find ready sale at high flgurcs, 
and with eggs anywhere from fifteen to thirty cents 
per dozen the margin of profit is large. 

As an article of food Iheiy is no more toothsome 
viand, than a iirojierly cortked chicken ; and as for 
eggs, how few tlieri^ are who do not regard them as 
a luxurv, from a semi-raw to a hard-boiled state, as 
the taste or fancy of the consumer may dictate. 

Improve, then, your breeds and increase your stock 
of poultry, and our word for it, you will never have 
occasion to regret 1 he care or expense requisite to the 
accomplishment of the object. 

We shall have more to say on this subject hereafter. 

Circumventing the Turnip Beetle. 

In conversation with a neighbor, a few days ago, I 
chanced to make a remark respecting coal tar to 
catch the grasshoppers in the Western elates, when 
he told me that in the part of Yorkshire where he 
came from they resorted to that expedient to save 
their turnips from the ravages of the turni|i beetle. 
A wide board, about ten or twelve feet long, was tar- 
red on one side, and a rope fastened to either end, 
and a man holding the ropes over his shouliicrs so as 
to keep one end of the board off the ground, would 
draw it with the tarred side downward over the 
turnips. One edge of the board would, of course, 
rest on the ground and disturb the beetles, and in at- 
tempting to hop away they would stick in the tar and 
be caught. Still it would be as well to sow every 
third o'r fourth drill about three times as thick as the 
others, to serve as a decoy drill. Wherever the 
turnips come up thickest there the beetles congre- 
gate • if the weather is at all showery the other drills 
will soon be in the rough leaf, and perhaps enough 
will be left in the decoy drill to make a crop. 

If every reader of The Farmer would send us one 
subscriber, it would place us on a sound basis. 

Give the Fowls Pure Water. 

The careless w ay in w hiih fowls arc ordinarily pro- 
vided with drinkiiig water on farms throughout the 
country is undoubtedly the cause of some of tlic dis- 
eases which have proved so destructive. How often 
do wc find a flock of valuable birds, birds that Iheir 
owner has expended considerable m< ney in improv- 
ing, obliged lo drink I he di,t.- i n vholcsome water of 
drains an.l the pools standing in the liarnyard, or the 
water of melted snow. There is nothing worse for 
them, yet how 'ew f irmers apfrcciate the fact. 

Again, MiJiilc many provide drinking vessels In 
Iheir henneries, and till them when they are emi)tie<I, 
they do not realize that after cold water has stood 
for several hours in the midst of the odors so preva- 
lent in even the beat managed coops, it absorbs the 
vile gases and becomes so polluted that it is unlit to 

Let any one turn out a vessel of water that has 
stood twenty-four hours in a hennery, and while it is 
flowing take a sniff of it ; if he can wonder why the 
bens refuse to drink it until they arc very thirsty, in- 
deed, his sense of smell is a weak one. The drinking 
vessels for fowls ought to be cleansed and filled at 
morning and early afternoon. Wc have often seen 
fowls stand about a newly replenished water vessel 
in the afternoon and drink copiously when they had 
five minutes previously refused water that had been 

Something for Poultry Men. 

Poultry, it is staled, cannot be kept in large num- 
bers in confined areas w ilhout detriment to theircon- 
stitution. Colonel Taggart, of Northumberland, Pa., 
provides food and exercise for fowls at the same time. 
Inhispoultrv yards are several beds about thirty 
feet square each, in which the colonel buries oale, 
several bushels to the bed. The grains begin, of 
course, at once to swell and germinate, and the fowls 
have free access, scratching and eating the tender 
siuouts to their hearts' content. While the fowls are 
I bus busy on one bed a new one is iirepared, which is 
in readiness for them by the lime it is required. The 
idea is a good one. 

Cabbages for Fowls. 

At this season of the year when the natural supply 
of grass and other green food is cut off, fowls need a 
daily meal of some sort of green food. What it is 
docs not appear to be of so much moinciit, provided 
they get scuncthing. Wc have tried mangolds and 
turnips and cabbages, all with good results, but of 
the three, ealibages decidedly are the most valuable. 
We cut them up into pretty fine pieces at about the 
rate of a cabbage to fifteen fowls, and in a short time 
not a scrap is left. Hens thus fed pay by an increased 
supply of eggs much more than the extra cost of 

foo<l . 


Buckwheat is one of the staple articles of poultry 
food. It is very fattening, an excclleni egg producer, 
and much relished by poultry. It is not, perhaps, 
used so extensively here as in F.urope. In England, 
France, and especially in Germany, it forms not only 



[ January, 1878. 

an important part of poultry foorl, but is mucb used 
for various culinary purposes. The great arlvanta»:o 
it has over cereals is that it thrives luxuriantly even 
on the poorest land. Those who have not tested its 
value as a poultry food we advise to give it a trial. 

Feeding Young Chicks on Rice. 
In some localities it is difficult to get chicks throuirh 
the first two weeks after they are hatched ; for the 
little complaints of this early period are often more 
numerous and orilical than at any other period of 
their lives. Feed is the first consideration, and pure 
water a great essential for them from first to last. 
Cornmeai is the one article of chicken diet which has 
heen the mam dependence for generations ; but some 
experiments with rice, last year, convinced us that 
for young chicks it is equal to anything, if not supe- 
rior to everything else. Broods led upon rice alone- 
all lived and grew finely on a single handful .at a 
feed, for the hen and her brood. An inferior quality, 
known to the trade as broken rice, is just as good for 
feed, and it takes so little for a feed that the expense 
is no greaJer in the Northern States than cornmeai, 
while in the South it will be the cheapest feed known. 

Coal Ashes for Fowls. 

Vi'e have several times nrged upon our readers the 
importance of keeping a liberal suoply of coal ashes 
by their fowls. The birds delight to wallow in the 
dusty material, and a daily bath so taken is a grand 
specific against lice. Wood ashes are not so desirable 
as coal, in fact they cause sore feet if the birds wallow 
in them much. 

The amount of pieccs'of coal and burnt limestone 
the fowls find to eat in the coal ashes is very great, 
and we have noticed that hens w'hich have free access 
to an ash heap are alu ays in good health and are 
great layers^ 


Two valuable political "and historical hand- 
Ijooks, which ought to be in possession of every per- 
son who is at all interested in the political and civil 
history of our country. The first is entitled "The 
Century of Independence,'' embracing a collection, 
from official sources, of most important documents 
and statistics connected w'ith the jiolitical history of 
America ; also, a chronological record of the princi- 
pal events, from its discovery to the present time, 
with biographical and historical sketches. Royal 12 
mo., pp. .54.5, with three fine full page engravings, 
and veiy substantially bound in muslin, and with 
beveled edges. The second is entitled "The Presi- 
dents and their Administrations," a hand-book of 
political parties, for every voter, by Lewis O.Thomp- 
son, A. M., Ibrmerly President of the Nortliwestern 
Universi'y, Watertown, Wis. A plain 12 mo. of 320 
pages, with a colored map defining the original ter- 
ritories, out of which were formed the vast govern- 
mental domain now known as the United States of 
North America. Both of these volumes were pub- 
lished by S. L. Marron, Indianapolis, Ind. They 
contain — within their respective spheres — in a con- 
densed form, a vast amonnt of that very informa- 
t on connected with the political history of the 
country which every citizen should possess, to ena- 
ble him to exercise tlie franchises of a freeman with 
intelligence. These little volumes, compiled from 
authentic and reliable sources, contain the whole 
story of our government, from prior to the Revolu- 
tion "down to the present time, and who, from.time 
to time, were contemporaries with its public and 
private events, as they stand recorded on the pages 
of history. Do wc want to know who, at any par- 
particular period, was President of the United 
States, who was Vice President, who his cabinet and 
other officials, when and by wluit vote — both elec- 
toral and popular — elected ; what was, at the time, 
the population and representation, what were the 
leading events of his administration, the financial 
state of the country, and an ontline of concurrent 
events in foreign countries, we have it here in a 

"Majiusckipt Notes from Mt Jottrnal, or an 
Entomological Index to names and other charac- 
teristics of insects in agricultural reports, with a list 
of vegetable and animal substances injured or de- 
stroyed by them. Written by Townsend Glovek, 
Entomolog-ist-in-Chicf of the National Agr cultural 
Department at Washington, D. C. Transfered to 
and printed from stone by F. C. Entwisle ;" 1.06 
pages quarto, 10:i of which are blank. We arc uu-. 
der special obligations to the author for a compli- 
mentary copy of this unique work, w hich will cer- 
tainly be a great help to those who desire to refer to 
the volumes issued by the Departmentof AL'riculturc 
from 1854 down to the present time (to 1^77.) The 
contents are mainly an alphabetical index to the 
agricultural reports of the department, and a list of 
the animal and vegetable substances which are de- 
stroyed liy Loxious insects. This work has been 
written, says the author, outside of office hours for 
his own use, and for societies having a complete set 
of the reports of the Agricultural Department. It is 
a pity Congress is unable to appreciate such a work, 
and to feel the necessity of putting it in Roman 
characters for the good of the country. Its sphere 

of use is certainly as important as flooding the 
country with Buncomb speeclies that never were de- 
livered, most of which were not written by the re- 
puted authors, and few of which are read by any- 
body. From a notice in the Field and Fon;xt, some 
months ago, we learned that the same author has 
published a limited edition of his plates and notes 
on entomology (if we understand rightly, in the 
same style as the present volume) which has been 
distributed among scientific associations and his 
friends. This evinces another blunder on the part of 
Cou<rress,iu compilins such a limited (.50 copies) 
number to be issued, by withholding the necessary 
funds. We regret that we were so unforiunate as 
not to be included in his list of friends. Although 
we are grateful for what we hni'e, yet we are "abso- 
lutely spoiling" for an opportunity to express addi- 
tional gratitude for such a practical work. 

Phrenology. — The public are being educated to 
a better knowledge of Phrenology by the efforts that 
are constantly being made by the publishers of the 
PhrenoloQical Journal, that staunch old monthly 
which has been published now in New York for forty 
years, and during all this time has lost none of its 
vigor, and has attained a much wider circulation 
than its technical name would indicate. The pub- 
lishers announce now a great reduction in price — 
from three dollars to two dollars a year— and in con- 
nection with this a Phrenological BtisT as pre- 
mium to each subscriber. This Bust is a model 
symbolical head, made nearly life-size, of plaster of 
Paris, so labeled as to show the exact location of oil 
the Phrenological Organs. It is a handsome orna- 
ment, well adapted for the mantel-piece, center- 
table, library, or office. With the aid of this and 
the key which accompanies it, together with the 
series of articles commenced in the January No. of 
the fhrcnoluf/ical Journal on Practical Phrenology, 
each person may become quite familiar with the loca- 
tion of the different phrenological organs. It is sent 
by express, carefully packed, to every subscriber of 
the Journal who sends, in addition to two dollars, 
the subscription price, twenty-five cents extra lor 
boxing and packing, or No. 2, a smaller size, will be 
sent by mail, post-paid, on the same terms. Readers 
who desire a more complete description, together 
with prospectus of the Phrenological Journal, should 
send address on a postal card, or accept the pub- 
lishers' offer, and send ten cents— half-price for a 
sample number of the Journal to S. R. Wells & Co., 
Publishers, 737 Broadway, New York. 

A Health Almanac— We have just received 
from the publishers the Ilhistraled Annual of 
ology and Health Almanac for 1878, 64 pages, ten 
eeiits. This publication has now come to be a nc- 
cessitv in many well-regulated families, and well it 
may, for it is full of valuable reading matter relating 
to Phrenology, Physiognomy, Health, Hygiene, Diet, 
etc. This number, "in addition to the usual astronomi- 
col notes, monthly calendars, etc., contains seasona- 
ble suggestions for the Care of the Health, Diet, etc., 
for each month of the year; Spectacles, and How to 
Use Them ; Biographical Sketches and Portraits of 
R.T. Trail, iM.D., John L. Motley, and President 
Hayes; Faces and their Influence ; Wasting Capital ; 
Do"What You Can : Principles .of Plirenology ; Re- 
cipes and Hints for the Family, etc., and all for only 
ten cents. It is handsomely printed, with many illus- 
trations, and should have a wide circulatiou ; and we 
would say, send ten cents in postage stamps at once 
to the publishers, S. K. Wells & Co., 737 Broadway, 
New Yoik. 

Our literary table is groaning under the weighty 
influx of such capital journals, in quarto, as the 
Anieriean. AijricuUurist, the Kansas Fanner,^ the 
Scientific Farmer, the Canada Farmer, the l''arni 
Journal, the Pen and Plow, the National Utock 
Journal, the Western Afjriculturist, the Nebraska 
Farmer, &c., in octavo, Harpers' Monthly, the (Jar- 
dener's Jlonthl;/, the American Bee Journal, the 
Semi-Troidcal, Ihc Herald of Health, the American 
Farmer, the Journal of Forestry, Wallace's Monthly, 
the Laws of Life, the School Journal, the Stock 
Journal, &c., Ac, and in double folio, the Prairie 
Farmer, the Farmer's Union, Coleman's Rural 
World, \\\e Massachusetts Ploughman, hesidue a num- 
ber of other literary "odds and ends," enough to 
make us wish for the neck of a giraffe and the 
stomach of a camel, as well as abundance of lime to 
enable us to properly appropriate and digest them 

Mount Hope Nurseries, established in 1840. 
We have just received trom the proprietors, Messrs. 
Ellwanger a Bakry, their descriutive catalogues, 
numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for 1878, embracing orna- 
mental trees, shrubs, roses, llowers, plants, &c., &c., 
Rochester, New York. These catalogues comprise 
280 pages of closely printed, royal octavo, full of 
beautiful illustrat ons, copious indexes, and detailed 
price lists. No. 2 especially is equal to the best 
book on botany that can be placed in the hands of 
the amateur or professional, so far as it goes, and is 
highly embellished. The business must be large, 
indeed, that can afford such an excellent series of 
catalogues for a single season. The nomenclature is 
both scientific and popular, and the families and 
orders are correctly given, according to the tno::t 
approved clatsificalion. 

co\'«*u.MPTio?f cintEn. 

An old physician, retired from practice, havinghad 
placed in his hands by an East India missionary the 
forjuula of a simple vegetable remedy for the speedy 
and permanent cure of consumption, bronchitis, 
catarrh, asthma, and all throat and lung aftections, 
also a positive and radical cure ibr nervous debility 
and all nervous complaints, after having tested its 
wonderful curative powers in thousands of cases, 
has felt it his duty to make it known to his sulfering 
fellows. Actuated by this motive, and a desire to 
relieve human suttering, I will send, free of charge, 
to all who desire it, this recipe in German, French, 
or English, with full directions for preparing and 
using. Sent by mail by addressing with stamp, 
naming this paper, W. W. Sherar, lz6 Powers' Block, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

The distinguished Meteorologist and Weather 
Prophet, Professor Tice, of St. Louis, has issued his 
Annual National Weather Almanac for 1-78, in 
which he foretells the weather for every day in the 
year, explains the theory clearly on which his predic- 
tions are based, gives directions by which the unsci- 
entific can foretell the weather, and other valuable 
matter. The whole constitutes a work of great prac- 
tical value to everyone, and is almost indispensible 
to farmers. For sample copy and terms of sale send 
20 cents to Thompson, Tice & Co., St. Louis, Me. 

Vice's Illustrated Monthly Magazine. — 
Each number contains thirty-two pages of reading, 
many fine wood cut illustrations, and one colored 
plate. A beautiful garden magazine, printed on 
elegant paper, and full of information. In English 
and German. Price, SI. _5a year; five copies, .5.5.00. 
Vick's Floieer and Vegetable Garden, 50 cents iu 
paper covers ; in elegant cloth covers $1.00. Vick's 
Catalogue — 300 illustrations, only 2 cents. Address, 
James Vick, Rochester, N. Y. 

Ridpath's History of the United States, 
from the discovery of America down to the present 
time, is a magnificent royal octavo volume of 691 
pages, and most elaborately illustrated with maps, 
charts, portraits and diagrams ; bound with heavy 
board and beveled edges, in finely embossed muslin 
with turkey back and covers. Its letter press and 
literary contents are inimitable, and well adapted to 
the young, middle aged and old. 

Travis' Wheat Hoe and Planter. Hoes wheat, 
peas, beans and corn, and received a prize medal 
and diploma at the Geulennial Exposition, at Fair- 
mount Park, Philadelphia, iu the summer of 1870. 
A. B. Travis, patentee and manufacturer, Brandon, 
Oakland county, Michigan. The cultivation of 
wheat jafter it is drilled and comes above ground is 
attracting the attention of farmers all over the coun- 
try, and is replete with interest to all. 

A Paper for Young People. — The Young 
Folks' Monthly employs some of the best talent in 
the country, and no other publication furnishes so 
much entertainment and instruction for the price. 
Oidy 11.00 per year. Address the Young Folks' 
Monthly, Chicago, 111. 

The silverware delived by the National Silver- 
Plating Co., No. 704 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, 
is giving entire satisfaction. All orders are prompt- 
ly filled, and no one need hesitate about sending 
them money — Lutheran Observer. 

Address, delivered at the sixteenth session of the 
" American Pomological Society," held in Baltimore, 
Md., September 1^, 13, 14, 1877. by Marshall P. 

On the cultivation and curing of Fine Yellow 
Tobacco, by Major Robert L. Ragland, Hyco, Hali- 
fax county, Va. 

The illustrated annual of Phrenology, and ILidth 
Almanac for 1878. Price, 10 ceuts, S. R. Wells A 
Co., 737 Broadway, N. Y. 

Landretu's Rural Register and Almanac 
for 1878, for gratuitous distribution, 237 and '-i3i) 
Dock street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Farmer Illustrated Almanac (inter- 
leaved) for 1878. Price, 10 cents, by Pratt Brothers, 
Marlboro, Mass. 

August Rolker & Sons, wholesale catalogues of 
select flower, vegetable and garden seeds, 44 Dey 
street, N. Y. 

William Bryce & Co.'s special quotation of tree 
and shrub seeds. No. 36 Mark Lane, London, Eng- 
land; 40 St. Enoch Square, Glasgow, Scotland. 

Henry Loomis' illustrated price list of Diospyras 
Kaki, or " Date Plum ;" No. 419 and 421 Sausome 
street, San Francisco, Cal. 

C. R. Keene's catalogue of strawberry, raspberry, 
blackberry, grape and currant plants, &c., &c., with 
list of prices, Cohasset, Mass. 

"Do WE Need A Historical Society?"— Ad- 
dress by Rev. Joseph Henry Dutjbs, A. M., Lancas- 
ter, Pa. 

E. Moody & Son's semi-annual wholesale tr.ade 
lists, Niagara Nurseries, Lockport, N. Y. 

Kellog's Lists of 747 western weekly news- 
papers, Chicago, St. Louis and Cleveland. 

Rowell's select list of newspapers located in the 
Dominion of Canada, No. 41 Park Row, N, Y. 



E. P. Kunkel's Bitter Wine of Iron. 

It haK never beeu knowu to fiiil in the core of weakueRS 
ntteiuifii with ayniptoms, imliMposition to exertion, Iomb of 
lueniory, diftV-ulty of brci^iiig, weaknt'SH. horror of dis- 
ease, night HwenfH, cold ft-et, wesikneHs, dimness of vision, 
Iniiguur, uuivertifti lai*Bitnde of the inuKCUliir syBteni, euor- 
moiis ajiiietite. with dyeiieiitio symptoias, hot hands, flnwh- 
iiiK of the body, ilryiieaa of the skin, i«aMid covintt^iumce 
and erni)tionH on the face, pniifyinR the hhiod, i nin in the 
baek, heiivineuK of the eyelids, fretnient lihiek spotB flying 
bffore the eyew, with sniTuBnui and lows of sight, want of 
attention, etc. Sold only in $1 bottk-w. tU-t the genuine. 
Pepot nnd omce, iir.9 North Ninth St., PhilMdelphla. Advice 
free. A«k for K. F. KunkelV Hitter Wine of Iron, and take 
uo other muke. Genuine sold only in $1 bottles. 

Nervous Debility! Nervous Debility 1 

Debility, u depresned ii-ntahle ''tato of niiuil, a weak, ner- 
vous, exhausted feelipg, no energy, or anni4;iiiou, confused 
head, weak memory, the consequences of exeesses, menial 
overwork. This u'»rvous debility finds a snverejgii cure in 
E. F. Kunkel's BiUer Wine of Iron. It tones the system, 
<llfipelB the nuMilal gloom and despondency, and, rejuvenates 
the entire pystLin. Sold only iu$l botiles. (Set the genuine. 
Sold by uUdruggiste. Ahk for E. F. Kunkel's Hitter Wine 
of Iron, and take no other. Genuine sold only in $1 bottles 
or six bottles for $o. All I ask is a trial of this valuable 
medicine. It will convince the most skepliciil of its merits. 

Never Failing "Worm Syx'up. 

E. F. Kunkel's Worm S.Trnp never fails to dentroy Pin, 
Scat, and Stomach Worms. Dr. Kunkel is the only euc- 
ce*ssful physician who removes Tape Worm in two hours. 
Head and all complete alive, and no fee till head pusses. 
Common sense teaches if Tape Worms can be removed, all 
other Worms can )ie readily destroyed. Send for circular 
to Dr. Kunkel, 239 North Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa., or 
ask your druggist for a bottle of Kunkel's Worm Syrup. 
Price $1 per bottle. It never fails. Used by children or 
grown jiersiiis with perfect safety. 

0^ 0^ U H^ GreLit chance to niiikn m<n:i^y. If you 
■ "■II ■ ■ can'e get gold you can get Ki'<-'enbacks. 
■■ III II B^^^ need a person in every town to take 
%J| %^ Ib^^ Isubscriptious for the largent, cheapest 
and Vest lUuisl rated family publication in the world. Any 
one can become a successful agent. The most elegant 
works of art given free to subscribers The pi ice is so low 
that almost everybody subscribes. One agent reports mak- 
ing over $150 iu n week, A lady agent rei>orts taking over 
■40T subscribers in lU days. AU who engage make money 
fast. You can devote all your time to the business, or only 
Your spare time. You need not be away from home over 
night. You can do it as well as others. Full iiarticulars, 
■directions and terms free. Elegant and exi^^jieive outfit 
free. If you want profitable work send us your nddress at 
once. Ir costs nothing to try the business. No one who 
engages fails to make great pay. Address "The People's 
•Tournal." Portland, Maine. 
9-8 -ly 

I is not easily earned iu these times,butit can be 
made iu tliree nmuthfl by any one of either 
sex, iu any ^lart of the country who is willing 
to work steadily at the employment that wO 
lurnieh. $(56 i)er week in your ovm town. Y'ou 
need nol be away from home overnight. You can giveyo«r 
whole time to the work, or only your spare moments. It 
costs nothing; to try the business. Terms and %r> Outfit free. 
Address at once, H. Hallkxt & Co., Portland, Maine. 



I -have cured myself with roots, barks and herbs, after 
suCfering ten years with Liver Complaint, Costiveness and 
Piles, Weak Lungs and Paitial Ixiss of Left Side. I am a 
witness to God's mercy. Aged people and delicate women 
sufleilng with Indigestion will find this remedy invaluable. 
I.h;i\e alpo one of the best Cough Kemedies known, $1 per 
bottle; the other remedy $! per box, or both for $1.50, 
Post paid Circular and advice free for stanip. 

10-1-lm* Springfield. 111. 

Half Dozen for - - - $6.00! 




Ijincii nii(i Pnper CoSliirw and t'liflM 


llO North Queen Street, 

Second door from Shober's Hotel. 



A book containing a list of towns iu the U. S,. haviug 
5,ii0it pop., and tho newspajier having largest eircidation. 
AU the Rehgious. Agricultural, Scientific, and other special 
class journals. Tables of rates, showing cost of advertis- 
ing and everything which an advertiser would like to know. 
Mailed on receipt of ten cents. Address 

<iEW. 1». KOWEM. A-rO., 
10 Spruce-8t., N. Y„ (opposite "Tribune" building). 


-Marrow"* Plotorinl Family Bible and En- 
Cyolopedin of Biblleal Knowle<lK4N contains G4 
iiuiiortant features, nearly l,8im illnstrations and many tine 
plates by Gustave Dore and other artists. Genuine morocoo 
bindings and heavy panel, ten styles and prices. Send for 
■circulars and terms to agents. S. L. MARROW & CO., 

IndiaD&poliB, Ind. 




I A.S -A. SFE.CJ.A.1^ N£:iAr YE A.R.'S G-IFX | 

R.-ffncri liin PanlBl, 9tll Oh..|il<>r. If, Vet.n : " o Lord, »r.:ordin8 lo «ll TliT rlght»"« I 
_,, .of.h Tlip.'. toi fiiitor »inl Thy fury be loriicJ aosy from Thy cU», J.rii.«l«ni."-JfaJMMO 

4tthe MoMt SubUniK 

-MaMugf I 


.vur publirtti.-ii, li le A i.nir.-i t . iipi 

. f,ai.> 

iiKl'.v Ivi.i 

«llich nnH f,. 

OI'EB O.VB lltSltUKIt fMaWletCS iiro rcpriocntcfl ; from the Innoopiit bah« I 

I lit lis 111.. 111. -fs l,r.-i»s! I.I 111.. slr..ii:; i.i;iii hdi iiiii;lity warrior. In th." nttlliiilc iif u-rror niul [ 
.Ifspalr. Ilp.liii; Moni the vvriilli i.r .\JmiBlity «..<!. Over hca.l are hp.mi aiiKel" ami ar.'li- 
aiiKPls, iirnifrl wllh .if flaminK fir.' il.scpn.lliiir nii tli.. bCHlltirul Kiit wlrk.'.! anil 1 
.l.mrai'rt city. On s.-clntr Ihls pncravlnf y.ju arn liel.t siu-U-boiintl hy Us h..niity, irinn.l.-iir I 
an.l III.' ;iwliil,,n il tciii-hi-s. ' 

< l;r (HI THIS tKIMUU ATK ,tS IT IS MOIiTII $.,.01) T() VOt. 
On refflpt of tills i'erlin<-nt(.. t.iKetbir wlih lOr, to pay pu^tarp anil nio'iiitlnu 
€!iiKnse.-!,wewill suii.l ilio f5.i«i sipbi Knsravini,', 2 f.-.'twMe In- V; feet long,.'ntlli.'d 


Frt-r, t.y mail, post-pal.l. Scnrt r..r Kntniving at c.n.'o, .staliiiB nanip In full, to- 
gether w ;th Post Ollicf a.i.lress. .-..mity uii.t Slate. .-VtldreSR. 


All .in:.T.s n.ust he :nT..nii.iin:.'f| «!lh l!i.. al...v.' r..rlili:-;il.-. .s., 11, at «.■ i.kiv know I 
I Ihat .von ar.. eiit.lle.l to It. L'p..M r.'.-.-lpt ..r sain.-, aii.l I'.i,-. m .iirr-'inv .,r |i..'<laL-'stiimiA 
- ,.' I'-'.y lori,.)Sla^'.'aMd Mi.inl.limr, llii'i.i.Ou Kugfavlug will be inalh'd yoo rnKK us a New 
Vear'Ht.itt. A.i.lifss all orders t.i 


Wo. f SIi>ni4> K(i-4>4-<. <*I>i4'I>\ iTI. O. 


For $1.00 ^e will send free by maili 
any one of tlie following lots : 

8 dlsliocc variciit's, Sloiith'.v Roeos, Winter flowering. 

8 " Bof;oriiaa, ** 

8 " CnriiBtioo Pinka, " 

8 '* ChineBC Chn.'KAnthonm9, " 

8 " Znnnl Gcraniumi, " 

8 '* DuuHle, ** ** 

8 •' ivy LPiiveit " " 

8 " Beliotroii(.'B, " 

6 - " 

i^ " Double C'uiiii-Ilafl, " 

4 " Azaleaa, '* 

4 " Lobj-ter Cactus, " 

6 " Bouvardias, " 

3 " Steviasand Eupatoriuma," 
8 *' Fucli^tna, " 

4 •' Doubh" Violots, " 

2 " PoinsoUa, Scarlet Jt >71iftc, do. do. 
4 ** Plumbago, do. do. 

8 '• Ftrns, for War.lian Cnsee. 

4 '• I'Mlni.H. 

6 " Mo'^.3. " 

6 '* Marantas, " 

8 " Hva-intli Dulbs. 

20 assorted Tnlips. Bulbs. 

60 '* Crocui " 

3 " .Jacobean Lilv, Bulbs. 
12 " OxaHs. 

4 U!y of tbo Valley. 

8 New Pearl Tubfrnse. 

3 of any of the abore 81 colloctions for $8. 
5 " " " 3 

7 « u .. 4_ 

9 " " " 6. 

12 " " " fl. 

14 •' '• " 7. 

Or tltc whole collection of 238 Dulbn and Plants sent by 
Exjirt'ss on rcceijK of ^1.5,1*.*, to wbich either of our book*, 
cachj, will b*" added, l)i ^criiHlv*- Cataloguo (r«e. 


KecdMiBien nii<l Fiorlsts, 

35 Cortlandt St., M. T. 



for H.tnd or Po-t.T. Conkkl Kr.nolj 
Burr St'^nc Flouring and Corn Mills. 

C^'Keceived itic Omtid .^unnl Di- 
fiictiin and Medal at Ccoteuuial. 

C^'Illustrated ps(ii|>>>1el x-m Vnt, 
A.blross. L. J. Mfl.l.Kie, 

181 E. Front St.. Ciucinnmi, o. 


A Vogelrtble I'ropnmlion, invt-utt'd in tho ITtli 
ccutiiry by Dr. WlHinm firuce, Surpeun in King JameH' 
army. Tbrough its ageucy he cured tbouHandn of the most 
eerious sores and wonndn, and waB regarded by all who 
know* him op a ]uiblic beuefactor. 25c. a box, by mail 30c. 
For sale by druggista geiiercUy. 


Address SETE W, fOTLE Jt ZWZ, inva, Ku>. 

1760. ESTABLISSEB 1760. 

26 and 28 West King-st. 







Agents for lb« 

" Ohio " Reaper and Mower, 
Whann'a Phosphate, 
Fairbank's Scales, 
Dupont's Powder, 
Harrisburg Nails, &c., &c. 

We have (he largest atcck of general Hardware In lb* 
state, and nnr prices are as loir aud terms an libera! as oaa 
be found eUewhere. 9-1-tf. 

<r^TT?rn '^t-'^" PARK'S FJLORAI. 
kItXX' J. MAGAZINE, ''"-""I'fui 

•< ^"^ l.v; 1(. pHut'H, tinted pcj er, ru-hly illus- 

tratod. all about flowers, feruories, etc. Only 50 cents ft 
year, Sample for stamp. 

Flobil CATAt-oaxTK FtlEB. O«o. W. Pabk, Mt VemoD, O. 



[January, 1878. 




S8 AA^est King Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

Wboleule tnd Retail Dealerg in 



Imm, Clocks and Watcbaakers' l^ateiiali 





^.o.^ 223 ' ■ '^'- 


Benson, BuRPEE&Co 

FOR 1878, 

Contains full lists with descriptions, illustrations 

and prices of 



(all the Btandard varieties and many choice noTeltles), Summer 
and Autumn Bulbs. Plants, Small Fruits, Trees, AgricuUufU 
Implements, and Blooded Live Stock and Fancy PooUry. 
f^end yoar nddre»M on a Postal I'ard and re- 
coiTe a copy by r«tnru mall. 10 packages CholM 
Flower Seeds for 25 cents. 

lOur Novelties. 

We call special attention to our CA1.IFORNIA BROOM 

CORN, an evergreen variety which does not require bend- 

ing down. 

Special Injportations iij Foreign Goods. 




Henry Eurtz> Centennial and Hartford Tobacco 

■eeds can be obtained by addressing the proprietor at 
Mount Joy, Pa., or the editor of The Fabmeb, No. 101 
Korth Queen street, Lancaster, Pa. Price, 81.00 per 
packag'e. The leaf of these Tobaccos were awarded a 
premium at the Centennial Exposition iu 1870. 





Author of *' Lislen to the Mocking Bird," " I'll sail the seas 
«ver," •* What is Home without a Mother,'' etc., etc.- 
" Out of work, without a penny, 
Pleading hel before thy door, 
Without friends umoug the many — 
Look with pity on the poor."' 
* ^ * One of the most touching and beautiful balladw ever 
■written, will give the author a more extended popularity 
than auythiug she has ever written. Price 35 cents— or, 
JUuHtrated title page 4it cents. 

For sale at all music stores, or will be sent postpaid on 
receipt of price by the publishet p, 

9—9 72:1 Che&tnnt Street, rhil.idelphia. 


the beat mtrkec 


BAT TIEW HTBRID K CI.ON afid the new Tomato— Bed Cblef. 
^^ScQd for Catalogue to 

SElTSOir, BTTEFEE Ss 0., Seed "Wareliouse , 223 Clxtiicli St. , Fhiladelpliift, 


Hauufacturers and de;ilerB in all kinds of rough and 


Tb« beet Sawed SIII.V«I.F..S iu the country. Aleo Saeh, 
Doore, Blinds, Mouldings, &c. 


and PATENT BLINDS, wtiioh arc far superior to any 
ether. Also best COA L oonetautly on hand. 


lortbeast Corner of Prince and Waliint«t8., 


Elegant Table Silverware 

Can be sMured \<j nil "D compliftnceivith the following uoDditinns: The Kntlonal Silver 
P:utiiig Coiniianv, 704 Chesinm Street, Philadelphia, manufacturers of Pure Coin 
SLuti.J;iril Siiver-'Plaled Ware, will seuil to nuy one who receives this notice, r Set of 
Ontiiiie i;xirii-Piateit Silver Kpoons. and enprave on each spoou any desired 
initial. You are letimrefl to cutoat the following Silverware Couion und B>-iid tl to 
ihv rtoove t'oiiipaiij , with your name and addrefi*, and also locnclo'^e with it 75 cents 
ir. par all - liarges, includitii; cost of engravlr-g Iniliiild. paclting, boxing, and expresa 
charges. The Spoonrt will Ije tent by cx|>re83 lor mail, if tou have no express ollice), 
and delivered in vour hands widiout further coat. The-se Spo.;-us are guarnnteed lo be 
of the hts! TiiRterial. and eniiol to the beat Silver-Pluled Wareaiade, us the followiug 
Ic-Her froiu the t/ompnuy Will tcstifr : 

Oi-Fi K .jF NATu-:*Jib Silver Plating Co., T04 ChesinutSt., Philadelphia. Fa. 

To whom it may Concern.— The SpBhus sctil out uu'ier this arrangement 
w ■ ;:iittr.iuice ;ire '->r bi'si fiwalilj-, Urst heavily plated wiih pure nickel (the hardest 
T. hii^ metal known), and a double-extra plate of inire Coin-Standard Silver add^d on 
top ol ilie nickel, thus renderiuL' them Iht: vei'y best Silver-plated W»re nianuric- 
liiii-l. U'r will honor no order which dues nnt c-niaiu the Silverware Coupon, and we 
will Imnor the CoupoQ after niUL-tv d:iv^ rrmii the date of thisi pap-jr. 


704 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 

and on ■ 
oilie cli 


1 receipt of this Conpon, together with 7fi cents to cover all charges, litclud- 
pi ess cr niailini;. engraving and boxing, we hereby agree to send to any ad- 
1 •'et of our pure Coiu-StandarJ double-extra plated 


nch Spoon eoevave any desired initial. All charges are to he prepaid h\ 
entfl eeni us, and the Spoons will be delivered at destination free of any 
D'l for ninetT days from date of this pnper. after which lhl5 roiip.-in le null 

704 Cliestnut St.. Philadelphia. 

Sliuiild it be dij-ired, any one of the folln 
I1.M1 (if til" ^piinns 'III paviiient of the folb' 
knii es. I'liide and handle i.'ne solid piece, best attel. double nickel and silver 
plated. !t'i : t-ix forKe. double nickel and silver plated, yj cts. If all these lire desired, eni-loac the total chargen, which will belocts.for spoonR, 
$:■ i..r knives, and So cts. for forks— total, $3.70— thus socurinc for i:\'0 
wliiii would coft von nmch ni"ie in nuy t'tlier way. Rr-membcr that 
each aitiele, except knives, will be engraved with any initial 
desired without entra cost. 


This liberal offer holds good for only ninety days from date, therefora 
il 19 to (be interest of all who can pecurc its beneflis 10 see to tl that they 
are uot ik'l>irreil by reason of the expiration of the time specified. All let- 
ters ordrriue Silverware bhould Lie addressed direct to the 


No, 704 Chestnut Street. 




SEND FOR 1878. 


The Best Religious and Secular Family News- 
paper. $3.15 a Year, post-paid. 
Established 1823. 









No. 36 West King Street, 



<f"^ _ 'V£ic>r> (To imbeerthera'in 
►pi Ct 1 CCtl y the county. 


To •ulnerilwrf out of \ (t-l OR 
Itie county. ( lipl.^Cj 

Prof. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 




Clubbing, 17 

Special Premiums for 1878, - - - - - 17 

Correction, --------17 

Driving Away Rats, - . - . - 17 

George Stinton & Co., art publishers, . - 17 
The Weather, ------- 17 

Home Experssions, ------ 17 

February — Kitchen-Garden Calendar, - - - 17 

Lancaster County Publications, - - - 18 

A County Well Supplied Willi Home Reading Matter. 

Queries and Answers, ----- 18 

The Peach Bark-Louse, 18 

The Luinbard Plum, ----- 19 

Thoroughbred Short-IIorns, - - - - 19 

Revu of January Numbei' — Von IhnnboU^ - 19 

Pruning and Training our Grapeviues-jD. SmeycJi, 20 

The Ditauy— /. Stmiffo; ----- •il 

Alioiil the Ice Around Uitany. 

Half-Way Plowing—/. ».,---- 22 

Harrowing \ — EfTects of Neglect. 

Around the Farm. No. 5 — linralist, - - - 23 

Poultrj-Keeping — '1 obacco Plant Beds, 

The Coming Tomato— "Echoff," - - - 23 
Planting Trees for Timber and Fuel— .4. H. E., 23 
Hoeing'Whcat— y. A'. Banta, - - - - 24 
The Past, Present and Future of Dairying, - 24 
Dark Brahma Fowls, - - ■ - - - - 25 
How -Fruit-Crowing May be Made a Source of 
Profit by Farmers — By Junus Cuhkr, - - 25 
I. If Poisible, Sflect Your Location Near the Best 
Markets. — z Select Such Fruits, and Such Varie- 
ties of '1 hem. as are Adapted to Your Marlcet. — }. 
Select Such Fruits and Such Varieties of 'I hem as 
are Adapted to Your Climate and Soil. — ■4. If Possi- 
ble, Have a Variety. — 5. Plant Other Crops Among 
Your Yo\ing Frviit Until tlte Latter Shall Need All 
the Ground. — 6. Carry on Fruit-Growing Systemati- 
cally and Vigorously as You Can. — 7. Market Y'our 
Fruit in the Best Condition. — 8. Preserve in a Fresh 
State, or as Nearly so as Possible, the Fruit for 
\Vhich a Market Cannot be Found Immediately. — 

9. Transportation Companies Can Do Much Toward 
Securing the Object of Which We .Are Speaking.^ 

10. 1 here Are Related L)epartnients of Labor 
Which May be Made to Swell One's Receipts. 

Our Paris Letter, ------ 26 

Our Local Organizations, - - - - 27 

Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society — Election of Members — 
Reports of Special Committees— Condition of the 
Crops — Reading of Essays — Questions for Discus- 
sion — Referred Questions — New Business. 
Tobacco Growers' Association, - - - - 28 

»Thc Crop Reports — Applicaticn of Lime to Land — 
The Manure Question — Election of Officers — Fine 
The Linnnean Society, ... - - 29 
Historical Collection — Library — Paper Read — New 

The Value of Hen Manure, .... 30 
Raising Cloverseed, ----.. 80 
What a Big County We Live In, - - - SO 

Agricultural Notes, 30 

Pruning During Winter, ----- 30 
Pruning Fruit Trees, ----- 30 

Forcing Asparagus, ----- . 30 

More Large Trees, - 30 

Oatmeal as an Article of Diet, ... 30 
Airing Beds, --. ....30 

Keep Borax in the House, .... 30 

Household Recipes, - . . . ... 30 

Controlling Horn Growth, .... .31 

Good Stock, - - 31 

Give Us a Breed of Walking Horses, 
A Morse's Petition to His Master, 
Vermont Wool Growers' Association, 
Elizabeth Stock Farms, . - - 

In-Breeding of Poultry, - . . 
Fowl Feeding in Cold Weather, 
How to Manage, - - . - 
Sore Eyes in Poultry, - - - 
Literary and Personal, - - - 



We ofter fur Wpriiig Of tsT.S, the liirt,'i.4t and most complete 
stock in the U. S., of 

FrllH 'I'roes. Stiindiiid and Dwarf. 

4»rliaiii(^iital Trec'MA'KllrubN, deciduous & evergreeu 

ROMCN a specialty — oil the fmest sorts. 

Ureeii A' Hot IIoiisp Plants.iucludiiiKbest Novelties 

Descriptive and Illustrated priced Catalogues seut pre- 
paid to custoiuers, fret*; to others, ou receipt of stamps, 
as follows : 

No. I. Fruits, with colored plate, I5e.; plain, lOe. 

No. 2. t^rameutal Trees, colored plate. 25c; plaiu, 15c, 

No. 3. Greenhouse, free. No. 4. Wholesale, Free. 

No. 5. Itose Catalogue for 1878, Frot*. 

USJ^Stiiall parcels forwarded liy mail wheu desired. 



& BARRY, Rochester, N. Y. 



Plain and Fine Harness, 





Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, <&c., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

9-1-ly L.\NCASTF.R, P.\. 


The crowning r*.-sn\t oi Kii/hti;-)i iji'ir.s i<i caic uud toil — 

rKi/ro>\s Skw jU:KKit:K. 

The Ciii(lorella:ind4'oitliii4'iilnl Sirnwberrie** 
and Knrly I'roliflic and Itel Iuikm' K»v|»l>c*r riON in 

now offort'd to tho Public ; T4>Hie<l Xino IVarw. juid in 
oiir judgment the four Bf»l I'ayiii^ narki't 

S~f^ CATALOauK iiud PKICK LisT Free. 


Nureerymcn and Fruit Growers, Woodbury, N. J. 

Scribner's Lumber and Log-Book. 

OVER HALF A MILL'ON SOLD. The most coiu] hte 
ho.'k of il« kind ever publisht'd. Oives correct nieaB- 
uicmciit of all kinds of lumber, l'>gs and plank by Doyle's 
Rule, cubical contents of Bquare and round timber, stave 
and heading bolt tables, wages, rent, board, capacity of 
cisterus, cord-wood tables, interest, etc. Standard Book 
throughout United States and Canada. 

Ask your bookseller for it, or I will Bead one for 35 cents, 

«. M\ FISHER, 
10-2~3mj P. O. Box 23t!i, Rocbesler, X. T. 

« AT ^ Any worker can make $12 a day at home. Coetly 

I Outfit free. 

AddreBB Thuk k Co., Augusta, Me. 







Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 


Repairing strictly attended to. 


North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Fa. 



a week in your own town' Tt-i ms iuid $5 outfit free. 
Address H. Hai.i.i;tt 4: Co., Portlaml, Maine. 






is tlie mOfit beuUiliUl ^M-ikni Itie kili-iiii (in- i\«.Hid. It 

contains nearly ISO pages, hundreds of fine illustrations, 
and six Cliromo Platen <»/ Ftou'er», beautilully drawn and 
colored from nature. Price f»0 cents in paper covers ; $1.00 
in elegant cloth. I'rinted in Gernmn and Knglish. 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine,— 32 pages, fine 
Illustrations, and Citloied Piute in every number. Price 
Jl.'jri a year ; Five eopiew for $r>,O0. 

Vick's Catalogue, — 3lto Illustrnlions, onlv 2 o^ntfl. 

AddP'J^H, -I.XMKS VICK. It. rli.><ter. X. y. 


ShuhlnrtV.i Mil si nil Ithrnrtf, jiint lulilifhed, 12 
pages, full size, beht and niost popular nuis;c lor lU ceuts. 
Sew and Popalar Simga, Dance and Inntru mental MuJtiCf 
Opera*, jyt/mnn, etc., cte. For sale by nil newspii| er deal- 
ers. Postage 2 cents, to be sent iu addition to above, if 
ordered from the publishers. 


9-12-3tl 72R CuKsTNfT Sthkkt, PhII.ADKLI'HIA. 


J>i»i*-4iHftf Cttri'tl. New 

paths marked out by that 
plainest of all iMoka — 
"Plain Home Talk and 
Medical Cunmion Sense," 
—nearly 1,IMK> i»ages, 2U0 illustrations, by Dr. E. B. Foote, 
of 120 Lexington Ave., N. Y. Purchasers of this Book are 
at liberty to cnuttuU its author iu person or by mail free. 
Price by mail $.^.25 for Wia Stnmlard edi'ion, or $1.50 foi 
the /fo/>i<far edition, which contains all the same mattei 
and illustrations. Conteuta tables fref>. AfjfutM Wanted. 

9-10-ly ]29EaBt 29Ui St. N. T. 



Trains leave the Depot in this city, 


Pacific Express" 

Way Passeiigei't 

Niagiirii Exi>ie6;8 

Col. Accommodation 

Mail train via Mt. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line* 

Frederick Accommodation. 

Harrisbn vg Accorn 

Columbia Accommodafiou.. 

Harrisburg Express 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express* 


Atlantic Express' 

Philadelj.hia Expresst 

HarviHburg Express 

Colnmlna Accommodation.. 

Pacific Exi>resH^*'' 

Suud;iy Mail 

Johnstown Express 

Day Express' 

Harrisburg Accona. 

sen EOVIiE. 

as follows : 





2:40 a. 111. 

4:05 a. ni. 

4:50 a. m. 

7:50 a. m. 

9.35 a. m. 

10:40 a. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

Col. 8:00 p. m 

11:20 a. m. 

1:00 p. m. 

11:20 a. m. 

1:25 p. m. 

11:20 0. m. 

1:30 p. m. 

2:10]). m. 

3:25 11. m. 

2:15 p. in. 

Col. 2:45 p. m 

0:00 p. m. 

8:10 !•. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

Col. S:no p. m. 

7:25 p. m. 

8:40 p. m. 

9:25 p. m. 

10:50 p. ill. 

11:30 p.m. 

12:45 a. m. 



12:30 a. m. 

3:00 a. m. 

4:10 a. m. 

7:00 a. m. 

7:35 a. m. 

10:00 a. m. 

9.28 p. m. 

12:30 p. m. 

1:20 p. m. 

3:45 p. m. 

2:00 p. m. 

5:00 p.m. 

3:05 p. m. 

6:00 p. m. 

5:1S p. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

5:50 p. m. 

9:00 p. m. 

The Hanover Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
■with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a.m., and will run 
through cu Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connects at Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p.m., and runs to Frederick. 

The Pacific Express, east, ou Sunday, when flagged, will 
stop at ISIiddletown, Elizabethtown, Mount Joy and Landis- 

*The only trains which run daily. 

tRuns da'lv. excfp t TMnnd.iy. 


The Century CI art. 

A 100-year Almanac, whereby you can ascertain what day 
of the week any day of the month is or what day of the 
month any day of the week is, was, or will be, from 1799 to 
1900, or in what day any event has taken place, from 1799 
. to 1900, and 1000 other occurrences. The greatest in- * 
§ vention of man. Every person will buy one; also the ^ 
^ great Egyptian Puzzle. Sport for all. Either article 2 
e sent on receipt of 25c. pos't paid, or Si jjer dozen. * 
H Agents wanted everywhere. Ladies and Gents secure 
your town at once. You can make $'20 per week. Send for 


KOOllS BRO'S, Novelty Dalers. 

00 and 102 Washiiiglon Sv.. CHICAGO, 111. 

P U L M O N A 

is beyond comparison the best remedy for the cure of CON- 

Broncftitas, Catarrh, and all derang^-ments of the NERV- 
OUS SYSTEM. A circular containing pabticulaks of 
MANY CASES srccEssFULLY TREATED, full advise for the 
treatment of the diseases above mentioned, and certificates 
of actual cures, will be sent free by mail to all appbcants. 
Address OSCAK G.MOSES, Sole Proprietor, 18 Cortlandt 
Street, New York. 9.10-(5m 




A Domestic Jewel that will last a life-time. 


Does away with the Inconveniences 
connected \Afiih other Graters. 

Its coustnictiou com-ueuds itself to tile i)ublic, and all 
the leading Kitchen Furnishing Houses speak of it iu the 
lllgheBt terms, 


Most Simple, Most Durable, and Most Re- 
liable invention ever offered to the 


l>ireclions — Take the grater in the left hand, palm 
towards you, with your third finger through the hauiUe, 
place the thumb on the spring-lever, remove the feeder and 
insert the nut. 

Price to Agents $1.75 Per Dozen. 

Gooil liive Agents Wanted Everywhere. 

All orders should be addressed to 


Manufacturer's Sole Agent, 

Also Dealer & lanf r. of Patent Noyelties, &c. 



Sewing Machine 

I, — Makes a perfect lock stick, alike on both sides, on all 
kinds of goods. 

2. — Runs Light, Smooth, Noiseless and Rapid. 

3. — DuKABLE -Runs for years without Repair. 

4. — Will do all varieties of Work and Fancy Stitching in 
a superior inanni^r. 

5.— Is A fost Easily managed hy the operator. Length of 
stitch may be altered while riuming, and machine can be 
threaded without parsing thread through holes. 

6. — Design Simple, Ingenious, Elegant. Forming the 
stitch ivit/iotit the use of Cog WHcel Gears, Rotary Cams, or 
Lever Arms. Has \.\\t Automatic Drop Feed, which insures 
uniform length of stitch at any speed. Has our new Thread 
Controller, which allows easy movement of needle bar and 
prevents injury to thread. 

7. — Construction ;;/<3j( careful ax^A Finished. It is manu- 
factured by the most skillful and experienced mechanics, at 
the celebrated ICI^MlVOTO.^ t Rn4»SCY. Ilion, K. 
Y. Attention is called to our greatly reduced prices. 

8. — The No. 2 Remington Machine for Manufacturing and 
Family use has been recently improved, and is offered to the 
public with the assurance that it will give entire satisfaction. 



218 and 283 Broadway, New York 





Numbering 1T5 pages, with Colored Plate, 


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To others, on receipt of 25c. 

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free to all, 


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The ch.?;i]ifrit aud best WLiy to reiich readers outside of 
the bivge cities is by usiug oue or more of our six lists of 
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free, to H. A. KING, 17 Bible H^use, N. Y. City. 
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will send a Chart free on receipt of 25 cts. to pay tor mount- 
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for all of the following articles or we will sell them for you on 
^% (5 ])er cent.) cpinmisssiou mt^mm^^m^aa^^^^ 
Cheese, E <i O K. 1> O &J I.- O H I ■ T BT D 
T R Y,Lard, Tailiow. Feath- H || I I PK. 
ers, Potatoes, A P>.B* I^ EK, BV W ■ ■ inllll 

/N « A TTVr ^''""^' ^^'''^' ^"'■' ^^'^^'' ^^ool, 
^JTAbjCateXx^ 9 Peauui.s Broom Cora, Diied Fruit, 
Hay, Hops. &c., &c. I..iB>eral cash advane^vs made 
ou largecousiguraents of staple articles. Farmers, shippers 
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No Agents; no commissions; no discounts. Pianos for 
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which is without question the greatest improvement ever put 
into a Square Piano, producing the ?nost astonishing power , 
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7iever before attained. Our Uprights are the finest in 
America. Pianos sent on trial. Don't fail to write for Illus- 
trated and Descriptive Catalogue — mailed free. 



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ot tbe kind in the World." 



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thauks to the enterprise of the publishers and the tact and 
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expectantly as did tlie reader of a quarter of a century ago; 
there is the same admirable variety jf coutents and the same 
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The Lancaster Farmer. 

Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 


Vol. Z. No. 2. 

We ofler The Fahmhh, clubbed witli other 
first-class publications, at the following; prices : 
rhrenoloi/ical Jonrnal and Farmer - §:! 00, $\i.!>0 
Ha-Q)cr's Monthly and Kaumer - - - 5.00, 4 00 
Jfarpir's llVc/rfy and Farmer - - - 5.00, 4.00 
Harper's JSa,-iir a.ndF\Uiimi . - - - 5.00, 4.00 
i/«-aW 0/ //oi/^A and Farmer - - - 2.00, 1.50 
A'ational Live .Sloek Journal and Farmer 3.00, 2.50 
Mount Joy Herald ami V\HMER - - 2.50, 1.75 
Friemh Journal and Farmek - - - 3.50, 3.00 

Tlie first cokunn indicates tlie regular 
prices of the two journals respectively, and 
the second column the club rates if the two 
are ordered together. 


Club Rates— No. i. 
To any one, within the county of Lancas- 
ter, sending us a club o( five new subscribers, 
accompanied by four dollars, we will send five 
copes of The Farjier, to any address, for 
one year, from the lirst of January next, and 
two copies of "Jenkins' Art of Propagation," 
a beautiful octavo of 32 pages, and 25 tine 
embellishments, which sells readily at .50 cents 
jier copy. To any one out of the county, for 
five dollars, five copies and two books. 

No. 2. 

For SIX subscribers, accompanied hy five dol- 
lars, we will send six copies of The Farmer, 
as above, and one copy of the "Life of 
Charles Dickens," by Mrs. Hanaford, or 
"Driven to Sea," by Mrs. Coupples, or "The 
Presidents and tlieir Administrations," or 
"The Declaration of Independence." These 
are royal 12 mo. volumes of about 400 pages, 
hand-somely illustrated, and sell for $1.50. 
No. 3, 

For ten subscribers, and ten dollars, ten 
copies, as above, and one box of "Kunkel's 
Celebrated Perfumes." These boxes contain 
six bottles of pertume, the regular retail price 
of which is one dollar per bottle, or "The 
Century of Independence," price .$2.. 50— very 
'desirable premiums for local lady canvassers. 
No. 4. 

For //teen subscribers, and fifteen dollars, 
we will send sixteen copies of The Farmer 
and a SIO.OO order on Peter Henderson, good 
for ttcentij-four choiee flowering green-house 
pl(L}its, twenty packages of flower seeds, and, 
twenty packages of vegetable seeds. Peter Hen- 
derson is known all m'er tlie Union, and there- 
fore nothing need be said about the quality of 
his goods. 

No. 5. 

For twenty subscribers, and eighteen dollars, 
twenty copies of The Farmer, and one copy 
of "Science in Story," consisting of a series 
oi five illustrated square 12 mo. volumes of 
2.32 pages each (1160 images). Please see our 
literary columns fir a more full description of 
this desirable series. 

No. 5. 

For twenty-five subscribers, and twenty-four 
dollars, twcnly-livc copies of The Farmer 
and one of "Peck's Celebrated Atomizers," 
worth fflO.OO at least. This is the best ma- 
chine ever invented for throwing liquid solu- 
tions and decoctions on insect-infested plants. 
For an illustrated description of this machine 
see the May (1870) number of The Farmer, 
page 09. 

To clubs made up beyond the borders of 
Lancaster county the cash amount required 
will be greater, proportioned to the dilierence 
in published terms, as to home and foreign 
subscriptions. Our canvassers cau make tliese 

calculations upon the basis of our lirst propo- 

We are making arrangements for additional 
inducements to subscribers, whi('h, if accom- 
plished, will become manifest in future 
numbers. We also intend to increase our 
numlier of desirable illustrations forlBVS, and 
add other embellishments, as fast as our 
means will allow, and we respectfully ask the 
public to help us make The Lan(;aster 
FAit.MER a credit to the "great county," and 
the people among whom it is located. Our 
tenth volume should be the crowning volume 
of the series — so we desire. 


We would respectfully call the attention of 
our wheat-growing readers to a typographical 
error which crept into j\Ir. Grolf's "Improve- 
ment in wheat culture," in our November 
number, 1877. On page 104, second column, 
and line twenty-four, from the bottom, the 
figures should be 61 bushels instead of "31," 
as there printed. This is inqwrtant under the 
circumstances, and ought to be corrected. 


Dr. T. C. Smith has made an important 
discovery — how to rid a building of rats. 
First, he caught a rodent alive. Next, he 
poured carbolic acid over him, and then sent 
him adrift.. His relations and acquaintances 
didn't admire the fragrant odor, and concluded 
to leave the premises for mon; favorable 
quarters. Not a rat was afterwards seen 
about the place. "Try it on." We believe 
coal oil would have the same effect. The 
remedy is cheap and simple. 

We would respectfully call the attention of 
our readers to the card of Messrs. George 
Stinton" & Co., art jiublishers, Portland, 
Maine, in the advertising columns of this 
number of our journal. Also, to those of 
Messrs. True & Co. and Messrs. Ilallett & 
Co., in the same column. These are all first- 
class publishing houses, and the agencies for 
their publications are th(? most lucrative and 
desirable of any in the Union ; and as they 
employ none but honest and capable agents, 
the coinnmnity can place the utmost confidence 

in them. 



Up to the end of January the season was 
unusually mild, although we cannot say that it 
was unparalleled in the previous history of the 
country, for we nevertheless two or 
three pretty "cold snajis," during one of 
which the Conestoga and the Susquehana 
w-ere closed with ice, and afforded a slmrl and 
brisk ice harvest. But in December mosipiitoes 
were abundant, and in some i>laces ;niiioyin^ : 
iK'csescaiied from their hives and "swarmed," 
and snakes and salamaiulers were active and 
came forth from their winter quarters. In 
.lanuary the dandelions and the vinlels 
bloomed ; the cabbage butterlly was abroad, 
and iirasshoppers "leaped for joy." During 
November, December and .January many 
beetles {Aiihodians) were on the wing, and in 
some places the fruit buds seemed ready to 
burst open— but winter reigns now. 


L'AXCAsrER Far.mer. — The January num- 
ber is received. As it appears so it is, a neat, 
clean, solid journal, furnishing a great deal of 
I)ractical information and interesting reading. 
It has of our best jiractical farmers among its 
contributors, and its editor, Prof S. S. Kath- 
von, is scarcely excelled in the knowledge of 
plants and insects, and their habits. In the 
bauds of such aa editor, suiTOuiided aud as- 

sisted by the farmers of the best cultivated 
country in the I'nion, The Far.mer is, proba- 
bly, the most practical agricultural journal in 
.\merica. Let us, hen^ at home, not be guilty 
of that crime which left a i)rophet not without 
honor, "save in his own country." Let every 
farmer in the cimnty, and in surrounding 
counties, not only subscribe for The Farmer 
and pay for it, but induce friends in other 
places to do so, and make its worth known. 
Uemember we will furnish the Herald and 
The Farmer one year for $2.00, paid in ad- 
vance. — Ml. Joy Herald. 

TirELAXOA.STER Farmer has just entered 
upon it.s tenth volume, and asks for a more 
liberal support than it has received in the 
past. The Farmer is one of the best, most 
practical, interesting and valuable agricultural 
journals that we know of, and wc can heartily 
commend it to all who arc interested in farm- 
ing, horticulture, stock raising, and similar 
pursuits, and in particular do we think that 
every fanner, fruit-grower and stock raiser in 
this and adjoining counties should be a regu- 
lar reader of The Far.mer, as a large portion 
of its contents have bearing upon the wants 
and interests of this section of country. Let 
our people resolve to encourage this valuable 
home journal, and thus help to make it still 
more valuable and interesting. Subscription 
price, $1.00 a year to persons in the county, 
and .$1.25 to those outside of this county. 
Linnaeus Rathvon, publisher, Lancaster, Pa. — 
New Holland. Clarion. 

[Wc doff our "beaver" to friends Iloffer, 
and l{anck & Sandoe; may tlie good news be 
ILralded tliroughout the land, with a Clarion 
sound, until every nook is reached by The 


7)1 the Middle States, frost usually prevents 
out-door efforts in the way of gardening. 
Next month, however, will bring its labors, 
and we can now only prepare to forward them. 
It is presumed all iiers(ins in whose hands' this 
numlier of our journal is likely to fall, are 
[irovided with that cheap and simple means 
of enjoyment, a hot-bed, for forwarding tender 
vegetables. We do n<it mean the more ex- 
pensive structure under which delicacies are 
provided ready for the table, but a plain box, 
of suitable size and ligure, with .sash and shut- 
ter to fit, under which ]\]nni^ of cabbage, tomato, 
eeig-)ilanl, Ac, may be raised in anticipation of 
spring, and on iUs arrival, to be transplanted 
to the open air. If there be one who has still 
a garden unfurnished with what we have just 
described, let him lake our word for it he will, 
on trial, thank us for urging its immediate 
provision. No country family can half enjoy 
the comforts within reach who are un|irovided 
with such a structure. A glance at one in 
use will give the necessary information .as to 
the construction. Towards the close of this 
month (if the weather be very severe, it may 
bi' prudent to defer it awhile,) the seeds of the 
plants just named may be planted under 
glass ; watch them lest they sutler by frost, 
or, as is not unfrequcntly Hie ease, from want 
of sutlicieiit air as the weather becomes milder, 
when they will need iiicrensed water. If the 
remarks under the head of January are re- 
ferred to, perhaps something may be found 
which will apply with equal force to the pres- 
ent month. We can only speak in general 
terms of the work which may be advantage- 
ously done now, jireparatory to the active 
season which isapiiroaching. The thoughtful 
man will study out llie subject for him.self, 
and leave nothing undone which may expedite 
the varied and pressing labors of spring. If 
tools aud implements are likely to be needed, 




he will provide them in due season ; repair 
the old ones, examine and I'eglaze, if need be, 
the sashes of his forcing-frames long before 
they are actually required, overhaul his stock 
of seeds, and make out a list of those which 
may be needed, to the end that tliey may be 
in hand before the time of sowing; thus not 
only his interest but his personal comfort will 
be advanced, and those little trifles which 
perplex the careless and improvident, may be 
made sources of enjoyment. With each duty 
discharged at the proper time, with "a place 
for everything, and everything in its place," 
many rough spots in life's journey may be 
made smoother. — Landreth''s Bur. Beg. 


It is said that when Benjamin Franklin 
solicited the hand of "Deborah" in marriage, 
she referred him to her mother ; and that 
prudent matron, before she gave her consent, 
inquired what he proposed to do for a living. 
He replied that he was a printer, and that he 
proposed to start a new paper. ''A new 
paper !" quoth the old lady. " A new paper ; 
why, bless me, there are two alkbady in 
Pennsylvania ;" and therefore she could not 
see how he was going to make a living by 
starting a third one. 

At the late Centennial Exposition, in Fair- 
mount, there were over eight thousand Ameri- 
can publications represented. What would 
Franklin and his mother-in-law have thought 
and said could they have witnessed this extra- 
ordinary spectacle ? We copy from the JVcw 
Era the following list and names of those 
published now in Lancaster county — thirty- 
tvv'o in number ; and we know that the bosom 
of every intelligent reader will swell with 
pride when he contemplates the magnitude of 
the number at the present day, and he would 
not wish to have that number a single paper 

A County Well Supplied with Home Read- 
ing Matter. 

There are at present published in the county 
of Lancaster, three daily papers, the New Era, 
Examiner and Exjjress, and the Intelligencer. 

Twenty-two weeklies — The New Era, 
Yolksfreund, Examiner and Express, Intelli- 
gencer, Inquirer, Owl, Laterne, Friends'' Jour- 
nal, The Friend, The Blade, Marietta Begister, 
Marietta Times, Columbia Spy, Herald and 
Couraiit, Elizabethtown Chronicle, Mount Joy 
Herald and Mount Joy Star, Manheim Senti- 
nel, New Holland Clarion, Strasburg Free 
Press and Milton Grove News. 

And eight monthlies — The School Jour- 
nal, The Lancaster Farmer, Church 
Monthly, Sling and Stone, High School Journal, 
The Budget, The Sunbeam. The Wide Awake, 
and we understand two additional monthlies 
will be started the present week. 


Reamstown, Jan. 20th, 1878. 

Prof. S. S. Rathvon — Dear fiir : Would you have 
the kindness to inform me on the following pomo- 
logical subject : I desire to start a peach orchard, on 
a tract of sandstone soil, i. e., mountain soil, on the 
winter side of a hill. Do you think that they would 
thrive on such conditions of soil ? Would you advise 
me to go on in this enterprise? Are tobacco ribs, 
when put near the roots, a preventive against the 
worms or borers? Would manuring and liming be 
advantageous to their growth on this kind of soil ? 

By answering the above you will greatly oblige, 
Yours respectfully, Henry Bixler. 

Any soil that will produce corn and potatoes 
will produce peaches, and some of the most 
intelligent and experienced peach-growers 
claim that the north, or winter side of a 
hill, Ave times out of six, is better than the 
southern or summer side, if it is not too inuch 
exposed to the intensely cold north winds ; in- 
asmuch as they bloom later and are therefore 
not so liable to injury from early spring frosts. 

If tobacco ribs were wrapped closely around 
the bases of the trees, and a little earth heaped 
up around the outer edges, they would keep 
off the borers ; but stiff paper, old rags, or 
even newspapers, would answer the same pur- 
pose ; but, in any case, they should be applied | 

about the first of June and continued until 
the end of September. 

If the land is new you don't want anything 
more than the virgin soil to start a peach 
orchard. Sandstone is generally a silicious 
soil and might want some lime from the be- 
ginning, but as to manuring heavily, it is not 
necessary until the trees are in bearing condi- 
tion ; too rich a soil for young trees makes too 
much immature wood, which is seldom ever 
good bearing wood. Even when you begin to 
manure and cultivate it will not require more 
of these elements than are necessary for the 
production of an average corn crop. 

We would not like to specially adinse as to 
the expediency of the enterprise, but we be- 
lieve that if your location is near a railroad, 
and accessible to a good market, you would 
run no risk in planting a peach orchard cif good 
varieties, no matter how abundant the crop 
may generally be. Good peaches always com- 
mand a good price, whether the crop is large 
or small. 

We are often astonished, during the peach 
season, to see so many poor peaches in the 
market. A smaller crop of good varieties 
will always pay better than a larger crop of 
poor varieties, and the labor of cultivating 
and handling the former will be correspond- 
ingly less than that of the latter. 

We have preferred to answer your queries 
through the columns of The Farmer, be- 
cause others have asked the same questions, 
and our mission is to do as much good as we 
can in a general way •, but apart from this 
your own experience, as you go forward, will 
suggest many things which we cannot antici- 
pate, in detail, as to local contingencies. 


Mr. E. B. Engle— Dear Sir : This is the 
brood and insect which I wrote you about in 
my letter of the 13th inst. The winged insect 
you will find in a small tin cylinder with a mag- 
nifying glass in one end. Look through the 
glass and you will see the insect magni- 
fied. As near as I could discover the brood 
hatches in the spring of the year and becomes 
a worm, which lives on the sap of the tree 
until autiunu, when it is transformed into a 
flying insect, the same as the sample I sent 
you. The worm* emits a black dirt, which 
falls upon and covers the fruit, and leaves it 
as if covered with charcoal dust, and it can 
not be rubbed off. Yours respectfully, 

Wm. Young. 

Reading, Jantiary 14th, 1878. 

The foregoing, and the following, extracted 
from another letter on the same subject, by 
the same writer, and about the same period, 
together with a box containing some of the 
insects alluded to, were sent to the meeting 
of the Pennsylvania Fruit-Growers' Society, 
held at Williamsport, on the IGth and 17th 
ult., but on account of the shortness of the 
session they were not reached, and were there- 
fore referred to us for elucidation: 

" Five years ago I had an opportunity to 
discover, on a few peach trees, in the central 
part of the city of Reading, a new insect, 
which, so far as my knowledge extends, has 
never been known here before. The first year 
I visited various sections of the city, to dis- 
cover, if possible, whether it had spread any. 
I found none elsewhere, and I gave notice to 
the people then, that if it was not extermi- 
nated it would become a great evil to the 
peach-grower. This year I find all my bearing 
trees infested with them, as well as my neigh- 
bors', and I do believe it will become, in a 
short time, of great magnitude, and will give 
us no rest until it has destroyed the trees in 
general. Its increase in one season is enor- 
mous, as the insect which lays the eggs can 
fly, and I am at a loss for a remedy. I sent 

*We would respectfully beg leave here to say that neither 
the larva of the bark-louse, uor that of the winged insect 
sent us ever occurs in the form of what is usuwlly under- 
stood as a worm, aud their excremental emissions are always 
in the liquid form. If any worms or maggots are found 
among them they must be those of parasites. The " black 
dirt " OQ the fruit or the branches is, no doubt, a species of 

you a few branches of the infested peach, 
which are a fair sample of the condition of all 
the branches of all the bearing trees at the 
present time. I also sent you one of the in- 
sects that lays the brood. Several trees have 
been totally destroyed. Can you give me the 
nativity of the insect, its name, and when and 
where it was first noticed ? lias any other 
member of the society any knowledge of it, 
and are there any other districts of the State 
infested by it ? Are there any possible reme- 
dies by which it can be destroyed, and if so, 
can they be applied without destroying the 
bearing trees i"' Yours truly, 

Wm. Youn6. 
We insert these letters here not for the pur- 
pose of criticising the misapprehensions, and 
consequent misstatements of the writer, but 
to illustrate, from his own ex|)erience, and 
from his own practical observation, that he 
'has a very formidable insect enemy to his 
peach trees to contend with ; and to elicit the 
observations and experiences of others on the 
same subject, if there should be any within 
our State or elsewhere. But, first, we would 
most respectfully beg leave to correct a great 
error, which he seems to have fallen into, iu 
regard to the winged insect which he alleges 
lays the eggs. 

The delicately formed golden green insect 
with the beautiful lace wings, belongs to the 
order Neuroptera (nerve-winged insects) 
and the family Hemerobud^e, and is one of 
the most industrious and unequivocal insect 
friends that belongs to the whole In- 
secta. The nimble little larva is spindle- 
shaped — oblong, thickest in the middle, and 
tapering towards both ends — has six feet, and 
a formidable pair of calliper-like jaws, and 
feeds mainly on apliids and bark-lice, before 
the latter have assumed the scale form. After 
the larva is mature, it spins itself up in a 
small spherical, whitish, silken cocoon, from 
which the perfect insect evolves in the late 
spring ; and when the female becomes fertilized 
slie deposits from ten to twenty eggs in a 
cluster, each one on the end of a delicate 
white foot-stalk, when they look like a minute 
bulb on the end of a thin, whitish bristle ; and 
when the young are excluded from the eggs, 
they crawl down the foot-stalk aud scatter 
themselves over the tree or plant, and go in j 
search of any small living object they can find, 
especially plant or bark-lice. The specimen 
enclosed, still has the cocoon within its grasp, • 
from which it emerged. This liltle insect can 
do no harm whatever, for in the winged state 
it partakes of no food at all — indeed, it could 
not if it would, for its mouth organs are obso- 
lete, or merely rudimental. It has no part 
whatever in producing the bark-lice that in- 
fest the branches of the peach or any other 
tree, and its presence there is solely for the 
purpose of feeding on them. We have watched 
them for many an hour among colonies of 
aphids, slaying them with the energy of a 
regular pork-butcher. Knowing them and 
their habits so well, we regret that their mis- 
sion has been misapprehended, and hence, 
altogether misrepresented. This little subject 
seems to be Chrysopa occidata, but there are 
some twenty or thirty described species of 

And now a word about the "bark-lice" of 
the peach tree. They belong to the order 
HoMOPTERA (like-winged insects) that is, in 
those among them that have wings at all, the 
wings are all nearly or quite alike in size, 
structure and form. But it is only the males 
that have wings, and these do not survive the 
winter. Those on the twigs of trees at this 
season of the year, are all females, and all 
will, next spring, deposit a number of eggs, 
(each from 50 to 1.50 or more,) and these will 
hatch about the 15th of June — earlier or later, 
according to the temperature of the weather. 
Thej' are so very small when they come from 
the eggs that they cannot be discovered with- 
out the aid of a glass, but small as they are, 
they have organs of locomotion sutticient to 
transport them all over the tree, and wherever 
the wood is stnoothest, newest and most suc- 
culent, there they will penetrate the bark with 




their piercers, .and permanently locate them- 
selves, and besjiu to suck and thrive on the 
yieldinR saii. Alter tliey .select a location and 
affix themselves to it, they never leave it 
alive. All the males do is to fertilize the 
females, after which they very soon die. 
When tlie female is located she divests herself 
of her feet, her antenna' and her caudal tila- 
nients, and becomes <leKiaded into a " scale" 
or "scab," and hence they are called "scale- 
lice," or "scab-lice." No matter how cold or 
how wet the winter is, the Weather has little 
or no injurious elle'ct upon either the female or 
her etjgs. There is but one brood in a season, 
but tliey are .so prolitlc thai in one or two 
years they overrun very larjie trees, anjl very 
large districts. Tliey are supposed to be car- 
ried from tree to tree by the prevailing; winds. 
The "nativity" of' this in.sect may be 
foreign ; at all events it does not seem to be 
very well known in this region of the country. 
In 18GU, whilst in attendance at one of the 
early meetings of the Pennsylvania Fruit- 
Growers'' Society, held at West Chester, Pa., 
a gentleman in that town 
brought us a plum-branch 
infested similarly to your 
peach trees ; but, it being 
early in the month of June, 
(the strawberries were just 
ripening,) of, they 
were much larger than yours 
are now. Since that time we 
have not seen any that 
.seemed a nearer resemblance 
to them than some sent to 
ns on one occasion on a 
beech twig. They belong to 
the family cocciid.k, and 
may be referred to the genus 
Lecanium. If not the same 
species that the pear and the 
plum are sometimes infested 
with, then they may receive 
thespecilicnamcof /icj'.'ifcion. 
Whether any other meml)er 
of the society has noticed 
them is more than we can 
say at this time. Nor can 
we answer whether any 
other district in the State is 
infested with them. As to 
the possible remedies fo r 
their destruction, in the con- 
dition they are now, scat- 
tered over the whole tree, 
even to the ends of the small- 
est branches, it would Le 
ditiicult to apply it, even if 
it were known, and miglrt do 
little good if applied. On 
the trunks or larger limbs 
th^y can be dislodged with a 
stiff brush and soap and 
water; or by whitewashing; 
or by an .application of oil or 
other fatty matter. If, by 
close observation, the time 
could be discovered when 
the young come forth from 
the eggs, and before they have located them- 
selves, (about the middle of June,) and then 
the trees were drenched with soap and water, 
or ail infusion of tobacco, they might all be de- 
stroyed. In addition to this, encourage the 
"Lacewings," the "Lady-birds" and other 
insect friends, and to a limited extent these 
will greatly aid you in the work. 

This plum is a very great grower, remark- 
able for its productiveness, and is sure to 
bear a large crop, where most other kinds 
fail from" lightness of soil, unfavorable 
weather, or from the ravages of the CurcuUo. 
These important excellences give it a high 
rank. It is of good size and handsome ap- 
pearance, although it is not claimed to be of 
first-rate flavor. It is called by its present 
name in compliment of Mr. Lumbard, of 
Springfield, Massachusetts, who first brought 
it into notice in that State, though it was 
first raised fiom the seed in Whitesborough, 

New York, by Judge Piatt. It has also been 
well known in that State under the name of 
"Bleeck(a-"s Srarlct." It will therefore also 
be perceived that it is not to be confounded 
with any of the foreign varieties of Lomburdy 

The fruit is of medium size, roundish oval, 
skin delicate, violet red, paler in the shade, 
and dusted thinly with bloom ; flesh deep 
yellow, juicy and pleasant, but not es.sentially 
rich ; aillieiing to the stone. Ripens eariy in 
Septend)er, and conliiiues nearly to the end of 
that month. .Small trees of this variety can 
be had at almost any of the principal nur- 
series — Moody & Sons, Lockport ; Ellwanger 
& Barry, Rochester, New York, as noted in- 
stances. It will be noticed, however, that it 
is catalogued "Lombard." In a heavy soil, 
or soils having a mi.xturo of clay, the larger 
varieties of the plum are produced yc't they 
will thrive in almost any soil. In sandy soil 
there is great effort, in the form of blossoms 
and settings, for an abundant crop, l)ut the 
incursion of the curculio very frequently de- 

stroys it ; in heav\ nay soil sand should be 
mixed, and in liglit, sandy soil, clay or muck 
should be introduced into the beds or border 
where the trees are planted." 



Mu. Editor — Sir: I have been through the 
West and have made great improvement in 
my herd of high-crade and thoroughbred 
Short-IIorns, by ju<licious jiurchases from the 
leading breeders of Kentucky and Ohio, and 
therefore I can now flatter myself that I have 
the best herd of cattle in the county. My 
herd is open to the inspection of strangers on 
all w^'ek days. It was commenced in 187-2 
by the selection of such only as proved good, 
combining milking as well as fine beef quali- 
ties. — A. M. Hank, Bird-inrlland, Jan. 22, 

[We call the attention of our readers to 'Mr. 
E.'s card in the advertising columns of this 
number of The Faeiier.— Ed.] 

For The I.ANOARTRn Farm sb. 

First and foremost, we bow to our editor's 
criticism on tallo. Pleas remember that our 
Fonetic is just in its infanse, .so that ocasional 
erors ma crep in. 

A glans at the Yamato and Mikado, maks 
us wish we wer in Japan, or tliat Japan wer 
in Pensilvania. 

O/1/7 a Fanner. — Dont be alarmd, brother 
farmers, our cauling is Inming up. The fop 
eodlishery has mad its bigest haul. 

The (ireat Horned Owl is not od in many 
uv its habits, for tha corespond xactly with 
thosof Imman bipeds in many cases, sjxcialy 
in the disagreinent of the sexes ; also, the 
conduct of the males toward ther ofspring and 
toward each other, and that tha prefer to be 
let a Ion. 

Alj''id Batx. — AVel, it is simply astonishing. 
The r'ter compares them to a swarm uv bes. 
Wonder whether tha cat grapes. 

Japanese Persimmnn. — The gloing descrip- 
tion llierof shud by al means cans som to be 
planted for trial. If that 
shud fail, it wud not be the 
first falure. Shud tha prov 
a succcs, we wud lik to be 
in for som. 

The adrcs of the Presi- 
dent ov yur counte sosiete, 
is tu gud to be overluked. 
It is a capital document. 
Care of Domestic Animals 
has som gud bits for both 
sants and siners. 

The licUanct Raspberry. — 
Wat progn s in sraal frutsl 
llu wud not hav msberisV 

Italian jyec.s.-AV. J. D. 
sems to hav ])ulverised the 
veteran J. IJ. G., liut we 
think he wil agan ris out ov 
his ashes. 

Chemical Fertilizers. — Tins 
article is both sensible and 
in-actical. Any farmer that 
reds it and dos not lern a 
leson must hav mor punch 
than brain. 

Specialties in Farming. — 
A. IJ. K. generally maks gud 
jiints. The plausiliility of 
ills theory shud caus tobaco 
groers to reconitir a litle. 

Guinea Foxvh. — We think 
ther shud be mor of them 
rased, if tha wud not com 
in competition with Italian 
organ i;riiiders. 

Our Lueal Orrjanization. — 
The Ag. and Ilort. Society 
is prodiicing incrcsed inter- 
est, and som very gud pa- 
pers and speeches ar brot 
out at the monthly metings, 
with the usual quantity of 
chaf ov cours. But we no 
that we get no weat with- 
out chaf. 
Tobacco Growers' Association is stil in its 
glory, but We think if yers crop dos not 
soon se! faster the f raternete wil put its fether 
at haf mast. 

The Linn.a\an is moving along quietly with- 
out much ostentation, but is doing much mor 
and beter work than it gets credit for. We 
hop jiosterity wil aiipreciate its labors mor. 

Aijrirullural Outhiok. — Wcl, our weat crop 
is enormus, but thirteen hundred bushels dos 
not Ink lik a larg corn crop. We think som- 
liody c'lunted rong. If we nu just wat Urop 
wants we mite charg accordingly. 

Pulverizing Manure. — This is a short but 
very sensibl articl. Tu folio its techings wud 
l)a tarniei-s wel. 

Iirqn-oving ir/ic«f.— This is one ov the grat 
questions ov the da. If this season's trial 
wil sho as wel as last, we ma se a stampead 
for nu gran drils. 

Poultry.— TUe articls on poultry ar very 
gud. We wud lik to se egs and spring chicks 
a litle cheper somtims. Corespondents qf 



[ February, 

The Farmer cannot al aford to pa the 
hiest prices. — Von Humbolt. 


There are various methods of pruning 
and training the grapevine, and each metliod 
has had its supporters. Good crops liave also 
been produced by many of them, undei skill- 
ful hands, and no doubt will continue to be. 
The fact is, the grapevine is so productive and 
fruits so freely, even with ordinary treat- 
ment, that bad indeed must be the case 
■where it ceases to yield its luscious fruit ; yet, 
while so submissive under ill-usage, and 
grateful, as it were, for a common existence, 
like other creatures of nature's highest organi- 
zation, its expansive powers will become con- 
tracted and a tractable disposition rendered 
stubborn by long continued abuse, in which 
case the quality of the fruit is deteriorated. 
The bunches are small, or the llavor inferior, 
and as pruning has something to do with this, 
particularly the small bunches, it may be well 
to explain the different modes that are prac- 
ticed and state the various results attained by 
them. Although it is best to allow the grape- 
vine, like all other fruits, to judiciously and 
periodically extend the superficial surface of 
the leaves and branches, our arrangements 
and convenience do not always admit of this 
desirable consummation being carried out. 
Such being the case, it behooves us, under 
the circumstances, not to distort nature any 
more than we can avoid. In accordance with 
these views, first, is mentioned the plan we 
generally adopt. Supposing that we have got 
a cane of the first summer's growth, cut it 
back, in length according to thickness ; if 
very strong, say six feet, or only middling so, 
two, five, or even four feet ; next commence 
at the top, leave three eyes, the upper one for 
the future leader, and the remaining two for 
the top pair of branches ; cut out the next 
two, leave the two beneath, and continue on 
so imtil within eighteen inches of the soil ; 
below which remove all the bottom, as there 
is no use in having any fruit lower down. 
During the next summer the eyes will, if well 
attended to, form side spurs, which, in their 
turn, will have to be cut back to two, three, 
or even four buds, as they may be plump or 
well developed. Now, when these buds begin 
to grow we ought to have a shoot from each 
of them ; and, as only one bunch ought to be 
allowed to remain on each base, the other 
shoots will appear so far to be superfluous. 
Ketam the one at the base, or nearest to the 
main cane ; and, likewise, that one above it 
which shows the best bunch ; rub off the 
others and pinch out the fruit from the lower, 
and also all excepting the best formed 
bunches, on the upper. After the fruit is cut 
and the wood becomes ripe, say two or three 
weeks before the leaves fall, go over and cut 
clean away to the base, which leaves the spurs 
for fruiting the next year as near the main 
cane as if the close-cut method had been 
adopted, with the advantage of having spurs 
which have not been burdened with fruit, and 
also the probability of future finer bunches; 
for the most prominent and well-formed buds 
always brings the best shaped and largest 
clusters ; and this action gives a better chance 
of obtaining such. There is no fear of not 
being able to get shoots from the base, if 
properly managed, for in most cases adven- 
ticious buds, and generally more than will be 
wanted, are developed and have to be rubbed 
off ; when these side spurs have accumulated, 
and extend along the whole length to the top 
of the trellis, there will be a uniform strength 
over the whole vine. If the canes have previ- 
ously been disbudded there is no danger of 
overcrowding, as the following year the bear- 
ing branch is brought down to the same posi- 
tion as that of last season, and the other 
trained more upright into the vacant space. 

All trees have a natural tendency to push 
the strongest growth to the top and extreme 
ends, particularly while young and vigorous, 

"Read before the Lancaster County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Association, by X). Smeych. i 

and if the side branches are very closely cut 
away, periodically, the sap is directed more 
strongly upwards, the lateral force is reduced 
in a corresponding ratio, and the side branches 
are rendered weak ; this is often seen in the 
grapevine, and is as often a cause of com- 
plaint. Now, the above method very much 
counteracts this evil, as a greater quantity of 
leaves are encouraged from each individual 
base, and, of course, a greater draw of fluid is 
produced into the side branches, which, wheti 
once established, remain permanent, and so 
long as the same cause is in existence the flow 
is ecpialized, the side spurs correspondingly 
strong the buds become plump and the bunches 
large! To still further encourage this lateral 
action it is advisable to take out the overplus 
buds in the fall, at the same time that the cane 
is disbudded, for the simple reason that the 
plants are collecting food and filling up the 
seemingly latent parts through the winter, 
excepting when the ground is frozen and the 
channels of absorption thereby stopped ; con- 
sequently all the buds receive a due share, 
although a portion of this stored-up nutri- 
ment is wasted ; by allowing the useless buds 
to expand we gain the advantage of encourag- 
ing a greater flow into the side branches, until 
the time when the unfolding leaves are en- 
abled to keep up the action. Another method 
of spur pruning, and the one most generally 
practiced, is to allow the cane to extend itself 
upward each season, as above described, until 
it reaches the top of the trellis, and retain the 
side spurs closer and alternately arranged 
along the cane, each year resting or not allow- 
ing to bear, every alternate bud or spur, and 
when pruning the cutting oft' all the spurs close 
down to one eye, or leaving those for fruiting 
the following season somewhat longer, and iu 
the next fall cutting the same spurs close in 
to the cane, the object being to keep the side 
branches at home. Very good crops are often 
produced in this way, with otherwise good 
treatment, but in the first instance the 
bunches are generally small ; and although in 
the latter this is for a few years obviated, still 
there is the disadvantage of haviug to go 
back to the main stem, and of trusting entire- 
ly to the buds which may thus be prompt to 
push forth. This close cutting weakens down 
the lateral force of the plant's energy ; in a 
short time the spurs become weak, and the 
whole cane has eventuall}' to be cut down, by 
which, to say the least of it, one year's crop 
is lost. We are aware that in thus speaking 
of this walking-stick mode of priming we are 
going in the face of many good grape-growers, 
but the fact of things being generallj' fashion- 
able is no criterion of its excellence ; nature's 
actions in all of these matters ought to be our 
guide, and the more we adapt ourselves to lier 
laws the more permanent will be our success. 
Sometimes the long-rod metliod is practiced ; 
in this case the first summer the cane is trained 
up as in the former mode, only left somewhat 
longer when pruned, and this suffered to bear 
a full crop the next season, after which it is 
cut clean out to one eye from the bottom, 
another cane having been taken up during the 
same time from its base, to afterwards take 
the place of the one last fruited, and so on ; 
by this plan fine fruit may be obtained, as the 
bunches emanate from strong buds, which, if 
they have been previously well ripened, throw 
off handsome and large clusters ; but there is 
the evil of having to cut off", at one fell swoop, 
the half of the plant, having no perennial 
structural base excepting the very lowest 
stump ; this wholesale and oft-repeated cut- 
ting keeps the plant in a continual state of 
excitement, which is sure to eventually show 
itself in permanent weakness. And here we 
have evidence to prove this above-mentioned 
assertion respecting the shortening of vitality, 
for a plantation trained on the siuf^le cane, 
short-cut plan, and every season subjected to 
this severe lopping, requires occasional re- 
newing ; such has been my own case that a 
fresh planting of vines has to be made every 
three or four years ; now, as this can be pre- 
vented with so little expense or trouble, and as 
there is more than a counter-balancing advan- 

tage arising from this system, it is well, in 
this particular instance, to follow what best 
answers the purpose in view. 

The renewal method is adopted by some ; 
the two-year old cane is cut back to about 
half the height of the trellis, and allowed to 
bear the next season while fruiting ; the top 
growth is conducted perpendicularly, and, at 
the proper time, is pruned off at the top of 
the trellis ; during the .samesummer another 
cane is taken up from the bottom, and on one 
side which is cut back one-half as the other 
one was the previous year ; the next season 
this new cane is allowed to fruit, and also the 
upper part of the first one, the side spurs on 
the lower half having been cut out ; thus there 
is a full crop, only each half is on two separate 
canes. The youngest one is now suffered to 
grow, and this, in its turn, cut ofl'at the top ; 
another brought up from the bottom, and the 
old one cut clean out ; here we have the fruit 
always borne on young and vigorous wood, 
which, generally, produces the finest fruit ; 
no spurring is required, and there is the ad- 
vantage of a large bulk of leaves and branches, 
the former of which aftbrds nourishment and 
promotes the maturity of the roots, but the 
top requires somewhat more side room, and 
the vines ought to be planted a little further 
apart than is necessary where spurring is re- 
sorted to. Where a vine is allotted only a 
certain space, this is one of the best methods 
of training ; but it is unsightly, and if the 
same advantage can be gained otherwise, and 
at the same time beauty in appearance, it is 
certainly desirable to insure both. Now the 
first described mode accomplishes this object 
in the grapery, and also retains a large amount 
of solid structure in the form of a strong, per- 
manent stem, through which can flow an 
ample supply of sap to the leaves, and receive 
back the food elaborated by them down to the 
roots in a healthy way and without any un- 
due excitement to the whole organization. 
But the best of all plans, and also the most 
natural, is to extend a head somewhat each 
season, so that finally one vine may cover a 
large surface. Nature works by certain fixed 
laws which man cannot alter, and any long- 
continued attempt to force her from her own 
course is sure to end in final failure aud dis- 
appointment. It cannot be denied that much 
success is obtained by modes of cultivation 
which would appear to speak to the contrary ; 
but observe the ultimate result patiently, with 
care and without prejudice, and all these 
abuses will tell their own woful story. One 
of the causes why a grape vine so soon wears 
out, as it is generally considered to do, is pro- 
duced by such close pruning as we yearly sub- 
ject it to ; the volume of the plant is increased 
for three or four years at first, and afterwards 
only allowed the same extent of surface. There 
is no other fruit-bearing plant that would 
continue to prosjier long with this treatment. 
Take, for example, a peach or an apple ; allow 
either the one or the other to produce a long, 
straight stem of twelve or fifteen feet, and cut 
in the side branches to an eye ; never suffer it 
any further extension but what is produced in 
the summer, again to be cut out, and it would, 
after a few years' constant excitement, dwindle 
down to a mere stump, and finally die out ; if 
the grape vine does not show the same so 
readily, it is only because of its extremely 
tenacious constitutional powers, for the same 
law governs both, and both alike must, sooner 
or later, arrive at the same imbecile condition. 
As a vine, if extended over a great space, 
would only admit of a limited number being 
grown, it becomes necessary to explain how 
this may be accomplished. During the inter- 
val the usual crop may be secured. In plant- 
ing, place in the centre of the intended row a 
vine of known good quality ; at intervals of 
about twelve feet plant others of equal merit, 
and fill up the vacancies with sorts as fancy 
may dictate, so that each one may .stand about 
three feet from the next one ; during the first 
two seasons train all up as usual. So far we 
have elongated the surface upwards, and the 
canes will be near the top of the trellis. In 
pruning the second ftiU, as there are side spurs 




on the lower half of the cane, or on the whole 
lenijth of the viueyaril, cut these into about 
three eyes ; bear each other vine the next year 
as heavy as it is tboufjbt advisable, so as to 
secure tlie fruit ripenini; aiul coloriiiLT well ; 
ease the other in like proportion, which will 
give vigor and assist tlicHi afterwards. When 
the fruit is cut on those vines which have 
borne the heaviest crojis, take Ibeni out ; and 
when pruning the other,leave the side branches 
about a foot long, wliich will till up the vacant 
space ; next year train these branches hori- 
zontally, and in the fall following, spur them 
as advised above with the upright cane, and 
at the same time leave another length on the 
end of each; as these side branches continue 
to be lengthened and till up more space, bear 
those vines on eacli side of Ibera somewhat 
heavier, and afterwards take them out. 

]?y this system it will readily be seen that 
but few varieties can be grown in a limited 
space ; but quality always gives tlu' most per- 
manent satisfaction, and where variety is re- 
ijuired it may be liad in tlie lirst instance, and 
quality secured afterwards, if care is taken 
in planting good sorts, in the right place, at 
the commencement. It m,ay be thought by 
some persons that so few vines are not able to 
carry a full crop in a gi\'en space ; never fear 
that, for if there is sufficient surface of well- 
, ripened wood, the roots in good order, and the 
expansion judiciously accumulated, the (inan- 
ity of food may be gradually inci'eased, until 
two or three hundred weight may be taken 
from a single vine. Sliow me an instance 
where the same longevity and continued fruit- 
fulness has been gained by the ordinary walk- 
ing-stick, confining to one cane, or the short- 
cut method, and then I will believe that nature 
can alter her course, and that man's sinsle 
ideas can control the wonderful action of liis 
Creator's intelligence. That Judicious short- 
ening in at the right season and under proper 
circumstances is not beneficial has been clearly 
demonstrated ; we know that it tends to give 
less vigor and healthy growth; both theory and 
practice tell us so ; by it we gain a strong pro- 
pelling power from the roots, without reduc- 
ing their volume or enfeebling their energy ; 
but to cut annually so free-growing a plant as 
the grapevine to a mere .stump is, to say the 
least of it, a barbarous mutilation of God's 
providence, and is sure to end in premature 
weakness, sappy and papery leaves, siiindly, 
ill-ripened wood, and barrenness. By this 
method, last described, the roots have ample 
space to luxuriate in, and one vine would 
eventually occupy and fill a whole border, 
which usually has to accommodate a great- 
number : and, as the head has a corresponding 
expansion accoi-ding to the rcciuiremcnts of 
the subject, a greater certainty of iieruianenee 
and future vitality is gained ; and, as a matter 
of profit, it is the benelicial, for tliere is 
surely a more lasting gain where a trellis, or 
even a vinevard, will continue to yield a good 
cro)! for two or three generations, than when 
the planting, making fresh borders, has to be 
renewed every ten or, at most, fifteen years. 
In making these remarks we would not wish 
to be severe, for there are many persons so 
situated, by peculiar circumstances, as to pre- 
vent them from cariying out the most 
natural or best methods of culture, oven 
though they may be aware of the errors of 
their present practice ; yet there are others 
who have popular and (iractical preiudices to 
overcome before they will be enabled to seethe 
desirableness of asking thcmscilves a few 
physiological questions, or take the tr(nd)le to 
fiiul the answer in nature's vohuninous folios. 
May we hope that these set notions and dogmas 
may speedily vanish from this free country, at 
least where the natural and jihysical industry 
of man is unfettered; and where we may be- 
come a pattern to the world, in cnod cultui'e, 
if not in artificial grandeur. Wc cannot let the 
present part of the subject pass by without a 
few remarks on summer pruning : it has often 
been advised, and that, too, by some <if the 
best cultivators, to stop the bearing shoots at 
an eye, or in some instances, two eyes above 
the hunch ; and likewise do the same with the 

young cane when it has elongated to the top 
of the trellis, or the upright support ; also, to 
pinch out all laterals as they ai'e jiroduced, 
thereliy making the operation into a rule. 
There is no doubt that many conscientiously 
believe such a system to be judicious, and, be- 
cause their crops arc satisfactory to them- 
selves, they continue on in the same i)ractice 
without further consideration ; but this does 
not close up the avenu(^ for free discussion ; 
neither does it i>rove that it is the ultimatum 
of perfection. If we ])ursue the investigation 
of this matter in a physiological manner, we 
are led to understand that all summer ]iiuning 
tends to les.sen the vigor, and cripple tlie 
energy of all grape vines ; and practical ex- 
perience, combined with observation, jiroves 
the fad. Arguing from this point, we may 
be accused of advocating no summer pruning 
at all, to which we say, no suninier lu-uning at 
all. If the greatest extension of liranches and 
corre.siionding roots, or l)alk of timber were 
the object, then the less jiruning the better ; 
but the present position is a consideration of 
circumstances and adaptability, iiidei)endent, 
to a certain extent, of nature's action ; the 
object being to coax her to accommodate her- 
self to our conveniences, and as the grape vine 
is one of the most easily trained of her family, 
we have in this case a partial control. Wo 
ought, then, to consider what we arc doing, 
and how far we are acting in unison with what 
are known to be established laws ; and to in- 
fringe too far upon these is sure to produce 
evil ; this or that man's dogmatical opinions 
must certainly fail, unless they be based upon 
this indisputable certainty. Where is the use 
of following this " should be," or that " ought 
to be," unless somewhat in accordance with 
these natural demands ; yet we find a prolific 
and luxuriating plant, such is as the grape 
vine is stubbed, is cut close and sheared like 
a convict ; we are nearly saying shaved, too ; 
for the pinching back to one eye above the 
fruit, is nearly tantamount to the close opera- 
tion. The reason given for this peculiar treat- 
ment is, that the fruit, and also the plant, is 
strengthened by it.' How would it strengthen 
one's toes by cutting off a finger, supposing 
another would grow in its place ? or, would 
an animal produce the finer offspring, if the 
body were to be mutilated ? It is just possible 
tliat any amount of gangrene would be the 
consequence ; but:, as to the truly healthful 
action, it is possible that we should be none 
the gainer ; perhaps this kind of analogy 
may be thought a very vulgar way of explain- 
ing what might be shown in more delicate 
words ; but, of coarse, the true meaning is 
purposely explained, to show up the ridiculous- 
ness of curtailing nature, as slated above; 
the subject is a matter of circuinstances ; we 
have to do with a family of (ilants that would 
occupy a great volume of surface, yet wc 
wish to have a large numl)er, comparatively 
speaking, in a sni.ill space, and the best thing 
we can do is not to weaken down natural 
energy more than there is occasion for. Prun- 
ing, properly performed, and in the right 
season, is certainly a great service ; we find it 
so, practically ; its good effects are every- 
where to be seen when it is adojited ; but so 
far and no farther is it advisable ; if proof be 
required of the injury that may be done by 
too close stopping, let anyone try the experi- 
ment of pinching in closely the side slioots of 
a part of his vines, and leaving the other sev- 
eral joints longer, and he will lind at the end 
of the growing season that those which were 
left the longest are better ripened than the 
shorter ones, providing the light has had 
equal intluencc on both ; if the vines arc no 
further apart than three feet, the distance 
will allow a shoot on eacli side, of from fifteen 
to eighteen inches, upon which there may be 
from seven to eight leaves ; and allowing the 
fruit to be on the second or third joint ; there 
will still remain four or five leaves al)ovc it, 
each of which will do its duty in elaborating 
the crude juices and assimilating the car- 
bonic acid absorbed, thereby adding to the 
bulk and solidity of the whole structure ; 
and, if so, iucrcasiug the amount and greater 

firmness of the roots ; for, according to the 
amount and action of the foliage under favor- 
able inlluences, so are the underground ex- 
fiemities encouraged. As slated elsewhere 
the grapevine is a plant of great longevity, 
notwithstanding which, with the practice of 
some vine-dressers, it is considered to be worn 
out in a few years, and fresh i)lantatioiis have 
to be made i)eriodi(ally ; this may, in vine- 
yard culture, answer the purpose ol the culti- 
vator ; and by the method of only allowing a 
few feet of bearing surface to each individual, 
a great amount of fruit and of suitable 
(piality for this purpose may be- obtained from 
a limited extent of land employed. Here is 
evidence that too much curtailing of the plant's 
natural disposition shortens life and weakens 
down the constitution to such an extent as to 
make it worthless, compaiatively sjieaking, 
in a very short lime. Considering that there is 
not a very great exi>eiise in replanting a vine- 
yard, th(; means may be said to justify the 
end. It behooves us to think well how we 
may pay back a permanent interest on 
the capital invested ; and if there be any 
method that will keep a trellis or vine in 
healthy bearing for a long time without the 
requirement of renewal, surely it must be 
wisdom to adopt it. If the grape vine is a 
long liver and allowed to extend, and soon 
worn out if kejit in a .small, is it not 
reasonable if we wish permanency, that all 
availalile space that we have in the superficial 
area of a trellis should be covered with healthy 
leaves, in order to better concentrate and store 
up the food for future developnnmt ; and add 
each year a layer of well-organized albumen to 
the previous existing sound vascular tissues. 
If we take into account the glutted prepara- 
tions that are often compounded for vinery 
borders, and the consequently immense en- 
couragement given to luxuriating growth, it 
really appears surprising that such close cut- 
ting as is generally i)racticed, does not either 
kill or cause disease in less time than is the 
case ; and it is justiliablc that the present 
ravages of mildew in this free country have 
been accelerated by this cause. Such are the 
writer's ideas upon the subject, and as the 
present object is to enlighten the learner, they 
are submitted to approval or censure, as each 
liractical and successful cultivator may think 
fit, with the con.scientious belief that such is 
more becoming the jn-esent age of progress, 
and if followed up will be the means of ])ro- 
longing the heallhfulness and fruitfulness of 
grape vines. — Ke.spectfully submitted, Daniel 



For TuK Lancasteb Fabheb. 


A communication from Major Spera, of 
Ephrata, this county, gives a statement that 
he found the common Ditany, Cwiila Mari- 
ana, in the latter part of November or begin- 
ning of Ueceinber enveloped with thin 
plates or funnel-shaped icy formations around 
the dry stems of last year's growth. 

About the Ice Around Ditany. 

The communication published in the JVeto 
Era, with respect to the common Ditany, 
t'unila Mariana, having been found by Major 
Spera, of Ephrata to have funnel-shaped ice 
or frost-work surrounding the remains of the 
last year's stem ; by a pencil sketch he shows 
the frost-work to commence at the base of the 
stem, through the thawed opening of the soil 
surrounding the stem, building up and daring 
out the frost-work, so as to have no contact 
with the stem at all. 

This corresponds with my own observations, 
made the Cth of December, 18.56, and pub- 
lished in the llorticuUural Journal of Piiila- 
delphia, then edited by J. J. Smith, (new 
series. Vol. VII., p. 7.3), in which I also re- 
fer to Dr. Darlington's notice of this fact, 
l)rior to my observation, as I learned by con- 
sulting his Flora Ceslrica, publislied in 1853, 
D. 10'.). 

In an article published in tlie Scientific 
American for February 24th, 1877, (Vol. 
XXXVI., p. 110,) in answer to a certain 



[ February, 

"Frost Plant of Russia," said to have 
been introduced. This led to a reference to 
the frost-worlj around the Cunila. I quoted 
the opinion of Dr. Darlington, who says: "In 
the begiuniug of winter, after a rain, very 
curious ribbons of ice may be observed at- 
tached to the base of the stems, produced, I 
presume, by the moisture of the earth rising 
in the dead stems by capillary attraction and 
then being gradually forced out, horizontally, 
through a slit, by the process of freezing. " In 
my article I said : "Had the doctor given a 
more extended investigation I fiiiicy he would 
have agreed with me as to the cause ; I found 
hundreds of diversified specimens. I am not 
aware that it was just after a rain. I took up 
a number of plants and always found a vigor- 
ous, scaly, root-bud undergoing development, 
at this early season, underground, to produce 
a new stem the following year. I came to the 
conclusion that, as the temperature was below 
freezing and snow was on the ground, (by no 
means necessary to produce the icy foruia- 
tion,) I conceived the vigorous bud, in close 
proximity to the surface, gave out sufficient 
heat or warmth to generate vapor from the 
moist soil. This vapor, rising around the 
stem of the plant and attracted by it, becomes 
congealed into a snow-like, pearly ice-work, 
takmg various forms." I then quote Mr. Hun- 
ter aud Lamarck, Hales and DuHamel, that 
experiments go to sustain such an opinion. 

But my worthy friend. Prof. Jolm LeConte, 
of the University of California, at Oakland, 
California, thouglit it proper to let me know, 
as well as the general public, that my article 
called attention with reference to the ice 
around the stems of Cunila Mariana. He 
then shows that, " As long ago as 1850 it was 
his privilege to call the attention of the scien- 
tific world to an identical class of phenomena 
in a paper entitled, 'Observations on a re- 
markable exudation of ice from the stems of 
vegetables, and on a singular protrusion of 
icy columns from certain kinds of earth during 
frosty weather.'" This paper was publislied 
in the "Proceedings of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science," third 
meeting, Charleston, S. C, March, 1850, (pp. 
20-34,) and likewise in the "London, Edin- 
burgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine" for 
May, 18.50, (third series. Vol. XXXVI., pp. 
329-442). He then informs us that Sir John 
r. W. Herschel published a short notice of a 
similar exudation of icy fringes occurring 
around thistle stalks and stumps of helio- 
tropes, in the "London and Edinburgh Philo- 
sophical Magazine " for February 1S33, (third 
series, Vol. 11., p. 110,) besides the notices of 
Prof. S. P. Rigand, March, 1833. and Prof. J. 
D. Dana, 1849. In my reading I have not met 
with any of those publications referred to. 
and it seems by no means new or rare ; and 
we may thank Prof. John LeConte for calling 
our attention to his paper on this apparently 
important topic. He says: " In the paper re- 
ferred to will be found a full discussion of the 
possible sources whence the large supply of 
water is derived, which, by freezing, forms 
the accumulations of icy fringes in the one 
case and the icy columns in the other." He 
continues: "Suffice it to state that I have 
then shown that, in both oases, the phenomena 
are purely physical., having in the case of 
plants no connection with the vitality of the 
stem; (the italics are mine, to note what he 
says and how he says it ;) and that the ap- 
pearances "are quite at variance with any 
■ idea of the deposition of these icy fringes from 
the store of aqueous vapor— in the. general 
atmosphere, in the manner of hoar-frost. 

Now, let us examine his illustration of the 
ice ribbons on the old, dry stems of Plwhia, 
the marsh flea-bane, he shows the sheets of ice 
far above the soil, and coming out on two 
sides of the stem. He says—" It is more 
common and conspicuous in the Pluchia bifrons 
than in P. camphorata.''^ Both plants grow 
abundantly in wet soils, around jionds and 
along the roadside ditches, in the low country 
of Carolina and Georgia. We have his illus- 
tration and description of the Pluchia. I 
illustrate and draw conclusions from the facts 

and appearance of the Ditanij, a plant of the 
mint family, and found in dry soils and in 
shady, hilly woods in most parts of the United 
States. Thus the two plants are different ; 
nor do the ice ribbons come out through a 
crack in the stem, so that Prof. Leconte's 
description of the " ?nars/i ./?ea-6cme" and 
tigure, differs from that witnessed in theDitany. 
Not having met with'the Professor's elabor- 
ated description which is to settle the matter 
as to cause, I can only argue from the figure 
he gives and the brief statement he makes. 
It iuay be that plants like the pluchia growing 
ill water, by capillary attraction in the pith of 
the old, dry stem, may draw up the water, 
and when frozen, split the stem. But in this 
case it would be water, and formed into clear 
ice. There is iiuite a dift'erence in the congela- 
tion of vapor entangled with air, which gives it 
the agglomerated appearance of snow crystals, 
forming deposit upon deposit into thin sheets 
of a beautiful pearly whiteness. Every one 
knows that the breath of man and beast 
causes these snowy crystals to be formed when 
the temperature is sufiiiciently low. The moist, 
warm air coming from our sewers or out- 
houses, show beautiful festoons of such frost- 
work, without involving the idea of " aqueous 
vnpor in the general atmosphere,'^ in the manner 
of hoar-frost, which the Professor flings out as 
if it had a bearing on the question ; I also be- 
lieve the phenomena purely physical. And as 
all agree that the ice around the stems of the 
Ditany arises from its very base and does not 
touch the stem, no matter how dry or how old 
or how hollow, I deny that the ribbons come 
from the water in the" steins of the Cunila, as 
shown by Leconte to arise from opposite sides 
of the stem, some distance above the soil in 
his illustration of the Pluchca, so that his 
theory may answer the case witnessed by him; 
and as Dr. Darlington was no doubt acquainted 
with the Professor's explanation, did not stop 
to see that the fact did not apply to the 
Ditany The Doctor says clearly, "the very 
curious ribbons of ice may often be observed 
attached to the base of the stem;" he must 
suppose that the slit is in the very junction of 
tlie stem with tlie root, if any slit at all in the 
stem. Prof. Leconte closes his notice by say- 
ing in reference to my article, " The explana- 
tion given by Dr. Darlington, in his Flora 
Cestrica, in 1853" (as quoted by your corre- 
pondent) that means myself, " is more in 
accordance with known facts." Why not 
add— as I have demonstrated in the Pluchia— 
the maj-sh Flea-bane, where it was forced out 
through the stem growing in wet ground, as 
and so forth V How will such a theory ac- 
count for a similar phenomenon in dry soil, 
and not from slits in the old stem above the 
soil, but from the soil itself around the base 
of the stem ? 

It seems to me the Professor should have 
considered this difference. He nor any one 
else has yet shown that any one claims a 
" connection with the vitality of the stem,'' 
nor that the riblwns come from cracks in the 
stems of cunila, and hence his strictures fall a 
dead letter in tlie case of the latter. He does 
not deny— of which any one can satisfy him- 
self— that a vigorous underground bud is 
found on the perennial root-stock of the pre- 
ceding year ; that heat is developed in germi- 
nation, that heat and moisture form vapor ; 
that it would of necessity find escape directly 
around the base of the stem, the cold atmos- 
phere would condense this vapor, entangled 
with the air at the base of the stem, and so 
continue to add particles until it builds up a 
funnel-like or egsj-shell-like icy ribbon, free 
from the stem, as~those were seen by myself. 
Major Spera and Dr. Darlington, according to 
his statement. 

I shall be happy to read Professor John Lc 
Conte's article whenever so fortunate ,as to 
meet with it. I have written to several of my 
friends for a copy, but failed to get an answer. 
As the matter now stands, neither his ex- 
planation or illustration, as given in the 
Scientific American, has any weight to change 
my view as to the cause ; nor will it require a 
learned professor to form an opinion for him- 

self on 

comparing facts as they exist.—/. 

For The Lancaster Fakmeb. 
More than a year ago I was at a meeting of 
the Agricultural Society in Lancaster. The 
members were speaking about plowing for 
corn. One of the members arose and said, if 
we would only turn the sod edgways, we 
would get more corn than we will if we turn 
it down flat in the iurrow. He stated that he 
once had a hillside, and he plowed it in lands 
along the side of the hill. That which he 
throwed against the hill the plow did not turn 
over, just set it up edgways, and there he had 
the best cora. It could be seen on every land. 
That part which was throwed down the hill, 
was never as good as that which was throwed 
against the hill. I sat and listened, but said 

Last summer I had an opportunity to ex- 
periment in it myself. I had a steep hillside, 
and I plowed it in lands along the side of the 
hill. It was a clover field, and nothing else 
but clover. When I throwed the furrow down 
hill, every head of clover was covered, but 
when I attempted to throw the furrow up 
against the hill, some was turned over, some 
stood edgways, and some rolled back into the 
furrow from which it had been turned. 

As every farmer well knows, who has ever 
plowed a hillside, all that was thrown against 
the hill looked green, and all the cultivation 
before corn-planting did not kill the clover, or 
any other kind of weeds. Some one might 
say I have no good cultivator. I wish he 
would show me a better one than I have, to 
kill clover or weeds in general. I planted the 
corn, and after it was out I cultivated it 
thoroughly, but the clover remained, and that 
was not the worst of it. Some other grasses 
and weeds were hidden under these clover 
stalks, after all the cultivation ; and after 
harvest I went through the field to pull up the 
remaining grass and weeds by hand, which I 
generally do. Where it was plowed down hill 
I had not much trouble, but where it was 
thrown up against the hill the labor was im- 
mense, and the result was- contrary to what 
the gentleman represented at the aforesaid 
meeting. Good plowing is the foundation of 
agricultural success ; if the foundation is not 
good the whole building will be worthless. It 
is as plain as A B C that good plowing and 
well-turned-under sod or soil, is, by all odds, 
the best. Just look back to our forefathers. 
How did they plow ? Just as the gentleman 
above stated that we should plow. And what 
was the result of their plowing ? By the time 
the corn was up for the cultivator, the fields 
were blue with "blue grass" and weeds. 
And what kind of corn crops did they get ? 
Were they better than those realized at the 
present day ? Every one knows. 

[Our correspondent's suggestions seem rea- 
sonable and practicable. Without intending 
to participate in the discussion, so far as it 
relates to the cultivation of corn, the system 
which he denominates " half-way plowing" is 
the very one" which will facilitate the escape 
of cut- worms and moths in the spring, which 
are so injurious to the young corn. It has 
been repeatedly recommended by the best 
authorities, that the best— and perhaps the 
only—way to destroy the Hessian flies, 
while they are in the pupa or "flaxseed" 
state, is to plow them deeply down, and turn- 
ing well the furrow—" upside down," as it 
■ivere— and this would also be beneficial in the 
case of cut- worms, or at least with those that 
had pupated, as the moth could not penetrate 
the deep soil,— Ed.] 

Harrowing Wheat. 
I often hear about harrowing wheat fields, 
and also read the same in agricultural papers; 
and in The Lancaster Farmer a writer 
says he harrowed a part of his wheat field in 
the spring, and that part of the field soon was 
ahead and higher than the part which was 
not harrowed, and when harvest came he got 
more wheat from the harrowed part than 




from tlie other. Last spriiif; I ni:ule an cx- 
Iieriiiieiit for myself. On the Sth of April I 
harrowed a strip in a very nice wheat field in 
which the soil was nice and dry. I made 
marks on the fence so that I could he always 
sure of (inding the place I had hanowed. 
Had I not done that I might have made a 
mistake as to the right place. After a few 
falls of rain and the season had advanced I 
found no difierence could be observed in the 
condition of the grain from that time until 
harvest, and the wheat on the harrowed part 
was no bettor than that on the otlier part, but 
I had a very good crop all over the lield. I 
also bad a patch of poor wheat that I had 
sowed very late, and of this I also harrowed 
a strip, and with the same ivsult as in the 
former case. I also tried the same exjierimcnt 
on rye, but it seemed to make no diflerence. 
Now, I confess I don't know where the secret 
lies, that I did not reap the same reward that 
otliers allege they have by harrowing. Is it in 
the soil or'in tlie barrow i* My soil is a lime- 
stone soil, and my liarrow a common spike- 
jiarrow. Probably the writer above alluiled 
to had Thompson's barrow. If it lies in the 
harrow it, no doubt, would pay well to get a 
Thompson harrow. 

[Cause and effect ; action and reaction ; 
recompense and retribution, are conditions 
characteristic of the whole world of matter, 
as well as the world of mind. If we propel a 
ball against an unyielding surface it will re- 
bound in a line and with a force correspond- 
ing with the line and force of the proimlsion, 
unless some inequality of the rebounding sur- 
face should cause a deviation ; and if an ob- 
ject should be interposed the rebountl would 
be turned in a direction very difl'erent from 
the angle of propulsion, and tliis principle 
seems to act upon and modify many effects 
resulting from prior causes.] 

Effects of Neglect. 

The snowstorm on the last of January tore 
down a part of my barn roof — about sixteen 
feet of the one side was demolished. Several 
of the rafters were not pinned together at the 
upper ends, and I think that was the chief 
cause. It is an old saying, " For the want of 
a nail the shoe was lost, and for the want of a 
shoe the horse was lost ;" and so, for the want 
of a few pins my barn roof was blown off. 
Had I known it I might have easily prevented 
it, and thus saved the roof. The barn was 
built in 1849. It was a culpable neglect of the 
builder, for the boles were bored but no pins 
in them. The other rafters were pinned. Per- 
haps tlie pins were exhausted in raising the 
barn, and then no new ones made to complete 
the job. I would advise farmers, and all others 
that put up and own buildings, to watch the 
carpenters, examine their work, and see that 
everything is substantial. — J. G., Munheim 
twp., Jan., 1878. 


For The Lancastek Farmek. 

VoiiHumbolt can't understand the "fowl" 
air in my last. I did not spell it quite the way 
the printer did, but I think I can tell him 
what would make "fowl" ah- 1 Suppose a 
farmer keeps poultry and does not provide 
suitable quarters f(U-" the chichens to sleep in, 
they often roost in the stables, on the stalls 
and racks, and as almost everybody knows 
the nature of chickens, they will agree that 
this will produce "fowl " air ! 

Thank you for the correction. We like to 
be criticised. It does us good ; but we ad- 
mire the ingenuity of Humbolt in putting bis 
"revu" in phonetic, as criticism is thus well 
nigh impossible ! This leads me to 
Poultry- Keeping. 

There are very few farmers who do not 
keep poultry, but very few have poultry houses. 
These need not necessarily be expensive. Con- 
venience should be the first oViject. However 
simple the house otherwise, it should have a 
tight floor under the roosting poles, in order 
to facilitate the gathering of the manure, 
which is the most concentrated fertilizer we 
can produce on the farm. 

The whfile interior, including poles, should 
be wliitewaslied frequently, to destroy vermin, 
and dry earth sl-.ould be scattered on the ttoor 
occasionally to absorl) the gases, and, above 
all, the manure should be removed freciuently. 
I don't tliink it is advisable to liave the hens 
confined all the time. Tliey do better if not 
conlined so closely. But there are so many 
nights when a fowl house would be good that 
it "would pay to build in a few years. 
Tobacco Plant Beds. 

IMy method of sowing tobacco seed is as 
follows : The bed is dug in the fall or early 
spring and covered thickly with well-rotted 
manure ; this is left on until as early in March 
as the weather will permit, usually about the 
ITtli. wlien it is raked off and the bed covered 
with straw, cbiiis, corn-fodder, brush or any- 
thing that will burn. Fire is then applied, 
whicli will loosen the soil and dry it .so as to 
facilitate covering the seed. The weed seeds 
will also be destroyed, which is alone worth 
tlie trouble of burniiig. Tlie soil is then raked, 
after it is cooled off, until it is thoroughly 
pulverized and then three teaspoonsful of seed 
are mixed In a basketful of wood ashes and 
then sown evenly. This quantity of seed, if it 
is good, is enough for a bed sixteen feet square ; 
we then take a board and press the loose soil 
on top. and then it is ready for the covering. 
Last year I tried both liristles and musbn, 
and mv experiment proved the superiority of 
maslin" as a covering. I seeded a bed ltix:52, 
covering one-half with bristles immediately 
after seeding ; the other half remained ex- 
posed nine days, when a sheet of muslin was 
stretched over it about eight inches from the 
ground, and the plants under the muslin were 
up first and were fit to plant from eight to ten 
days earlier than those under the bristles. 
We made a box around the bed with boards 
about eight inches wide, nailing them at the 
corners, and tacked the muslin on this. When 
the plants were nearly fit to plant, we rolled 
back the mu.sliu during the day in order to 
get them used to the sim.—Buralist, Creswell, 
Feb. 5tk, 1878. 


There have been many improvements made 
in the varieties and qualities of this popular 
esculent, on the gnarled and watery things 
thev were twenty'or thirty years ago, but we 
think that experience may demonstrate that 
to Mr. Amos B. EcbolT, an old and experi- 
enced gardener, of Coatesville, Chester county, 
Pa., belongs the merit of originatiuj^ "the 
last and the best." The tomato has become 
a domestic necessity, as absolute almost as 
bread and butter— indeed we think that it 
would be better to do without the latter than 
without tomatoes— and therefore any im- 
provement in their culture, their quantity and 

quality, must 

be recorded on 
the roll of hu- 
man benefac- 
tions. Mr. Ec- 
lioff claims for 
his new varie- 
ty some quali- 
t i e s which 
stamp it with 
rare excel- 
iti.wv^ 1.. .1 ,.^w.«.-.^. Among these qualities are 
great solidity, smoothness of skin, symmetri- 
cal form, lieautiful color, destitute of a core, 
and ripening fully to the stem ; and the ad- 
ditional rare (piality of bearing shipment well, 
which is an essential point to those who culti- 
vate for market. The seeds, we understand, 
are all in the hands of Mr. E., and as he is an 
old cultivator, and knows exactly what is 
extant in this line of vegetables, he would not 
sully his reputation by representing it for 
what time might demonstrate it is not. Our 
illustration represents the form and general 
appearance of this tomato, greatly diminished 
hi size. 

We would ask every reader of The Far- 
mer to try and procure us a new subscriber. 

lence in a tomato. 

For The I.anca«tkr Farmer. 


There was a time in the history of our 
country when the objec:l was to destroy trees 
and not preserve them as is now tlie case ; 
then trees were many and the demand for 
timber and fuel roslrieted ; and as the part of 
the country first settled was nearly all covered 
with heavy growth the destruction of the 
forests was a matter of necessity and not of 
choice, for it involved mucM hard labor. Un- 
fortunately the destruction did not cease with 
the necessity that called it forth, and we have 
now come to such a pass, in many parts of the 
country, that timber for buildings and fences 
must be brought from a considerable distance, 
and the distance is becoming greater year by. 

We liave, indeed, now come face to face 
with a disagreeable fact— we cannot do with- 
out timber and to get it from distant parts is 
becoming more and more expensive, and we 
will have to submit to such increasing ex- 
pense or try and escape it to some extent by 
commencing to plant the various kinds of 
trees suitable for the different jiurposes of 
building, fencing, manufactures and fuel. 

The planting of forest trees is engaging the 
attention of many of our most prominent 
men, and the Legislatures of some of our 
States have enacted laws favorable to such 
culture. Among the most prominent is the 
example of the State Agricultural Society of 
Massachusetts, which <;ives prizes for plant- 
ing ; in the west, Illinois has framed "herd 
laws," by which it is forbidden to leave cat- 
tle range at large, and thus favors the plant- 
ing of all kinds of trees without the necessity 
of^fencing them in until so large as not to be 
destroyed by cattle. 

Where to plant is a question that must be 
well considered, as it must not only be de- 
termined as to whether the trees will grow at 
such a place, but may not their shade or their 
roots do you more injury than the profit de- 
rived therefrom will "amount to ; or may they 
not injure your neighbor, when no considera- 
tion of self should lead you to plant. On the 
latter account no one should plant trees on the 
northern or western boundary of bis land 
where that boundarv is only a fence. In both 
cases the sun would" be kept fnmi his neigh- 
bor's land to the injury of the crops. Planting 
on the eastern boundary would, of couree, injure 
his neighbor some, but not to the same extent 
as in the other situations, for it is nearly uni- 
versally true that vegetation receiving the 
morning sun up to noon is not near as much 
injuredlts when it receives the sun only from 
noon to evening. 

Trees planted along the roadside should be 
such as do not grow very tall, and. for reasons 
stated before, should not be i)laiited on the 
northern or western boundary of the road, biit 
in this case, if aiiv iiijurv would result, it 
would fall on the planter, and as he is master 
of the side of the road next his own land he 
must determine for himself as to doing so or 
not. Many trees could be planted along our 
wide roads" that would bring in a handsome 
profit in the course of years. 

Along streams, particularly on the eastern 
and southern shores, and in many cases on 
both shores, willow and other trees loving 
moisture, might be planted that would bring 
in returns for the labor and means invested 
that would, literally, throw into the shade any 
farm crop that could be mentioned. 

But it is on land that is too rough for farm- 
ing or grazing that trees should be planted, 
and it is'here that we have been losiuL' in our 
manner of cutting down the woods. On some 
rough land there was, iierhaps, a good growth 
of hiekorv, birch or oak, and when they were 
cut down the land was left to take care of 
it.self ; if young trees commenced growing up 
in the course of a few yeare, it was well ; if 
not, it was onlv what was expected. Had the 
owner planted "chestnuts, hickory-nuts, acorns, 
or the seeds of whatever trees he thought best 
suited, the same season the old growth was 
cut down, he would have bad a surety of the 




land growing into value again from the very 
start. Even land that is" good enough for 
grazing can be planted- with trees if the' cattle 
are kept otl' until the young trees are too large 
to be destroyed by tlieni. Any kind of grass 
that loves shade can be sown in sucli places, 
and make nearly if not quite as much pasture 
as if it had the benelit of full sunshine. The 
trees should, of course, not be planted quite as 
close as when it is not intended to be pastured. 
But shall we plant the tree-seeds where we 
want the trees, or shall we plant young trees 
out of the nursery rows ? If we do plant the 
seeds where the trees are to grow, at what 
time shall we plant V 

In any place where cattle cannot get, and 
where they will not be injured through other 
causes, plant the seed on the laud the trees 
are intended to occupy and plant thick, for 
then there will be enough strong seedlings 
that will take care of themselves, and besides 
some seeds may be imperfect, or the young 
seedlings may be destroyed through sun-scalds, 
insects or other causes. 

As to the time of planting the seed, observe 
when they fall. That is nature's own time to 
plant, and you will not go far wrong in follow- 
ing her. If you cannot plant at this time, 
walnuts and other hard nuts should be buried 
in the gi-ound a few inches below the surface 
until spring opens, so that they will have the 
advantage of alternate freezing and thawing ; 
chestnuts and other seeds that have a soft 
shell may be jireserved in moist sand. The 
growing of seedlings can best be made known 
in an article by Mr. Hiller, or some other 
nurseryman, as to get them to transplant well 
requires a manipulation that I am not compe- 
tent to describe in all its detail. 

When planted with the object of growing 
timber for building purposes, a man must look 
a long time ahead" fur the full reward of his 
labor and outlay, as even the fastest growing 
trees require almost a lifetime before they are 
in a fit condition to cut into boards, planks 
and joists. But this need deter no one from 
planting such trees, for the land on which they 
grow becomes more valuable every year, and 
if put up at public sale, after a lapse of years, 
■woidd show an increase in prices over land 
not so planted that would fully satisfy any 
person who has been in the habit of receiving 
only legal interest. 

At the head of all timber trees for building 
purposes stands the white pine, and second to 
it only, and often more valuable, is the yellow 
pine. The latter is the species now so exten- 
sively planted in parts of Virginia, where 
land being so cheap the original outlay is very 
light, indeed, towards what it would be should 
land of the same quality be purchased for 
this purpose in the Middle or Eastern States. 
In all cases it must be borne in mind, that 
such trees only as are suited to the climate 
should be planted. For this reason the yellow 
pine is the favorite in Virginia and south of 
that, while in Massachusetts the larch seems 
to be the choice, it being a tree essentially 
suited to its colder climate. The hemlock is 
a northern tree, of pretty rapid growth, but 
is very little planted for timber, as far as 1 can 
leam, probably on account of the poor quality 
of the timber it furnislies and the low price 
at which the lumber sells. 

For machinery, implements and fancy and 
ornamental work, there are many trees suit- 
able for planting, and the timber of these 
sells at much higher prices than those used 
mostly for building purposes only. Wild- 
cherry, walnut, niajjle antl cedar are in good 
demand from cabinet and furniture makers, 
and such as make fancy or household ma- 
chines. For machinery and implements, 
hickory, white oak, ash and tulip-tree (called 
poplar in many parts,) are wanted, and bring 
very good prices at a medium size. The osier 
willow is oftentimes very profitably planted 
on the margins of streams running through 
meadows, where it would not be advisable to 
plant trees of larger growth, because they 
would throw too much shade. There is usually 
a good demand for the osiers from local basket 
makers, or they can be readily sold in any 

For fencing we need hardly mention more 
than two species, the chestnut and the locust, 
both being fast growers and durable, particu- 
larly the latter. Sassafras and cedar are also 
durable, but their slow growth forbids tlieir 
being planted to any extent. I think there is 
no tree which brings in greater returns in a 
short time than the locust, for it always brings 
a high price and is always salable. Chestnut 
probably woidd bring more money in fifteen 
or twenty years than locust, providing the 
former sprouted up from the stumps of trees 
just cut down, but when both grown from 
seed the latter will make a dollar's worth of 
posts sooner than the former will rails to that 

Fuel, though not the object, will be abun- 
dantly 'provided by any of' the trees already 
mentioned, in the way of thinnings, dead trees 
and oflal. If planted especially for fuel, I do 
not know of any trees that furnish it in a 
shorter time than the white willow in moist 
places, and the pitch pine in dryer situations. 
The wood does not make as good fuel as many 
others, it not throwing as much heat, nor for 
as long a time ; but when more heat is needed 
we have a ready source in our coal mines, 
where good fuel can be dug cheaper than it is 
in our power to grow of the same quality. 
Coal is much better, cheaper and handier for 
heating purposes and regular cooking; but 
there is many a time, particularly in the sum- 
mer, when for a short time only a little fire is 
wanted, and that quickly, that light, free- 
burning wood answers better in every way. 

Our people are generally known as one who 
take up a new idea very quickly, and the more 
so providing there is money in it ; but when 
the idea is so very radical as to require them 
to plant timber trees where they have been 
used to cutting down, as did also their fathers 
and forefathers, then it may be that the idea 
would better be quickened into active life by 
awarding prizes, not for the largest number 
planted, as is in some cases done, but accord- 
ing to the number planted. This awarding of 
prizes should not be left to be borne by agri- 
cultural societies, but should be done by the 
State, as it is ultimately for the good of the 
whole country. It may be claimed that the 
State has no right to engage in such matters 
as the giving of prizes to individuals. As far 
as making new offices for this purpose is con- 
cerned, we do not believe that it would be 
policy 'for the State to have anything to do 
with it, nor, perhaps, even the paying of the 
prizes themselves, but laws could be enacted 
requiring oui supervisorsof roads to pay them, 
and thus each section of country would be 
liable for all improvements of this kind. A 
law was passed, a few years ago, requiring 
supervisors to pay a certain sum, yearly, for 
each water-trough put up and kept in repair 
along the public roads, and I do not see that 
it has been interfering with their other duties, 
neither would that of paying for trees do so. 

The preservation of the forests is a subject 
which has received the attention of the law- 
makers of many European countries, notalily 
tliat of France and Germany, wliere a man 
may not cut down a tree on his own land 
without a warrant from the forest master, and 
the latter uses his judgment without fear or 
favor as to the advisability of cutting, not 
with regard to its being profitable to the owner, 
but as "to being the best for the country at 
large. There are certain rules and regulations 
maTle governing the master, by wliich he must 
abide, and he has very little chance of annoy- 
intJ those with whom he has dealings, as long 
as^they conform to the law ; as civil service, 
without the reform, is the law of the land, 
each officer finds it his interest to conform 
strictly with the law. 

No Legislature in the United States, wonld 
yet dare to pass a forest law that would pre- 
vent a man from cutting down any tree he 
pleased, standing on his own land, as it would 
be regarded as infringing on individual rights, 
but Thave no doubt that laws with regard to 
this and many more matters, curtailing the 
action of individuals, will be made and 
1 thought only as a matter of course. Califor- 

nia has passed a law forbidding the cutting 
down of the famous " pines," but as they are 
on land still bell 
lature had a per 

— _ — , , ...---_ _j — ^ 

on land still belonging to the State the Legis 

rfect right to pass such laws as 
it .saw fit 

laws as 

Besides planting for timber and fuel there 
are other reasons for such a course, both in a 
useful and an ornamental sense, but as it 
would make the article too long another time 
must answer for a further covisideration. — 
A. B. K. 

Oxford, Oakland Co., Miehiaran, 1 
Feb. 6, 1878. J 
Prof. S. S. Rathvon — Bear tiir : I take a 
fancy to your paper and inclose you a dollar ; 
send me the paper as long as you can afford 
for the money. 

I have a word to say in regard to hoeing 
wheat, which I think will be a benefit to farm- 
ers in general. 1 believe that this matter of 
giving our wheat ground a good loosening in 
the spring is a matter of the greatest import- 
ance. As we harrow the wheat, with an ordi- 
nary harrow, it simply stirs the very surface 
of the ground in a very imperfect manner, 
without penetrating to a depth suflicient to 
give the roots of the plant any benefit what- 
ever, and packed as solid as the most of our 
ground is left by the freezing and thawing of 
the winter, it seems almost a. miracle that the 
jilant can make any headway at all, and I be- 
lieve that if we are going to try to increase 
the yield of our wheat crop, one of the most 
important tilings is to be able to thoroughly 
stir the ground in the spring. And the 
nicest thing I know of for this purpose 
is the machine manufactured and patented 
by A. B. Travis, Brandon, Oakland 
county, Michigan, on which he received 
a prize medal and diploma at the Cen- 
tennial Exposition at Philadelphia, in 187G. 
Several of the largest and most influential 
farmers in the county tried the Travis hoe 
last spring,and all agreed that it improved the 
crop at least 25 per cent., judging from the 
appearance of tlie heads at harvest. They 
were longer and broader, and the kernels 
standing out much more prominent, on ac- 
count of their size and plumpness. 

We had a trial of the Travis hoe in our 
neighborhood last spring on the farms of one 
of our best men, and was witnessed by several 
of our largest farmers; among them were 
those that had 200 and 240 acres of wheat on 
the sround, and it was pronounced a complete 
succ-ess. By this trial I have learned that 
wheat can be hoed with horses as readily as 
corn, and looks as much improved as a corn- 
field when well cultivated. The machine is 
very simple and adjustable ; one man can 
handle it with great nicety and drive the team. 
"With it wheat can be hoed. as fast as it can be 
put into the ground with a drill, as it is the 
same width aiid number of hoes and space of 
drill. I think it would be an advantage to 
farmers to drill their wheat farther apart in 
order that a large tooth may be used. Some 
of our farmers that have narrow drills left out 
every other tooth, calculating to use a large 
tooth in hoeing, and give a thorough cultiva- 
tion. , , 

Hoeing wheat is a new idea, and there is a 
great deal to be learned. I would like to hear 
Uirough your columns the best methods and 
results. 'l shall take particular pains to give 
wheat hoeing a fair trial on my own farm, 
and will give you the results by measure.— 
Fours, etc., P. K. Bnnta. 

rWe refer our correspondent to an article 
on the same subject in the November No. of 
The Farmer, i877,a copy of which we have 

mailed him.] 




The annual convention of the American 
Dnirymen's Association, of which ex-Governor 
Sevraour is the President, was held at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Jan. 8, 9 and 10. The following 
is from the address of Mr. J. H. Keall, of 
Philadelphia, who has for many years taken a 




prominent part in the discussion of dairy 
qiii'sticins, liavinj; spoken before tlie leading 
assoeiation of Great IJritaiu as well as before 
the most important ones in tliis eouiitry. We 
give only the prineiiial jioints of his speeeli on 
the "fast, I'resent and Fulure of Dairying :" 

Mr. Ucall began by eonlrasting the i)ros- 
perityof the dairy industry wii h other lirauches 
of farming, business and manufacturing which 
had outrivaled all. Cheese and butter were 
now bringing relatively higher prices than 
ever before. The experts last year to (Jreat 
Britain, our chief customer, had amounted to 
11U,000,UO(I pounds, worth over S10,(IIK),(1(H), a 
large increase over the past, and susceptible 
of still greater enlargement. Butter had also 
been exported to the amount of 14,(1(10,000 
pound.s. It was a known fact that the home 
consumption is not commensurate with the 
foreign demand for cheese, but it is liecause 
the best grades were sent abroad and the poorest 
quality forced upon our people. If the Ameri- 
can consumers were given a line, full cream 
cheese, instead of an article skimmed to death, 
it would become popular as a wholesome and 
nutritious food. It was the skimmed cheese 
which naturally lies like a grindstone upon 
the stomach, and gave our people the opinion 
that cheese was indigestible. A mild, rich 
kind is demanded by the home trade, and 
would be appreciated as highly here as in 
England. In reference to butter, a stale arti- 
cle, however tine, was no longer wanted. The 
public taste had become so well cultivated that 
fresh flavored butter was demanded at all sea- 
sous of the year. To meet this demand the 
system of winter dairying, so successfully 
practiced in Illinois, where the finest .stock is 
made at all seasons of the year, must be ex- 
tended. Creameries or the associated plan of 
butter making must take the jdace of private 
dairies because a much higher price is realized 
for the product, and much waste and labor is 
saved the dairyman. Besides all classes should 
have the opportunity to enjoy flue butter, at 
reasonable prices, as well as all other articles 
of food. 

Concerning some of the evils that have crept 
into the manufacture of cheese and butter, 
the speaker said: "Whilst the pennies are 
important, some dairymen value them too 
highly ; often to the loss of dollars. I know 
that the profits of any branch of farming are 
light, and that it is only by unceasing labor 
and untiring watchfulness that the husband- 
man is enabled to live and accumulate some- 
thing for himself and his loved ones. I know 
tluit the farmer is compelled to labor from 
early morning until the sun has sunk in the 
west, and to practice the severest self-denial 
in order to make both ends meet. I know 
that if he accumulates something for the future, 
it is only. by years of unremitting labor. He 
has but few of life's comforts, much less of 
luxuries. The pleasures of the city folks and 
their social advantages are unknown to him. 
The rapid accumulation of wealth by the fortu- 
nate merchant, manufacturer and professional 
man is beyond his power, even the thousand 
comforts enjoyed by those in moderate means 
in the city come not to the average farmer, 
though all classes are primarily deiieudent 
upon the toiling husbandman for all they have. 
I know the hai'dships of the i)ioneers who 
turned a wilderness into a jjaradise, and God 
bless them for their noble endurance and self- 
sacrilice. They have done more for the ad- 
vancement of our country than all others be- 
sides. Their toil, their suffering and their 
life's service liave given us a land surpassed by 
none. I realize by how small items the farmer 
obtains the compensation for his labor ; but 
because all these things are true he should not 
depreciate the quality of his product in the 
hope of large results from his toil. On the 
contrary, lie should strive for excellence in all 
his products. The best yields most and brings 
the largest price. This is a universal law." 

Dairying gives its followers both physical 
and intellectual food. No class think more, 
experiment more, nor discuss more. This was 
attested by their conventions, which should 
contmue to be encouraged. They had been of 

vast benefit not only to their members but to 
the entire dairy community. 

An imjiortant feature of the dairy industry 
has been tlie successful establishment of two 
distinctive dairy frtirs the [last year. One at 
Meadville, I'a.,"and the other at Chicago, the 
results of which would be of lasting benefit. 
Dairy fairs were of long establishment in 

England, where two had also heen lieUl within 
the year. In that country the leading men of 
the nation took a pride in iiarticipation in 
meetings of dairymen. At the fairs, dukes, 
and lords and members of Parliament officiated. 
The Prince of Wales prides himself on having 
the finest dairy in England. The representa- 
tive men of America would, sooner or later, 
be glad to follow the example of the great 
citizen who, for many years, has presided over 
this organization and served its interests so 




Because of the alleged unmotherly and un- 
fatherly characteristics of the Dark Brahmas, 
they have not attained to the popularity, 
among many people, which attaclies to the 
Light Brahmas and the Cochins; but, not- 

withstanding this seeming untowardness, their 
rare ipiality as layers has maintained their 
status in the poultry world, and is renewing a 
partiality in their favor. Our illustrations 
represent a " married pair" of these subjects 
of the "feathered realm,'' looking as unso- 
phisticated as a pair of "Marblehcad .sipiashes" 
that seem to have been specially created to be 
converted into stews and pie.s. Our pictures 
will give a better idea of the form and general 
appearance of these birds than any description 
of ours, however detailed and lengthy it might 
be. The predominating colors of the cock 
are black and white, and of the hen white 
aiul steel-gray, beautifully penciled — indeed 
in this respect, as well as in form, the latter 
is a much prettier bird than her bmly male 
partner. The Dark Brahmas are desirable 
stock to cross with our common fowls, and to 

increase their size and table <iualities. If the 
same care and perseverance were be.stowed 
upon them that have been elicited by other 
varieties, no doubt the results would have 
been more satisfactory than they seem to have 
generally been. We cannot attempt to trace 
these birds to their luigin, whether that has 
been in thi^ jungles of Java or in the moun- 
tains of the moon. They are here amongst us 
n'lW, and \\v nmst take them for what tliey 
arc, rather than for what they were or may be 


It is evident that farmers, in general, pay 
loo little attention to Uw grcnving of fruit. 
Comparatively few of them extend their 
efforts in this direction beyond the care of an 
apple orcliard, and the planting and subse- 
ipient neglect of a few peach and cherry trees. 
Many are led into this course by their want of 
appreciation of good fruit; and others, no 
doul)t, by the belief that they cannot make 
fruit-growing a source of profit. 

Entertaining, as I do,, the belief that many 
more fiuiners than are now engaged in fruit- 
growing could do so jirofilably, I will mention 
some points, altiMilion to which will serve to 
make the undertaking a success : 

I. If Possible, Select Your Location Near the 

Best Markets. 

Most fruits are easily injured by transporta- 
tion ; and, as with all other conunodities, dis- 
tance from market increases the cost of the 
consumer and dimiinshes the number of pur- 
chases. Then, other things being equal, it is 
evident that lu^ may hope for the largest re- 
ceipts farm is nearest to that market 
where is found the greatest number of con- 
sumers of fruit. 

We have illustrations of this in the advan- 
tages possessed by farmers in New .lersey, 
whose lands are near to Pliiladelphia or New 
York, and in Delaware and on the east- 
ern shore of Maryland, who liy means of 
water and railroad communicalifm have al- 
most hourly access to those great cities. 

But the extension of our lines of railway 
and tlie perfection of metliods of carrying 
fruit speedily and safely, have done much to 
give even the remote fiirmer a satisfactory 
nearness to markets. Thus even those who 
live on the Pac-ilic slope now include among 
their customers, as to certain varieties of their 
fruits, consumers who live on the .shores of 
the Atlantic. 

II. Select Such Fruits, and Such Varieties of 
Them, as are Adapted to Your Market. 

The tastes of people difi'er greatly, and 
their tastes nnisl be considered and gratified 
if one would make money by selling to tliem. 
That the Delaware grape is sweeter and more 
refined than the Concord will hardly be ipies- 
tioned, and yet "the Concord is the grajie for 
the million," and the shrewd grape-grower 
makes a note of the fact. Some grape eaters 
have not yet advanced beyond a foTiilness for 
the Lsabeila and the Clinton. Much as we 
pity them, it is evident that if we sell grapes 
to them in paying (pianties tlie varieties which 
we offer theni must not he first-rate in quality. 

Still nuu'h can and should lie done to intro- 
duce to ]iopular favor kinds of fruit which are 
beneficial to health and i)lea.sant to the i)alate. 
The taste of the jieople can be educated and 
refined indefinitely, and farmers can lie helpers 
in the good work. 

III. Select Such Fruits and Such Varieties of 

Them as are Adapted to Your 
Climate and Soil. 
Experience has shown that climate and soil 
have much to do with the determination of 
the question of successful fruit-growing. Va- 
rieties which will llourish on one kind of soil 
will fail on another, and which jiroduce 
at one elevation or in a certain exposure will 
be unprofitable under other circumstances. 
Catawba grape rots and mildews so badly that 

•Au artdrCBB delivered before the Stale Board of Agricul- 
ture, at it« recent meeiiu^. by PreeiUent James C'alder, oj 
the state .\grlcultural Collcgo. 




it is hardly known on our lands in Central 
Pennsylvania, and yet it flourishes on the 
shores of Lake Erie and on the south side of 
the South Mountain. A better and more pro- 
ductive peach than the Susquehanna or Grittith, 
■when grown in its native locality, the house- 
yards of Harrisburg, cannot be found ; but if 
planted in the field or orchard, even if within 
five miles of this city, it is a very shy and un- 
satisfactory bearer. Tlie Agriculturist straw- 
berry rejoices in the sands of New .Jersey, but 
is worthless on our strono; Ptnnsylvania soil ; 
while the Triomphe Grand will do nothing 
there, but resimnds heartily to the influences 
■which meet here. 

IV. If Possible, Have a Variety. 
The difticulties arising from unfavorable 
seasons, ravages of insects and competition 
from other producers, combine to teach the 
farmer that his loss of pi'oflt cannot be built 
upon the cultivation of any one kind of fruit, 
nmch less upon any one variety of that kind. 
We run an unnecessary risk when we aim to 
make money by growing, for instance, apples 
alone ; and much more when wo confine our 
eflbrls to one variety, even though it be so 
good a one as as a Belle Flower or the Rambo. 
While we plant most largely of the kind which 
suits our soil, climate and market best, we 
should remember the old adage, and " not put 
all our eggs into one basket." 

Many kinds of fruit can be grown together. 
Thus among our apple and pear trees, which 
come into bearing comparatively slowly, we 
can set our peach trees, which come to ma- 
turity soon, and will probably finish their 
course before the apples and pears get large 
enough to require all the ground. While the 
trees"are small we can profitably plant among 
them raspberries, strawberries, and other low 
growing varieties of fruits, which will induce 
us to stir the soil, to the advantage of the 
young trees, and will bring in receipts more 
than equal to the annual outlay on the young 

All the ground devoted to fruit should be 
occupied by fruit. Do not many of us find 
our orchards to be failures because we be 
grudge the ground they occupy, and seek to 
make them at the same time fields for wheat 
or hay V We do not so treat the lauds -^vhich 
we devote to the growing of hay or wheat. 

Further, under this head, we would call 
attention to the fact that certain kinds of 
fruit could be profitably grown to a much 
greater extent than they are at present. Thus 
quinces will flourish almost auy where in Penn- 
sylvania, and they always meet a ready sale, 
at good prices. But how few farmers have 
them ; and those -who own them have but 
few, and neglect even them. 

New kinds of fruit, such as have not been 
known in our section or even in our land be- 
fore, should be experimented with, and such 
as may be found adapted to our circumstances 
should be planted, and in due time offered to 
our customers. In this connection I venture 
the opinion that the Chinese persimmon will 
do well in our State, and that it can be pro- 
fitably introduced here. From that which I 
found it to be in China, I believe our people 
would soon come to regard it as a great acqui- 
sition, both delicious and healthful, quite the 
opposite of our almost worthless native variety. 

V. Plant Other Crops Among Your" Young 
Fruit Until the Latter Shall Need 
all the Ground. 
If the circumstances are such that you do 
not desire to put berries, for instance, among 
your young fruit trees, you can fill up the 
rows and intervals -n'ith garden vegetables. 
This, particularly in the case of apple trees, 
may be continued with advantage for a num- 
ber of years ; and thus the growth of the 
orchard be promoted while almost as much 
will be made from the ground as if the trees 
were not there. Our thrifty German immi- 
grant teaches us a lesson on this point which 
even worldly wise Americans may profitably 
consider, lie puts into the spaces between 
his favorite cabbages, beets or onions, and then 
further crowds out the weeds and fills his 

pockets by setting everywhere else in the rows 
and along side of them, plants of head lettuce. 

VI. Carry on Fruit-Growing Sjstematically 
and Vigorously as You Can. 

If experience has taught you that you can 
hope to raise but few kinds profitably, as 
apples or grapes or peaches, pay chief atten- 
tion to those. Plant only the best ; and plant 
enough of them. See to it that your stock is 
not only true to name, but also healthy, free 
from worms, and not too old at transplanting. 
Having set the plants out properly, care for 
them thoroughly, mulching them, cultivating 
them in the proper season, training and prun- 
ing them as they make growth, and guarding 
them from the ravages of worms, insects, 
mice, etc. 

VII. Market Your Fruit in the Best Condition. 
Some men fail to make money even from 

good fruit, because they are careless or slovenly 
or dishonest in their method of presenting it 
to purchasers. Except in rare cases and for 
peculiar uses, all fruit should be ripe when 
offered in market. If it is not ripe it should 
not find sale. It should be sound also. If 
the quantity on hand is large enough to justify, 
it should be carefully assorted ; the best speci- 
mens put by themselves, even though they be 
few in number, and the least valuable placed 
by themselves. This will enable consumers to 
choose according to their purposes or means, 
and will most likely secure buyers for all the 
grades. To so arrange one's fruit in the boxes 
or crates as to have the finest specimens on 
the top, while below are mere odds and ends, 
is to act di.shonestly as well as most foolishly. 
Fair dealing as to quality, quantity and price 
will always pay best in the long run. 

Much attention should be given to the bas- 
kets, crates or boxes in which the fruit is 
marketed. They should be neat, convenient 
in size and attractive in appearance. Labels 
setting forth the name of the fruit and of the 
grower of his locality will greatly add to the 
attractiveness of the stock and the .satisfaction 
of the purchasers. We would make more 
money if we were more mindful of the fact 
that bu3ers are largely influenced by their 
eyes, and that the sight often dictates per- 
emptorily to the appetite. 

VIII. Preserve in a Fresh State, or as Nearly 
so as Possible, the Fruit for Which a Mar- 
ket Cannot be Found Immediately. 
It is a disastrous error to suppose that fruit 
which cannot be sold as soon as it is ripe must 
be suffered to rot or be fed to the swine, or, 
what is worse, must be turned into wine or 
brandy. It is entirely practicable and is not 
too laborious to so dry or can or otherwise 
preserve fruits as to do a great deal of good 
with them and receive a handsome pecuniary 
return in addition. 

Farmers who live at a great distance from 
market will find that while their location de- 
prives them of some of the opportunities of 
securing profit from fruit-growing it cannot 
deprive them of all, but th;it by the course 
here indicated they too can swell their gross 

IX. Transportation Companies Can Do Much 
Toward Securing the Object of Which 

We Are Speaking. 
By arranging convenient places for receiv- 
ing fruit of a neighborhood, affording quick 
transit without reshipment, returning the 
empty packages to the owners, and meeting 
the schedule of charges as low as their own 
interests will justify, they will enlarge the in- 
come of distant producers and certainly pay 
better dividends to their stockholders. 

X. There are Related Departments of Labor 
Which may be Made to Swell One's Receipts. 

He who grows fruit extensively may, .with- 
out inconvenience, establish a small nursery, 
from which he can not only supply trees and 
plants for his own grounds", but also sell stock 
for the use of others. This is especially true 
as to berries and grape vines. In the ordinary 
coui-se of student instruction in our college 
vineyards, we laid down within the last year 
several hundred vines, -which made most satis- 

factory growth and were worth a handsome 

To a slight extent horticulture could be 
pleasantly, appropriately and profitably car- 
ried on with fruit-growing. We need orna- 
mental plants and shrubs for our grounds, and 
such as we can spare can generally be 
readily sold under the circumstances in which 
we find a market for our fruit. 

So the keeping of bees, facilitated by the 
culture of fruit, may be advantageously con- 
nected therewith. If any one objects that 
bees will injure the fruit and render it un- 
salable, I would reply that I have never had 
proof of their doing so. As far as my obser- 
vation extends their attention is all drawn to 
such specimens as have been injured or are too 
ripe to be marketed. 

And no-\v, in conclusion, I would say that 
we cannot safely affirm that all farmers, every- 
where, can make extensive fruit-growing to 
be profitable to themselves. The points before 
stated forbid such an inference. Location, 
soil, climate, and other material facts must be 
consulted before the question can be deter- 

But much can be done by the diligent and 
enterprising farmer to overcome existing diflti- 
culties. By the careful selection of varieties 
and the judicious marketing of his products, 
he can develop and educate the public taste, 
and make for himself an additional branch of 
industry which will bring him more nearly into 
the line of labor which the Creator first as- 
signed to man, and which all experience 
proves, like charity, blesses both him who 
gives and him who receives. 



Paris, January Sd, 1878. 
■Veterinary surgeons, cattle dealere aud agricultur- 
istB are not one respecting the treatment of farm 
stock affected with the plague. Excepting, perhaps, 
Bavaria and Hungary, the cattle disease has disap- 
peared on the continent. France, having organized 
its sanitary police for the frontier, is now about doing 
the same for the interior of the country ; inspectors 
will be armed with almost arbitrary powers for deal- 
ing with live stock brought to Paris and markets. If 
excessive precaution be attended with inconvenience 
it does not last long; German drovers complained 
that France was over-precautious in the case of pro- 
hibiting the entry of sheep, as the latter do not neces- 
sarily communicate endemic typhus. M. Villeroy 
affirms that, during the late war, his out-oa3ces were 
occupied by German oxen, that communicated the 
plague to his black cattle; he had some of the latter 
killed in order to study the mahidy ; he discovered 
nothing, and the poor, to whom he presented the car- 
casses, eat the flesh with impunity. In the course of 
a week the plague admitted no longer of any doubt ; 
he had the remainder of the stock slaughtered ; later 
he purchased some sheep to consume the crops ; the 
animals were penned in the place where the cattle 
had been killed, and was stained with their blood 
and excrements, vet the sheep never contracted the 
disease. It is avowed that sheep and goats are re- 
fractory towards the contagion. Veterinary surgeon 
Zundelj attests that these animals can be affected 
without, however, falling ill ; but it is not to be con- 
cluded they escape. When innoculated the mortality 
has ranged as high as 70 per cent. Epizootic fever 
is not rare among Russian sheep, aud in ISG'i and 
ISe-t it committed great ravages in Naples. In 1805 
one of the Zoological Gardens of Paris was attacked 
by the cattle plague, that -was communicated by 
gazelles imported "from London, and deers, goats, 
i&c., contracted the malady; the like calamity was 
observed in 18t)6 in the Rotterdam Zoological Gar- 
dens. In Egypt the same virus has afflicted camels. 
Many plans have been tried to prevent sows from 
devouring their young ; the mother's voracity is due 
to the pain the young inflict on her when first com- 
mencing to suckle, for they are littered with milk 
teeth, and the latter, often not being sufficiently dis- 
tant Irom one another, the teat is thus bitten. In 
France the milk teeth, at the extremity of the jaw, 
are extracted, so the mother, not being wounded, 
does not become furious. Another plan is to rub the 
young with gin, as also the mother's snout ; the odor 
will ward off her attacks ; or pour into her ear, at 
the moment of littering, some drops of a mixture 
composed of two parts of tincture of opium and 15 
of camphored alcohol ; this will cause sleep, and 
when she awakens the young will have taken posses- 
sion each of its teat, and the first " nips " will be 
forgotten . 

In some parts of France the value of commercial 
manures is regulated according to the prices paid for 
the manure from city or cavalry stables ; on au 
average, fr. 10 per ton is the accepted value of farm- 
yard manure ; this is the estimate of Ville, the 




chaniiiion of mineral iiianurcF, adopts. Many agfri- 
cultui'ists, wlien making their annual inventories, tlo 
not eredit the aceounts with the farm-yard manure, 
resrardina: it merely as a restitution due to the soil. 
It is ill tile same end — that of avoiiliii;,' lletilious esti- 
mates—that produee is valued aeeordiiii; to the stan- 
dard of the priee of hay ; thus, if the latter be fr. '^ 
per cwt., Iieet, heini; three times less nutritive, will 
be rated somethins under fr. I pel ewt. The sra/Aug 
farmer estim.ites the value of his pasture by the 
protlt realized, general expenses dedueted, betvcen 
the priee of tlie stock purehased when lean and when 
sold fat. 

Mention is beintr directed to the importance of 
torrefied animal refuse, sueli as bones, horn, leather 
clippintrs, hair, woolen ra;,'s, blood, \e. By special 
contrivances these matters are so seorelied as to re- 
tain their oriranic richness, thouifh reduced to a state 
of powder. This powder ferments, orin other terms 
dissolves easily and gradually ; the phosphates are 
assimilated with facility, and the humus in the soil 
economized. This torrefied refuse peculiarly favors 
a large return per acre of beet, in addition to the 
juice being markedly rich in sugar, because less alka- 
line salts or nitrogenous matters are present. Beet 
thus raised has been sold as high as fr. -4 the ton, or 
fr. 6 more than usual rales. It is admitted that the 
manure ensures the unilbrm germination of the seeds 
in a remarkable manner, and keeps ofl' insects, owing 
to the offensive odor of the compound. It is most 
efficacious when employed in moist weather — autumn 
or spring. 

Dr. Holdelleirs has published some very important 
conclusions on the trausforination that the phos- 
phoric acid of the natural phosphorites, undergoes 
in the soil. Humus, whether as in peat or stable 
manures, exercises but little efl'ect, still less the car- 
bonic, or other organic acids. But the inorganic 
nitric and ammoniacal salts possess the power of 
setting free the phosphoric acid to a great degree. 
Clay soils, if watered with liquid manure, will give 
oB' ammonia J but turf soils will retain this gas, by 
immediately transforming it into nitric combinations. 
M. Biehm, an Austriau physiologist, has conducted 
some experiments with kidney beans ; tliey could not 
develop in distilled water, but in ordinary water they 
did, owing to the presence of salts of iime, which 
transport the elements of the seed to the young stem. 
M. Peligot has shown that if beans be watered with 
a solution of common salt, when growing in an ordi 
nary soil, the plant will reject the sodium and take, 
instead, potassium ; while if grown in the same solu- 
tion exclusively they will absorb sodium. Messrs. 
Deherain and Maiiueune conclude, from all these 
facts, that salts in solution are absolutely necessary 
to favor the migration of the principles of the seed 
to the infant stems-. 

Some cavalry horses, at Vernon, were affected with 
an excessive salivation ; the veterinary surgeon traced 
the cause to the musty oats. Change of dietary ar- 
rested the excessive secretion ; w ild thyme, when 
present in large quantities in fodder, has, in the 
neighborhood of Chartres, produced a similar affec- 
tion ; and aftermath clover, having spots on the leaves, 
recalling those of the potato disease — a mushroom 
affection, caused, according to M. Thierry, horses to 
secrete as much as five quarts of saliva per hour. 
No medicament could check the malady, which dis- 
appeared, however, when the diet was altered. 

Complaints are general, especially in Begium, that 
brewers' masli is yearlj' becoming less valuable for 
the feeding of milch cows, and that the old proverb, 
"no grains no milk," will soon become a joke. The 
fact is, that owing to the improvements in machinery, 
brewers extract more matter from the malt than 
formerly; hence, why some farmers prepare their 
own mash, or " Flemish sonp," as it is called, by 
preparing sleeps of crushed barley, bran, or meal 
drinks. In cities dairymen cannot dispense with the 
brewers' grains, which are often preserved in trenches, 
when sprinkled with salt ; the German plan is bet- 
ter, that of drying them when they leave the vat. 

M.deLubasky demands, why is Russia behind 
other countries in agriculture, despite a rich soil and 
several Qistinguislicd farming societies? M. Louay 
attributes the cause, in the region of Volhynia at 
least, an assentially agricultural portion of the empire, 
to the total absence of popular instruction ; since 17 
years tlie peasants have been emancipated, and they 
do not yet understand their new destiny, owing to 
the want of guides. There are no markets held in 
Volhynia, which is "a continuous village ;" whoever 
desires produce must go to the farms to obtain it, 
hence a class of brokers exists between consumer 
and producer, objectionable for both parties. The 
social condition of the peasantry is pitiable ; they 
have only vegetable soup and bread for uniform diet ; 
salt is both a luxury and a neees.^ity, and often bread 
and salt is all they have to eat. They make ther own 
cloth also. 

The unsatisfactory result of this year's beet har- 
vest, both for the farmer and the manufacturer, has 
led to the plan of a fusion of interests; the experi- 
ment will be tried the ensuing seasofl ; the factory 
and farm will become cooperutive, and thus set at 
rest quarrels about prices and stipulations as to ma- 
nures. The wheat crop has fallen short by one- 
twelfth for last year, and the floiu' is inferior ; about 

one-seventh of the total of the wheat grown !• re- 
quired for seed. 

M. Pagnone, one of the highest authorities In the 
country on the cultivation of beet, would leave farm- 
ers free to cultivate the root as they please, and the 
sugar refiners to purchase according to value ; he 
counsels farmi'rs not to cease employing nitrates, but 
to avoid their abuse, as also every other kind of nitro- 
genous manure ; to cultivate the plants at narrow 
distances, and to patronize varieties where the cellular 
dominates tlie til>rou6 tissue. 

M. Genay, residing near Nancy, sows his clover in 
March or April, among the winter wheat or rye, at 
the rate of 11) llis. jier acre, and I'l; of ray grass ; 
a brush of the harrow follows the sowing machine, 
and then the roller. After the harvest he top-dresses 
the clover with ten tons of farm-yard manure per 
acre ; he thus secures vigorous crops, free from para- 
.sites and worms. The phylloxera continues its 
ravages ; better reports come in as to the value of 
sulphuret of carbon for destroying the bugs. 


Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Lancaster 
County Agricultural and Horticultural Society was 
held Monday afternoon, January 4, in the Athenaeum 

The meeting was called to order by the President, 
Calvin Cooper, esq. 

The following members and visitors were present : 
Calvin Cooper, President, .lobnson Miller, Henry M. 
Engle, Martin D. Kendig, Henry Kurtz, .1. .\I. John- 
ston, Clare Carpenter, Prof. S. S. Kathvon, Daniel 
Sincych, Hcnrv Shiffner, \V. L. Hershey, Aaron 
Summy, Mr. Witmer, Peter S. Reist, S. P. Eby, Jacob 
M. Meyer, Christian Coble, Henry Erb, Simon Hos- 
tetter, B. Frank Landis, William McComsey, Jonas 
Buckwalter, Henry Erb, Joseph AVitmer, Isaac 
Bushon<r, Joseph C. Linville, Levi S. Keist, W. L. 
Hershey and Frank R . Diffenderffer. 

On motion, the reading of the minutes of last meet- 
ing was dispensed with. 

Election of Members. 

On motion, Calvin Carter, of Sadsbury, was duly 
elected a member of the society. 

Reports of Special Committees. 

The committee appointed to attend the State Fruit- 
Growers' Association at Williamsport not being 
ready to report, were temporarily excused. 
Condition of the Crops. 

Johnson Miller, of Warwick, said quite a num- 
ber of wheat fields looked bad prior to the late snow 
fall ; '-he Hessian fly had injured them. The early 
sowing had not been beneficial. 

Henky Kurtz, of Mount Joy, reported many 
fields as looking very yellow ; some are less, some 
more so. He believed it to be the fly, and caused in- 
directly by early sowing, especially in low, wet 
grounds. But little tobacco has been sold ; 5 — 15 
and 5 — 18 cents were paid. 

H. M. Engle reported the January rainfall at -i^^ 

Reading of Essays. 

Daniel Smeych had an essay, which he had writ- 
ten, read by the Secretary. See page 20. 

H. M. Engle said the article was not too long, but 
yet too much so to be discussed here. He liked the 
essay ; it was a most excellent production. There is 
a wide difference of opinion as to the various methods 
employed. He thought the essayist favored the long 
pruning system too much. He believed in close 
pruning. We get more and better fruit in this way. 
He once thought otherwise, but experience taught 
him his mistake. There is a good deal of ignorance 
prevalent as to pruning vines. A little attention will 
soon teach every man how to prune his own vines. 

On motion, a vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. 
Smeych for his valuable essay. 

Questions for Discussion. 

" How shall the farm be conducted to produce the 
best pecuniary results?" 

Henry Kurtz said this was an important matter. 
Our lands have cost from two to two hundred and 
fifty dollars per acre, and it won't do to raise wheat, 
corn or oats. We must raise vegetables, and par- 
ticularly tobacco. We have the best soil in tlie 
country for this. But to do this we must have a 
tobacco inspector, who must tell people just what we 
have to sell. 

Here the chairman called Mr. Kurtz to order, as 
he was altogether off the question and getting away 
still farther. 

Johnson Miller said he did not believe with Mr. 
Kurtz that we must devote all our attention to to- 
bacco farming. A statile full of good cows will pro- 
duce S.5U0 or .^tiOO a year, and a flne lot of chickens, 
a few hundred more. There are other ways to make 
money besides raising tobacco. 

H. .M. Engle agreed with Mr. Miller. He said 
the tobacco flurry may run out. We should not 
buUd ou this alone. Cotton ruined the South be- 

cause everything else gave way to It. We ought to 
grow a variety of products. Some crops fail and 
some succeed, so we always get something ; If we go 
on one article all the time, we maki^ a mistake. 
.Many farmers have grown rich without ever having 
planted a single stalk of tobacco. Improve your 
larming ; raise M bushels of wheat instead of "iO ; 
grow 100 bushels of corn Instead of .W, and then you 
are on ttie road to prosperity. 

Henry Kiutz came to the defense of his peculiar 
theory, but disclaimed being considered as advo- 
cating the planting of nothing but tobacco. lie 
rafscd §1,700 worth of tobacco on four acres of land ; 
that paid, i 

.Mr. Witmkr agreed partly with both these par- 
ties. He Ihiiiighl moneycould be made out of wheat 
as well as out of tobacco, and we can im|)rove our 
farms at the same time, (iood cultivation is what we 
need. We can make money without growing a 
particle of tobacco. 

H. M. Enule said the question was a broad one, 
presenting many views ; we cannot go over them all 
now. We should sub-divide it to discuss It Intelll- 

On motion of .Johnson Miller, the question was 
continued until next meeting. 

On motion, tlie rules were temporarily susijended 
to bring up some special business. 

Aaron Si^mmy stated that he had with him a bill 
reported tiy Mr. Ettla, relative to the appointment of 
a tobacco ins|)ector. .\lthough properly belonging 
to the Tobacco Growers' Association, on motion, the 
bill was allowed to be read, as it was admitted to be 
a matter nearly concerning the agricultural interests 
of the county. 

Peter S. Heist advocated the discussion of the 
question here and now. 

Aabo.n Su.mmy thought it was not out of order to 
consider the iiuestion here. There is no necessity for 
such an inspector. It is a big job for someone. 

Henry Siiiffner saiil if we have an inspector we 
will be taxed uselessly. It will still further stagnate 
business. It ought to be: voted down. 

On motion, tlie qucstiou was allowed to be dis- 
cussed here. 

Henry M. Engle thought a meeting of the To- 
bacco Growers' Association should be called and tha 
question be discussed there. Tliat would be the 
proper course. Some of us are not at all interested 
in the question. 

Henry Kurtz said the men who speak against 
this inspector are interested parties. Ue advocated 
the appointment of an inspector, and denounced 
tliose who did not. 

Daniel Smeycu moved that the question be In- 
definitely postponed , carried. 

Referred Questions. 

" What produces abortion in cows ?" wae answered 
by Johnson .Miller, as follows : 

Mr. Pre.sidknt ; The question, " What produces 
abortion iu cows !" referred to me at the last meeting 
of this society, should have been referred, in my 
opinion, to a doctor, if we have one in the society. 
If not, llien to some older member who may have more 
knowledge or experience tlian 1 on a question of this 
kind. However, my answer is the opinion of one of 
our most prominent horse doctors and ])artly ray own 
experience. Slinking or slipping the calf is a mis- 
fortune to which some cows are particularly subject 
in the earliest period of gestation, and therefore some 
eons are more sulyect to an abortion than others. 
Tills may be brought about by accidents which may 
happen to the animal. In my own experience, two 
years ago there was considerable ice in the barnyard, 
over whieli my cattle had to pass to gel to the water. 
They would sometimes slip and fall, the result of 
which was several abortions that season. It may 
also be brought about by cows jumping over fences 
or bars half open. Tiie fanner should warn all boys 
or hired men never to make cows jump over bars 
half open. Take out rails at both ends, or, better 
still, have gates to your fields, thereby preventing 
any accident to cows in this way. 

Another cause of abortion in cows may be that 
they are run from the field home as fast as they can 
go, as is sometimes the case. It is late in the eve- 
ning, the larnier comes home from the fields, the 
women want the cons to milk, and order the boy or 
hired man to fetch them in double-quick. He obeys 
the order, and the cows arc on a run for a quarter to 
a half mile, thereby injuring their milking proper- 
ties, and often this may be the cause of an abortion. 
There are so many ways by which cattle, or more 
particularly cows, are abused by our farmers and 
their hired men that I am free to say that nine out of 
every ten cases of abortion arc caused tiy such treat- 
ment as I have above referred to. There may bo 
other causes, and if there are I would like to hear 
them. -My advice would be, treat your cows kindly, 
and there will be fewer cases of abortion in cows. 

U. M. Engle had no doubt the essay covered 
most of the cases of abortion, but not all. Sometimes 
whole stables arc attlictcd ; the true cause is not yet 

Levi S. Reist knew of a case where nearly all 
the cows in a neighborhood were affected by this dis- 
ease. He was unable to account for it; it appeared 
as an epidemic. 



[ February, 

Mb. Witmer saw, a few days ago, the opinion of 
an eminent authority, wliieh says it arises from eat- 
ing mildewed hay or grass, or ergot of rye. He knew 
of a farmer who lost quite a number of calves from 
this cause. 

Henry Kurtz had a case of the kmd ; he could 
not account for it. Sunning cows hard will often 
bring about this evil. Colts often run cows and in- 
jure them. 

John C. Linville said such were accidental cases, 
but there are instances of wholesale abortion in large 
herds. It is an epidemic, ruining the dairy business 
in some places in Chester county. One, writer at- 
tributed it to pasturing in run down pastures, but this 
has been contradicted. Veterinary surgeons are m 
the dark about it. 

"W. L. Hershey had heard that if a male animal 
is tethered near the female, abortion will be pro- 
duced. The trouble may also be caused by the male. 
Mr. Witmeu did not think so. He had some faith 
In the theory of pasturing on old meadows where the 
grass was run down. Excessive feeding may also in- 
duce abortion. 

H. M. Engle hardly thought we could solve the 
question. Eminent veterinary surgeons have been 
unable to explain the cause. We must acknowledge 
we know very little about it. 

New Business. 
The President read a letter from the Agricultural 
Department, requesting the co-operation of this so- 
ciety in making an exhibit of American horticultural 
productions at the French Exposition ; the specimens 
to be either in their natural condition, wax, plaster 
of Paris, or preserved in alcohol ; a series of the 
fruits of this State was requested. 

H. M.Engle did not think we could do more than 
to tell persons, who had anything to sell, how their 
matters could be forwarded. 

H. M. Engle offered the following preamble and 

resolution : -„ ,. . 

Whereas, The' Lanc.\ster Farmer, having 
been established under the auspices of the Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society as its organ to dis- 
seminate the proceedinffs and sentiment of said society, 
ResolmJ, Therefore, that all essays, communica- 
tions and documents presented at the monthly meet- 
ino-s are considered belonging to the society, and 
shall be at its disposal, unless otherwise directed by 
the authors of said documents. 

J. M. Johnston wished to know whether the ob- 
ject'of this resolution was to disallow reporters from 
procuring essays that are read here. To report the 
ordinary proceedings and not the essays would be 
like the play of Hamlet with that character left out. 
When essays are delayed in their publication too 
lonf they lose their value. To report a debate on an 
essay without giving the latter would be a silly 
business. . 

H. M. Engle explained that the reporters' privl- 
leo-es were not intended to be curtailed by the resolu- 
tion. But The Farmer was the organ of the associ- 
ation, and therefore entitled to some consideration. 
Prof. Rathvon said he was under the impression 
that The Farmer was to have the essays read be- 
fore this society for pvililication— have entire control 
of them. Essays are often incorrectly reported, and 
therefore have not justice done them. By publica- 
tion in The Farmer all this is avoided. 

S. P. EiiY remarked that he read the proceedings 
of the society in the papers, but he would like to see 
them in The Farmer also. He can there preserve 

On motion the resolution was carried. 
M. D. Kendig reported an order of business for 
the present year, drawn up by various members of 
the society, which, if tiiey are all adopted, will ne 
cessitate semi-monthly meetinirs. 

It was announced that John I. Carter, of the State 
Model Farm, would deliver an address before the 
next meeting of the society. 

On motion, the President was instructed to appoint 
a committee to report on tlie best fruits suitable to 
this section of country. The committee are H. M. 
Engle, M. D. Kendig and Levi S. Reist. 

Prof. Ratuvon exhiliited and distributed speci- 
mens of Japanese persimmon, preserved in sugar, 
that were really excellent. The professor declared 
it to be "the coming persimmon." 

Pbof. Ratiivon exhibited an insect found on 
peach trees and enquired whether any members had 
noticed them. They have been very destructive in 
Reading and are spreading rapidly. 

H. M. Engle recommended the growing of the 
above Japanese fig in citips where they are partially 
sheltered. They may not be entirely hardy and not 
so well suited to the exposed country. 

Prof. Rathvon also requested that some member 
procure him a female opossum before the March 

On motion the society adjourned until the first 
Monday in March. 


A stated meeting of the Lancaster County Tobacco 
Growers' Association was held on .Monday afternoon, 
January 2l8t, in the Atheuaium rooms, this city. 

President Kendig in the chair, and over fifty tobacco 
growers being present. Following is a nearly full list 
of the members and visitors in attendance : 

Martin D. Kendig, President, Manor; W. L. Her- 
shey, Secretary, West Hempfield ; Henry Kurtz, Mt. 
Joy; I. L. Laiidis, Manheim ; S. W. Kennedy, Salis- 
bury; A. H. Yeager, East Lampeter; Henry ShiB- 
ner. Upper Lea'cock ; Washington L. Hershey, 
Rapho; John Brady, Millersville ; J. M. Frantz, 
Lancaster twp.; W. S. Kennedy, Salisbury; P. S. 
Reist, Manheim ; A. H. Summy, Manheim ; Eph. H. 
Hoover, Manheim; Adam R. Baer, Lancaster; Levi 
S. Reist, Oregon ; Adam Bard, city; John M. Steh- East Hempfield ; A. J. Groff, Paradise ; J. M. 
John.'ston, city ; W. P Brinton, Christiana ; Stephen 
Grissinger, Rapho; A. F. Frantz, Manor; J. W. 
Simners, Oresfon ; Eli Engle, Mt. Joy ; Christian S. 
Hershey, Landisville ; Jesse Bouchter, Manheim ; 
Simeon Hostetter, Oregon; Jacob L. Henry, East 
Hem])field ; John H. Beiler, East Lampeter; E. Root, 
East Hempfield ; Alex. Lane, Neffsville ; Jonas Buck- 
waiter, East Lampeter ; Amos Minnich, East Lam- 
peter; J. R. Missimer, Milton Grove; Frank R. 
Dirt'cndcrffer, city ; Adam Shreiner, West Hempfield ; 
J. Hartman Hershey, East Hempfield; David Grey- 
bill, Jacob Foreman, David Burkholder, Fred. Nord- 
seat, J. W. Urban, Clare Carpenter, Silas Eshleman, 
S. S. Rathvon and Benjamin Sides. 
The Crop Reports. 
The committee appointed at a former meeting to 
visit prominent tobacco growers in different sections 
of the county, and report to the society the condition 
of the crop, "the several ways of growing and curing 
it, and other matters of interest, reported progress 
and asked to be continued, promising to make a full 
report at neA meeting. On motion the committee 
was continued. 

Henry Kurtz, of Mt. Joy, reported the tobacco 
in his section as being nearly all stripped and in good 
condition. None of it has been damaged by sweating 
or by any other cause. A few buyers have been 
around inquiring for old tobacco, and he had heard 
of one lot of new being sold for 18, 8 and 5. Another 
lot was sold for 20 and 5, but the purchaser after- 
wards backed out. The worst feature of the trade 
is that dealers bring into the county inferior tobacco 
from other States and sell it for Lancaster tobacco, 
thus injuring the reputation of our home product. 
He had heard of one dealer who had made $1 ,200 by 
this nefarious practice, and he was glad to hear that 
one of our assemblymen, Mr. Ettla, had prepared a 
bill, to be presented to the Legislature, providing for 
an inspector of tobacco. If the bill passed it would 
prevent the evil complained of. 

W. L. Hershey reported that in Lower Rapho all 
the tobacco is striiiped and looks well. Some sales 
have been made at 32 and 5, and 18 and 5. 

Israel L. Landis, of Manheim, reported very 
favorably of the crop in that township. He regarded 
it as the largest and best ever grown. 

Sylvester Kennedy, of Salisbury, said the to- 
bacco in his section was nearly all stripped. A few 
more damp days would finish up the business. He 
has heard of no sales, but the tobacco is in good con- 
dition and ready for buyers as soon as they come 

Henry Shipfneb said that Leacock was still 
ahead of other parts of the county. The crop is in 
excellent condition, of fine quality and beautiful 
color. Some sales had been made at prices ranging 
from 23 to :iO cents. 

A. J. Groff, of Paradise, said the stripping was 
mostly finished, but he had heard of no sales. He 
would ask the gentleman who had reported the above 
sales whether the prices mentioned were paid for 
very superior leaf or for average lots. The prices 
seemed high, and if they were obtained only for 
small lots of fine leaf, they were calculated to mis- 
lead growers as to the true value of the crop. 

Messrs. Landis, Kurtz and Shiffner said the 
sales reported were of very superior leaf; and Mr. 
Shiffner added that if growers could get from 13 to 
15 cents for good average wrappers he would advise 
them to sell. 

Henry Kurtz said he thought it was out of order 
for any member of the society to attempt to fix the 
price for the farmers, who should try and get all 
they can lor their labor and not place themselves at 
the mercy of the dealers, who would rob them if 
they could. 

Henry Shiffner said he hoped the farmers would 
get 30 cents round for their tobacco, but if they 
averaged 15 it would be more than they ever got be- 

A. H. Yeager, East Lampeter, reported sales of 
wrappers at prices ranging from 13 to 18 cents. 
Most of the crop is stripped and looks well. 

A German from the northeast section of the county 
was understood to say that John Beiler had been 
offered 20 cents for his crop, but he held it at 25 
cents. Mr. Beiler was very careful in stripping, sort- 
ing and sizing h s tobacco. 

Frederick Hoffman, of West Cocalico, said 
that until last year very little tobacco had been 
raised in his neighborhood, perhaps not more than 
two tone. Last year from seven to nine tons had 
been grown, and nearly all of it is stripped. No 
buyers have been around as yet, and he has heard of 

no sales ; but since he came into town he had been 
offered 15 cents for his best, but he refused the offer. 

Simeon Minnich reported a good crop ; that which 
was stripped before the holidays has partially 
sweated and lost weight, to the advantage of the 
buyer. He would like to hear Mr. Shiffner's reasons 
for saying that the grower would not get more than 
1-t or 15 cents for good leaf. 

Mr. Shiffner said the warehouses are full of old 
tobacco that dealers have not yet disposed of; the 
new crop is unusually large, and times are hard. All 
these causes have a depressing effect ; and at the 
best the average heretofore has never reached 15 

Henry Kurtz did not like to hear anything said 
here that tended to urfdervalue the price of tobacco, 
and thus give an advantage to the sharks who are 
trying to get it for little or nothing. He would buy 
all the tobacco he coidd for 14 cents and make 
money by it. 

John Brady, of Millersville, wanted the growers 
to get all they could, but if they averaged 15 cents it 
will be more than they ever got before. Many grow- 
ers don't know what to ask for their tobacco. They 
hear of a neighbor who has received a high price and 
they think they ought to get the same price, though 
perhaps their crop is not worth as much. He had 
heard of a few sales in his section at 20 and 5 ; 20, 10 
and 5 ; and 15 and 5. 

Application of Lime to Land. 

Me. C. L. Hunsecker read the following essay : 
What is lime? It is an earthy substance of a white 
color, moderately hard, but which is easily reduced 
to powder, either by sprinkling it with water or by 
trituration. There are few parts of the world in 
which lime does not exist. It is found pure in lime- 
stone, marble and chalk. None of these substances 
is, however, strictly speaking, lime ; but they are all 
easily converted into it by a well known process by 
placing them in kilns or furnaces constructed foi; the 
purpose and keeping them for some time in a while 

The use of lime as a manure is comparatively 
modern, but as mortar for building it goes back to 

The lime we have to do with in applying to land is 
the lime ordinarily found in the form of common 
limestone or carbonate of lime, a combination of lime 
with carbonic acid. Every 100 pounds of limestone 
contains about 44 pounds of carbonic acid gas. This 
may be driven off by a high heat as in the lime kilns. 
The lime then remains in what is called the caustic 
state, or quieklime. 

Lime is applied to the land as quicklime, hydrate 
or slacked lime, so called because it has lost its caus- 
tic qualities. It is better for the land in all of these 
states tlian it was before burning, because the burn- 
ing has reduced it to an extremely fine powder, more 
fitted to be dissolved in the soil and to be taken up 
by the plants. Lime is an essential ingredient in the 
soil, being constantly needed by plants in all their 

Lime is a heavy manure, and should be applied 
fresh slacked in a fine condition upou the plowed 
ground, and mixed with the soil by harrowing in. 
When the proportion of vegetable matter is so great 
in a soil that the crops of graiu go mostly to straw, 
a liberal supply of lime will rectify the evil and im- 
prove both the quantity and the quality of the grain. 
The amount of lime to be applied to the acre de- 
pends greatly upon the quality of the land. On dry 
or peaty soils it may be used in large quantities with 
good effect. There are numerous kinds of limestone, 
differing very much in purity, found in various quar- 
ters of the globe. In the vicinity of Lancaster we 
find an abundance of deep blue limestone. State 
Geologist H. D. Rogers, states that Lancaster city is 
situated upon a tract of blue limestone. The lime 
from these stone is extensively used for building, and 
is an excellent manure for land. 

Suppose the farmer to have a soil which requires, 
as almost all soils do, the application of manure to 
render it more fertile ; but as some kiuds of grain 
and grass grow to very great perfection upou com- 
paratively poor soil, and others only uijou a very rich 
one, this teaches us the importance of manuring and 
rotation of crops. By pursuing a rotation of crops, 
and manuring with the different kinds of animal and 
mineral substances, the ingredients draw from the 
soil for the full growth and perfection of the various 
plants cultivated by the farmer, have sustenance 
enough from the earth and the air to flourish and 
arrive to a state of maturity and perfection. 

In applying lime to the barnyard or stable manure 
it should be air slacked. Caustic lime has a tendency 
to draw out the ammonia, and should never be ap- 
plied on the dung pile. What is a soil! It is the 
uppermost stratum of the earth's surface. Soils 
have been classified according to their brief ingredi- 
ents as loamy, clayey, gravelly, chalky, peaty and 
mossy, the latter consisting mostly of vegetable or 
mould, which is very retentive of moisture. Of these 
varieties loam is considered the best, but the others 
can be improve! by adding the ingredients in which 
they are deficient, as sai.d and lime to the clayey 
soil, and clay to a graveily one. 

Most soils are improved by the application of suit- 
able manure, but the kind required varies with the 





natui-c of tlic soil . Lime is a good mauurc.' for cUaycy 
•oils and irypsviiii for eandy 0[ies, because the Ibriner 
retains and tile latter attracts moisture. Certain 
plants require a particular nourishmeul— wheat for 
example will not grow to a full kernel in a eoil wholly 
destitute of lime. 

The lilieral application of lime to land produces a 
soil which decomposes the organic and inorganic 
compounds of the earth, as well as furnisli food for 

On motion, the thanks of the association were 
tendered .Mr. Huneecker for his able essay. 

The subject of the c.s.say was further discussed by 
John Brady and Henry Kurtz, who gave several 
illustrations of the advantages derived from lime, not 
only when ajiplied to tobacco, but also to other crops. 

A. H. St'MMY thought it was not disputed that 
lime is bcuetieial to the soil, but some well-informed 
tobacco connoisseurs hold that it injuriously ellects 
the quality of the tobacco. He had with him some 
cigars, some of which were made of tobacco that had 
been liberally limed, and some of tobacco grown 
without lime. He would take pleasure in handing 
around the cigars to those who were judges in the 
matter. He thought the society should not attempt 
to bull or bear the market, but to learn how to grow 
the weed. 

The matter was further discussed by Messrs. 
Kennedy, Kurtz, Brady, Kendig, Hunsccker and 

The Manure Question. 

Jacob M. Frantz, to whom had been referred for 
answer the question whether manure made from 
cattle to which grain had been fed was more valuable 
than that made from cattle fed without graiu, an- 
swered that it was, and that he had never heard the 
fact questioned. If anyone thought ditl'ereutly he 
would be pleased to hear him. 

Sylvesteji Kennedy said that he had proposed 
the question, but had not worded it very well. What 
he wauted to know was whether it was true economy 
in the farmer to feed grain to his stock, for the pur- 
pose of making manure. He maintained that it was 
not ; that equally valuable manure could be made by 
feeding hay, straw and corn-fodder, if gypsum or 
other suitable articles were added to the compost, 
and this might be done at a much less cost than the 
price of the grain. He maintained that the manurial 
value of hay and straw was diminished and not in- 
creased by passing through the steer, who took from 
it a part of its strength to sustain his own life. 

Ephraim Hoover took an entirely different view. 
He believed that twice as much could be raised from 
land enriched by feeding cattle as by any other sys- 
tem of cultivation. If you want to see a thriving 
farm look for one owned by a cattle feeder. 

On motion of A. J. Grotf the further discussion of 
the question was deferred until next meeting, and 
Mr. Kennedy was requested to reduce his views to 
■writing and lay them before the society in the form 
of an essay — which .Mr. Kennedy consented to do. 

The question, " What variety of tobacco should be 
cultivated r' was also deferred until ue.\t meeting. 
Election of Officers. 

President Kendig read the following valedictory 
address : 

■ Gentlemen : In accordance with the common 
custom, on retiring from the offlcial capacity of chair- 
man of a deliberative tjody, in making an address, I 
have prepared a short paper containing a few facts 
and suggestions which presented themselves to my 
mind. In the Ursl place allow me to acknowledge 
the uniform kindness, patience and courtesy extended 
toward me during the past year, while acting as 
chairman of this association, and for which accept 
my most hearty thanks. We have now entered upon 
our second year, and, taking a retrospect, we certainly 
may congratulate ourselves in having attained a rea- 
sonable degree of progress and success. Starting, as 
we did, under adverse and unfavorable circumstances, 
the intluenee of public ojiinion to a very great degree 
against us — the association being at one time re- 
garded with much disfavor by a large portion of the 
masses, while others again charged us with being 
oppressive to the poor laboring man, in not giving 
him laud to cultivate tobacco for the shares as was 
customary. We were even cried down as a political 
organization, a ring of tricksters to serve certain 
base purposes ; but as an association we have most 
gloriously outlived all these ridiculous charges or 
misstatements, and have proven to be, to a great 
extent, what was at first contemplated in the organi- 
zation — an intluenee in raising the standard of our 
Lancaster county tobacco. The benelits derived, in 
many respects, are quite perceptible to the most 
casual observer. We have 'most certainly made ad- 
vanced progress since the organization of the asso- 
ciation. In the culture of the product, and to-day 
Btand without a rival as a tobacco-growing district. 
Our commodity is sought far and wide. Dealers in 
leaf tobacco have but recently rccogiuzed the fact 
that our tobacco competes favorably with any in the 
world for size and quality ; but this was not the case 
a few years ago, when our product was to a certain 
extent condemned as a very ordinary article. Now 
•we do not claim that this society deserves the credit 
of having accomplished these ends ; but it certainly 

cannot be gainsaid that it was a great auxiliary in 
attaining these desirable results. Let us, therefore, 
be encouraged to continue our elforts in this line of 
duty— compare notes of experience and observation, 
and discuss the various subjects that come up from 
time to time ; sift out the liseful and true, and thus 
attain still higher cnils. 

During the year no doubt many interesting ques- 
tions will come before us for consideration, among 
the rest, perliaps, the question, how shall we dispose 
our present crop to the best advantage, anil how to 
prevent or deter the oversto<'king of the market, 
which, from present indications, will no doubt occur 
sooner or later? But I do not propose todiscuss these 
points, but merely bring them to yonr notice. An- 
other matter presents itself, which I think drmamls 
our attention — parties bringing into our market an 
inferior foreign article and palming it olf on dealers 
as a Lancaster county production, and thereby injur, 
ing the standard and market value of our own. This 
matter was some time ago very ably and pointedly 
discussed in an editorial of one of our Lancaster 
pajiers, and we hope the press will eontimie to ferret 
out and denounce this injustice and fraud. The so- 
ciety should also be no less vigilant in disclosing and 
denouncing all such fraudulent transactions. 

I will here reiterate what I have, at various times, 
stated before— that we should not be too avaricious, 
by growing too large an acreage in the future, and 
thus overstock the market. 

In conclusion, allow me again to thank you for 
your uniform kindness and courtesy toward me 
during the year, and congratulate you on the pros- 
perity of the Lancaster County Tobacco Growers' 

Jacob M. Frantz moved that Mr. Kendig be re- 
elected by acclamation, which, notwithstanding the 
dcclin.ation of the president, was carried with loud 
applause. The other ofliccrs of the association were 
also re-elected by acclamation, as follows : 
President — Martin D. Kendig. 
Vice President — Jacob M. Frantz. 
Secretary — Webster L. Hershey. 
Treasurer — A. Lane. 

The chair appointed Jacob M. Frantz, A. H. Sum- 
my and A. J. Grofl' a committee to audit the treas- 
urer's account and report at next meeting. 

I. L. Landis, of Manheira, said the reason Lan- 
caster county tobacco brought tip-top prices is be- 
cause it is the best grown anywhere. Manufacturers 
and dealers in California and other distant Stiites 
would not come thousands of miles for our tobacco 
unless they had some substantial reasons for doing 
so. The speaker had made an effort to show our to- 
bacco at the Centennial exhibition, and the display 
attracted some attention, but it was not the one- 
tenth what it ought to have been. Mr. Landis bad 
been in correspondence with the United States de- 
partment of agriculture, in reference to making a 
display of Lancaster tobacco at the Paris Exposition. 
He read the following letter as expressing his views : 
Lancaster County Tobacco Growers' Association: 

In view of the great and growing importance of 
the tobacco interests of Lancaster county, I would 
call the attention of this association to a communi- 
cation sent to me from the United States agricultural 
department, asking me to send to that department, 
at my earliest convenience, " specimens of our pecu- 
liar manufactures of tobacco and of the leaf enter- 
ing into them, with memoranda,if possible, of where 
it was grown and of the process of curing," etc. 
With a view to forward the same to the world's ex- 
position at Paris this summer, I deem it proper to 
ask this association to co-operate with me in making 
the collection and taking such measures to bring the 
effort to a successful issue ; as it may be the means 
of bringing our Lancaster county tobacco, pure and' 
unmixed, before the European consumers, and add 
to the already high reputation, it bears for its pecu- 
liar and good qualities. Hoping that my efforts in 
this matter may meet the approbation and support 
of this association and others concerned better than 
they did at our own Centennial, where they, imper- 
fect as they were, attracted a due share of attention, 
I submit my communications for your consideration. 
Respectfully yours, 

Israel L. Laxdis. 
The matter was discussed at some length by Harry 
Mayer, Henry Shiffner, John Brady, W. L. Hershey, 
J. M. Stehraan, Jacob M. Frantz and others. 

A. H. SUM.MY moved that a committee of seven be 
appointed by the chair to make the necessary ar- 
rangements for having the society properly repre- 
sented at the Paris Exposition. Agreed to. 

The chair appointed the following committee; 
Isr.ael L. Landis, Harry Mayer, Jacob .M. Frantz, 
Henry Shitlner, Wash. L. Hershey, A. J. Groff, 
Aaron Summy. 

Fine Tobacco. 

Henry Shiffner exhibited to the society several 
hands of very fine tobacco, of the Connecticut and 
Florida varieties, grown in Upper Leacock. The 
leaves were large, of fine dark brown color, free from 
veins, and of remarkably fine texture. 

ErnKAiM Hoover, of Manheim, exhibited three 
hands of the Kentucky variety, very fine in color 
and quality. 

Stlvester Kennp.dv exiiiliiled some beautiful 
specimens from his farm in Salisbury. 

J. .M.Johnston showed a few leaves grown by 
Henry Knriz, of Mt. Joy. Tliey were of immouBe 
size — nearly four feet in length. 

The following business was selected for next 
meeting : 

" Can manure he made equally as good without 
feeding urain to cattle as by feeding it to them!" 
Essay by Sylvester Kennedy. 

" How many pounds of moisture will tobacco take 
in per hundred, taking dry tobacco for a basis?" 
Referred to A. J. (iroff. 

" What per cent, will tobacco logo during the year 
after being casi'il ?" licferred to Henry Shiffner. 

" What distance shouhl the tobacco rows be apart, 
and at what dislanee should plants be set apart to 
produce the best results?" Referred to Henry Kurtz. 



A stated meeting of the LinnH?an Society was held 
on Saturday, Jaiiuary, '^lOth ult.. Rev. Prof. J. 8. 
Stahr in the chair; nine members were present. 
After the prellniiiiary opening, the donations to the 
museum were found to consist of four mounted 
specimens of birds. One was that of a large specl- 
menofthe " Great Horned Owl" (Bubo Vlrginianus.) 
This liird was sent alive to I'rof. Itathvoh by Mr. 
Thomas C. Edwards, of t^uarryville, this county. 
It was afterwards mounted by .Mr. Geo. Flick, of this 
city. It is a male, in full feather. Mr. Wilson, in 
his American Ornithology, vol. vi. p. 52, gives a 
graphic account of the Great Horned Owl, under the 
old name of " Strix Virginiana," coming around his 
camp-fire uttering a loud and sudden " Waugh O ! 
Waugh O !" suilicienf to have alarmed a whole garri- 
son. It is known as the bird that " makes the night 
hideous" to the solitary traveler. No. 'Z is one of 
those introduced sparrows (Passer domesticus), now 
becoming quite numerous in tliis city. Mr. George 
Flick donated No. ;i, a speckled or Spanish bantam, 
having a dense tuft of feathers on its head, giving it 
a bold, pugnaccous appearance, (the Gallusfjankiva,) 
said to have had its origin in the jungles of the island 
of Java. Mr. Flick also donated No. 4, a remarkable 
bird, of peculiar color, whicdi was mounted for some 
one who never called for it. It is evidently one of 
the extensive tribe of the FrixiiilUdir. Specimens of 
a fine quality of umber found in Perry county. Pa., 
donated by .Mr. II. Bechtold, this city. A fragment 

of large fossil ? -V twig of a pine tree having a 

large excrescence of a globular form, beset with the 
narrow leaves of the pine, appearing like a large 
chestnut bur in its dry form. No doubt an abnormal 
growth of the twig into a mass with its leaves in 
fassiclcs radiating from the circumference, rather 
than at the regular nodes, as ordinarily on the elonga- 
tion of the twig. This may have been caused by the 
sting of an insect. It was sent to Professor Stahr, by 
Mr. Hosterman, Centre county. Pa. 

Historical Collection. 

Rev. Mr. Dubbs added three "school lottery 
tickets," dated Lancaster, 1701 ; also, three en- 
velopes containing eighteen clippings of historical 
facts, per S. S. Ralhvon. 


Nos. 1 and 3, Bureau of Education, and on Medical 
Education and .Medical Institutions. The Lancas- 
ter Fabmek for January, 187S ; book catalogue 
and circulars. 

Paper Read. 

No. 490, by S. S. Rathvon, on the specimens de- 
posited, and also noticing a remarkable " Albino," 
or while-footed ami white-billed and feathered species 
of the crow black-bird (Viiiscanlis versicolor) in the 
possession of .Mr. Henry Foiidcrsmith, of this city ; a 
" white black-bird." 

New Business. 

On motion, a vote of thanks was passed to Mr. 
Geo. Flick for his donations, Nos. :i and 4. A bill 
for sundry locks and keys, furnished l)y the Treasurer, 
8i..50, and cash paid for niounting Nos. 1 and 2, $4. 
The amount of 57. .")0 was ordered to be paid by the 
society, licv. Jas. Y. .Mitchell signed the Constitu- 
tion and took his certificate of stock and became an 
active member of tliis society. 

In view of certain proiwsitions made in reference to 
a third-story room in tlic premises fitting up for the 
T. M. C. A. on South Queen street, it was, on due 

licsoli'cd. That S. S. Rathvon, C. A. Heinitsh and 
the President, Prof. J. S. Stahr, be appointed a com- 
mittee to confer with the Young .Men's Christian 
Association in relation to the removal of the museum 
and place of meeting of this society, and the nature 
of Ike plan, conditions, etc., and to report at a special 
or next stated meeting of tlic Linnaian Society for 
final action. 

Under scientific gossip, some of the wonders of the 
telephone and telegraph were discussed. No further 
busiuess offering, on motion, adjourned to Saturday, 
February SW. 






The Value of Hen Manure. 
By what we see on the most of farms we are led to 
believe that but little value is placed on the hen 
manure, which is left to accumulate wherever it is 
dropped, until arouud some farmers' premises it 
might be gathered up by the wagon load. Now 
this, when properly applied to corn or other crops at 
planting time, has given the best of satisfaction, and 
the experience of those who have used it is that it is 
far ahead of any fertilizer that can be bought in the 
market at J-10 per ton. Among farmers there is 
a difference in the manner in which this home-made 
fertilizer shall be mixed and applied. But the present 
opinion of those that have tried it for some time, is 
that equal parts of hen manure and plaster be well 
mixed up together and applied on the hill, as soon 
after planting as it can be conveniently done. Some 
have tried mixing ashes with the hen manure, but 
after a trial are well convinced that this is wrong, 
the ashes doing more hurt than good ; they weaken 
the mixture by letting much of its valuable proper- 
ties escape in the atmosphere. Again, others have 
applied a mixture of plaster, hen manure and salt, a 
small handful in the hill and the corn dropped on it. 
But when this is done care must be used or it will 
prove too strong for the corn. It may be placed so 
close to the corn as to injure the germ so that the 
seed may not sprout. I once saw a neigh'hor apply 
about a quart of hen manure, as an experiment, to 
some cabbage plants that he was selling out, which 
his brother said would surely kill them, but it did 
not ; on the contrary, it made them grow very finely, 
and he had a very fine lot of cabbage, while some of 
his neighbors had " nary" a one, although their 
gardens were in other respects eciually as good as his. 
Let us here say to all that keep fowls, see that they 
roost in a place where their droppings can be saved, 
and they will prove one of the best manures that can 
be obtained. — I'ractical Farmer. 


Raising Cloverseed. 
J. C. Birdsell, of "Clover HuUer" fame, says in 
the Clover Leaf: "My observation in regard to 
clover and cloverseed raising has been greater than 
that of many, on account of having followed thresh- 
ing from my youth, prior to my invention, and many 
seasons have run four machines. I have always 
noticed that whenever we found a job whei'e there 
was a large yield, that it was where the seed had 
been sown one bushel to five or six acres, mown the 
last days of June, and plastered after the first crop 
had been taken off. I have seen a field when one- 
half bad been mown and got off' before July 1, and 
the balance of the field not till two weeks later, and 
the seed that was started first yielded three and a 
half bushels per acre, the diU'erence three bushels. 
This, you see, was quite a loss to the raiser, and the 
hay first mown equally as good as that which was 
mown last. I have raised seed myself that went four 
and a half to the acre. I have also taken clover 
from the field in three different conditions, and laid 
away in the dry, for the purpose of knowing when 
was the best time to cut seed clover. The first state 
was then dead ripe ; second, when handsomely 
brown ; and third, still greener, and, when thoroughly 
dry, rubbed out the seed and put the three piles on a 
plate, and could see no difference. That which was 
cut the greenest was just as plump seed as that 
which was dead ripe. This shows that the head 
receives enough sustenance from the stalk after it is 
cut to fully mature the seed, and, when cut a little 
greener, you can save almost every seed. Always 
turn when the seed is on, so that the bolls will not 
rattle off. 

What a Big County We Live In. 
The 7ro7j Age publishes the following to show that 
in agriculture the pre-emiuence is not to be given to 
the West, where it would usually be sought for. In 
the list of counties producing the largest aggregate 
value each in its own .State, we find that Pennsylva- 
nia is at the head, while others follow in the follow- 
ing order : 


Lancaster county, Pa a50 $11,S16,0U8 

8t. Lawreuce county, N. Y 2,900 9,50S,»71 

Worcester couuty, Mass 1,500 6,351,411 

Hartford county, Coun 801 6,220,911 

La Salle county. 111 1,050 6,502,502 

Oaklaud couuly, Mich 900 6,154,241 

Burliiigtou county, N.J 600 4,908,839 

Lancaster county leads the Union. 

Agricultural Notes. 

In applying lime to the barnyard or stable manure 
It should be air slacked. Caustic lime has a tendenc) 
to draw out the ammonia, and should never be ap- 
plied on the dung pile. 

Coal ashes scattered on the stable floor will absorb 
the liquid manure, prevent the cattle from slipping 
and falling, afford an excellent addition to the pick- 
ings of poultry around the place, and can afterward 
be spread on the soil. 

Most soils are imjiroved by the application of suit- 
able manure, but the kind required varies with the 
nature of the soil. Lime is a good manure for clayey 
Boile and gypsum for sandy ones, because the former 
retains aud the latter attracts moisture. 


Pruning During Winter. 

Our winters kill trees by drying them to death. 
Pruning must be so managed as not to increase this 
risk. In mild weather there is no fear of the stem 
or branches of a healthy tree drying up, because the 
roots are continually sending up an oozing of crude, 
watery sap, through the innumerable cells of the 
wood. The writer trimmed up some branchy young 
trees in his garden, December 31, at the close of a 
three-weeks' term of singularly mild weather, l^ext 
day frost returned in earnest, and on taking a bottle 
of shellac to coat the larger stem-wounds, it was 
found that it could not then be applied on the north 
side of the stems, because each wound was covered 
with a large bead or button of ice (exuded sap 
frozen). On the south side the sunshine had evapo- 
rated all the exudation. If moderate weather could 
continue with certainty there would he no need of 
using a varnish to prevent the stem-wood drying. But 
when frost penetrates the soil and renders the roots 
torpid, the supply from them is cut off, and the stem 
and branches, which are exposed to the parching 
winds, begin to lose their plumpness, unless they are 
everywhere coated with well-ripened and unbroken 
bark. Trees adapted to exist in severely cold regions 
have a resinous (waterproof) varnish on the exterior 
of the bark. So if we prune early in the winter, close 
to a stem, we risk serious injury unless we coat the 
wound with a waterproof covering. If we prune 
some time before winter sets in nature covers the 
wound with a protective film, and no harm follows, 
unless the tree is too weak to furnish this. If we 
prune as soon as severe and protracted freezing is 
over we are safe. But if we defer the pruning until 
the warmth of April have gorged the stems, and no 
leaves have yet opened to give it exit, we run the risk 
of opening a continuous flow of bleeding, which will 
not only prevent the wound from healing, but may 
greatly injure the bark down which it oozes. — Coun- 
try Gentleman. 


Pruning Fruit Trees. 
This is work that may be done any time during the 
winter, and thus not interfere with spring work. 
When very large limhs are to be cut off it is best 
done in summer ; but most pruning can be done at 
any time. Generally, too little attention is given to 
fruit trees, as any one may see who will notice the 
orchards. Though generally producing good crops, 
trees are allowed to run almost wild, limbs are so 
close together, as to rub against each other and keep 
the fruit shaded. The first object in pruning is to 
thin out the branches so that sunlight may reach the 
fruit. Leave the tops of trees as open as possible, 
without cutting off too much wood. Apples and 
pears will bear considerable pruning ; hut peaches, 
apricots and cherries should be cut as little as possi- 
ble. Always remove broken or diseased branches, 
but with the last-named kinds cut as little around the 
trunks as possible. Trees should be pruned every 
year, and then it will seldom be necessary to cut off 
very large limbs. The vigorous shoots — often grow- 
ing five or ten feet in a season — on apple and pear 
trees, should be removed every year. If not taken 
off they get most of the sap from the tree, depriving 
the fruit buds of their proper supply. Bear in mind 
that apples are borne on wood two years old ; peaches, 
apricots and cherries on wood one year old. Where 
limbs of any size are cut off in winter, the wound 
should be covered with a thin paste, made by dis- 
solving gum arable in alcohol. This will protect the 
wood from being soaked by water, which might 
produce decay. 

Forcing Asparagus. 

A correspondent of the Garden gives his experi- 
ence in forcing asparagus. He says: "Asparagus 
may be obtained a month before it is ready out-of- 
doors, as follows : About the middle of February 
place some movable wooden frames over a perma- 
nent bed of it, and with a few barrow loads of warm 
manure and leaves make up a lining all around the 
bed, ai-d cover its surface with dry hay. Then put 
on the lights and keep them closed for three weeks, 
when the beads will begin to appear. The hay should 
be cleared off, and a little air given on every favorable 
opportunity. Under this treatment I have cut my 
first asparagus on March ^0, and since that date I 
have cut several hundreds of beautiful heads, and 
still they promise to be sulflciently abundant to keep 
up a good supply until the outdoor crop is ready. By 
this plan the bed, which does not experience any 
disturbance, will last a great number of years, pro- 
vided its produce is not cut too late. Cutting should 
cease and the glass be removed directly the out-door 
crop is ready." 


More Large Trees. , 

The biggest tree in California is not in the Tosemite 
Valley. King's-river Valley, in Fresno county, is 
5,000 feet above the sea, and its walls, which are 
about 3,000 feet high, are very precipitous. In this 
valley a new grove of colossal redwood trees has been 
discovered. One of them eclipses all that have been 
discovered on the Pacific coast. Its circumference, 
as high as a man can reach and pass a tape-line 
around, Is a f«w tncbeg lets than ISO feet. 

Oatmeal as an Article of Diet. 

It is surprising how enormously the consumption 
of oatmeal has increased in our cities within the past 
few years ; but we suspect that its merits as a cheap 
and highly nutritious food are not so generally ap- 
preciated in the country. Every one knows how gen- 
erally it is eaten in .Scotland, and in some parts of 
England it is equally popular as an article of diet. A 
correspondent of an English paper says : 

" In West Cumberland, Westmoreland, and North 
Lancashire, especially in the rural parts, it forms the 
staple of our food, not only amongst the laboring 
classes, but also in the families of tradesmen and the 
well-to-do ; the children of most of them have por- 
ridge at least once a day. For the past forty years I 
have made my breakfast of a pint of oat meal porridge, 
with very rare exceptions, and nothing else, fasting 
for four hours afterwards. If, however, I take any 
other form of breakfast I find myself very hungry 
before the next meal, which is never the case when 
I have had my porridge. I feel assured that if the 
laborers of the southern countries, with their chil- 
dren, would but take a basin of oatmeal and milk 
porridge night and morning, with such other food as 
they can procure in the interval, we should have a 
much stronger and healthier race of men and women 
than now exist. A few years ago I had a Devon- 
shire girl living with me as a servant. The girl wa* 
willing enough to work, but had not the stamina to 
perform it. This I found, on questioning her, arose 
from the deficient and ill-advised diet on which she 
had been reared. She shortly began to take her 
porridge night and morning, and, this, with a daily 
mid-day meal of meat, enable her to perform her 
duty with ease." 

Airing Beds. 

No housekeeper has any valid claim to neatness, 
cleanliness and tidiness, who makes her beds as soon 
as they are vacated ; or, if she has such a claim, it is 
based on the condition of ignorance. To demonstrate 
this, let it be remembered that of all food and drink 
taken, about three-fifths pass out of the system 
throuffh the outlets of the skin— the pores, about 
seven millions in number. This waste and effete 
putrid matter is dead and poisonous, passing off more 
rapidly by night, and becoming more or less en- 
tangled in the bedding and ou the surface of the 
body. Hence the necessity for bath ng and brush- 
ing, with slWI greater necessity for airing and puri- 
fying the bedding. This is done most effectually by 
exposure in the light of the sun and in morning air. 
Indeed, the sun is the great purifier, and " nothing 
is hill from the heat thereof." And here it may be 
remembered that the bedding of the sick, so soon 
saturated by the filth of acute disease, by being 
changed once in at least six hours, and exposed to 
the free sunlight for the same time, will be safe with 
half the washingotherwise absolutely needed. Such 
clothes cannot be kept too clean, while there is no 
danger of too much care in these respects, as one of 
the means of controlling such acute disease as fevers 
and inflammations. 

The Dutch method of placing all of the movable 
clothes of the bed on two chairs near the window, 
allowing them to remain till afternoon, might well 
be copied by Yankee honsekeepers. — Watchman. 

Keep Borax in the House. 

Having long used borax for various domestic and 
hygienic purposes I have come to regard it as a neces- 
sity. Housekeepers who do not use it ha%'e some- 
thing yet to learn concerning a convenient and useful 
article. In the laundry it is economical, as it saves 
both labor and soap, and is really cheaper than the 
latter. For blankets and other large articles it is es- 
pecially valuable, and in all cases the use of a little 
borax will save half the labor when the articles are 
much soiled. It is perfectly effectual in driving away 
red ants, cockroaches, etc., if sprinkled around on 
pantry shelves, or put in small quantities on paper 
and placed in the runaways of the insects. 

Borax is also of great value for toilet uses. For 
removing dandruff and cleansing the hair it is un- 
equaled. It is also a good remedy for rough faces 
and chapped hands. Its application to wounds, sores, 
bruises, sprains, etc., proves very salutary, and is 
often the only remedy required even in severe 
cases. Indeed, borax is one of the best remedies for 
many ailments in our whole hygiene, and for that 
reason alone should he kept ready for use when 
wanted. There are many other uses for borax which 
I need not specify, but those that I have mentioned 
are alone enough to satisfy any family of the value 
of the article, and to all such, as well as those who 
do not understand its properties, I repeat, "keep 
borax in the house .-^1 Housekeeper in N. Y. Advocate, 

Household Recipes. 
IKDIAN Muffins. — One quart of Indian meal, 
scalded, one quart of wheat flour, stirred in the 
meal when cool, one dessertspoonful of melted but- 
ter, four tablespoonfulsof condensed eggs, and one- 
half cake compiessed yeast, or two cents' wortU 




bakers' yeast, ami milk sufficient to form a stifT bat- 
ter. If for breakfast, set over night ; for lunch, early 
in the morning. 

MiNiK Pies WiTnorx Meat. — One cupful sugar, 
one cui>rul molasses, one cupful water, one and one- 
half pounds raisins (chopped), one-half cupful weak 
vinegar, one-half cupful huttcr, a little salt, three 
eggs, three pounded crackers, spices tosuit the taste. 
This will make six small pies. 

LtiNf'ii CIake. — One large tablespoonful butter or 
.lard melted in one cupful hot water, two cupfuls mo- 
lasses, one (luart flour, stir two teaspoonsfulfi baking 
powder into the molasses ; line tin with buttered 
paper and bake. 

New Enih.and Sponoe Cake. — Eight eggs, their 
weight in Mlgar, half their weight in Hour, a lemon 
rind grated, and add juice ; beat the white separately 
and add last : line the pan with buttered pajier, and 
bake in a pretty quick oven three-quarters of an 

Runaway Cake. — One-half cup of sugar, one cup 
of milk, two eggs, one spoonful of butter, one tea- 
spoonful of soda and two of cream of tartar. Hour to 
make a stitl' batter. This is a good tea-cake, plain 
or with berries stirred in for the summer season or 
with currants for winter. Being plain, it is only 
good when freshly baked. 

IIiCKORV-NuT Cake. — One pound of sugar, one- 
lialf pound of butter, four eggs, one cud of milk, 
one teaspoonful of soda and two of cream of tartar, 
the meats of two quarts of hickory nuts, flour to 
make as stitf as pound cake. Cocoa-nut cake is made 
in the same way, allowing one large or two small 
nuts to this amount of butter. 

Dandy PinmNr..— One quart of milk, two large 
spoonfuls of flour, the yolks of lour eggs well-beaten 
and mixed with milk ; beat the whites of the eggs 
separately, mix with four teaspoonfuls of sugar and 
drop on the top and bake. 

Potato Pie. — Boil or wash common or sweet 
potatoes and strain through a fine sieve, to each pint 
add one and a half pints of milk, a little melted but- 
ter, two eggs, salt, nutmeg to the taste ; bake in one 
cruet, like custard pie. 

In England the women always purchase the gro- 
ceries and provisions for the family ; if a man should 
attempt such a thing some housewife would pin a 
dish-cloth to his coat-tall. 

Molasses Cookies. — One cup molasses, one-h.alf 
cup sugar, one-half cup melted butter, one-half cup 
hot water, one and one-half teaspoonfuls soda, one 
teaspoonful ginger. Mix soft and bake in a hot oven. 
White Cake. — The whites oT three eggs, one- 
half cup butter, one cup sugar, two cups flour, one- 
half cup milk, three teaspoonsful baking powder. 
Mix butter and sugar with the hand to make a fine- 
grained cake. This is a delicious thing if a thin 
frosting is made, using orange extract as a flavor. 

A lady correspondent writes to the Wente^'n Rural 
of what an "English woman of rank" discovered 
while journe\!ng among the mountains of Switezer- 
land, in the way of a sleeping jiroteetion against 
cold. This was a quilt made of hay. "It is nothing 
but a large square cotton bag with a few handsful 
of hay shaken in it. It is as warm as three blankets," 
etc. Well, this is cheap enough and handy enough 
to afford warmth to every hitherto shivering sleeper. 
Hot Cross Buns. — To one quart flour add one 
teaspoonful salt, two tablcspoonfuls powdered sugar, 
one tablespoonful baking powder, and sift altogetlier ; 
rub through the flour two tablcspoonfuls of butter; 
moisten with milk into a very soft dough. Koll out 
in a sheet a little less than half an inch thick ; cut 
in small square buns ; in the center of each cut a 
deep cross. Bake in a quick oven, and while hot 
wash over the top with milk, using a paste brush. 

Water-Proof Blacking. — The following recipe 
for making a water-proof blacking comes to us highly 
recommended : Dissolve one ounce of borax in water, 
and in this dissolve gum shellac, until it is the con- 
sistency of thin paste; add lampblack to color. This 
makes a cheap and excellent blacking for boots, 
giving them the polish of new leather. The shellac 
makes the boots or shoes almost entirely water-proof. 
Camphor dissolved in alcohol, added to the blacking, 
makes the leather more pliable, and keejis it from 
cracking. This is sold at fifty cents for a small bottle. 
By making it yourself, one dollar will buy materials 
for a gallon. 

Apple Johnny Cake. — Scald one quart of fine or 
medium cornmcal with one quart of boiling water, 
and add one pint of sweet apples, pared, corctl and 
chopped. Mix evenly, spread one inch thick on a 
tin, and bake forty minutes in a quick oven, or until 
the apples ire tender. Serve warm. 

Insects.— The tax we pay to insects is greater 
than that we annually pay for schools, for roads, and 
for management of government affairs. Insects in 
all parts of the world are becoming more than ever a 
terror to the husbandman. The Western farmers, 
with their experiences of grasslioppers and potato 
bugs, can sympathize very acutely with the wine- 
growers of the Gironde. Great as are the achieve- 
ments of science in Europe and America, its claims to 
boasting are made almost ridiculous by the impudent 
aggressions of these little insects. 



Controlling Horn Growth. 

A correspondent of the Cuunlry (Iviitlcman^ upon 
the subject of controlling horn growth, says : Some 
thirty years ago when a boy on my father's farm, I 
had a pair of calves given to me of which I was very 
proud, as all boys usually are of their steers. When 
they were two years old, a horn on one of them 
became badly loppeil, causeil by an injury. As they 
were perfect while younger, 1 was very anxious to 
straighten it, as they were twins and very tine, and 
my method was, and is, as follows : Scrape, or shave 
the horn on the same side you wish to turn it, nearly 
or quite to tlic quick. I remember in that instance I 
started the blood. Repeat the operation some t\\()f)r 
three times if necessary, to be govcrncil by the 
severity of the case, and scrape the horn on the 
opposite side just enough to give it a healthy growth. 
The philosophy of it is that by weakcniiii: the side in 
the direction you wish to move the born, and by 
facilitatine growth on the opiKisitc side, the result, 
from natural causes, will be sure — that the strong 
will overcome the weak. The born in question was 
raised a little higher than the original, but not 
enough to be noticeable. I believe this mode of 
operating to be correct, and the remedy infullihle, as 
I have had occasion to see demonstrated many times 



Good Stock. 
Experience has taught me never to raise a calf, no 
matter how good the dame, unless sired by a 
thoroughbred. Here is the whole secret of successful 
breeding in a nutshell. A calf sired by a hull of good 
milking stock, but no particular blood, whose pedi- 
gree cannot be traced to sires who have transmitted 
their good qualities through several generations, may 
and often does make a good cow ; but if sired by a 
thoroughbred bull of good milking stock, the 
chances of failure are reduced to a very low rate, and 
can only be further reduced by using a thorougbhred 
cow of the same stock. Thoroughbred stock seldom, 
if ever, fail to perpetuate their own qualities, and 
common stock often do it ; but in the latter case it is 
only chance work, and yet we know there are those 
who still continue to rjiise calves of common stock, 
when at an increased expense of less than live dollars 
per animal they might have had good milking ances- 
tors on at least one side. The dairyman who expects 
to build up a first-class dairy by raising the cows can 
hardly make a better investment than in a male 
from a noted milking stock ; the expense, when it is 
divided among the product, makes a very small 
amount to each one, but the aggregate result is large. 
^^ — 

Give Us a Breed of Walking Horses. 

What use are fast horses to farmers ? Can they 
put them to work in the plow, harrow, cultivator, 
roller, reaping-machine, cart or wacon ? No. A 
storm might arise and the whole crop of hay be ruined, 
if they had to depend on 2:40 horses to liaul it in. 
There is but one use that we can see that a farmer 
might put them to — sendng for a doctor; but as 
farmers have very little occasion for this professional 
gentleman, and never get very sick, a slower and 
surer horse will answer better. Why then parade 
these horses at the head of the lists at agricultural 
fairs, and give them the biggest premiums '. No 
wonder our practical farmers complain of this, while 
there is no premium at all for ii'idldii;/ horses, which 
area thousand times more useful— we mean to the 
farmer and for general agricultural and industrial 
purposes. Thoroughbred horses have their uses, 
and we do not desire to utter a word ag.ainst them, 
but many good words in their favor. They, how- 
ever, must fill their own places and work-horses 
theirs ; and neither should be advocated to the ex- 
clusion of the other. Both should be recognized 
according to their value. 

A Horse's Petition to His Master. 

Going up hill, whip me not. 

Going down hill, hurry me not. 

On level road, spare me not. 

Loose in stable, forget me not. 

Of hay and corn, rob me not. 

Of clean water, stint me not. 

Of soft dry bed, deprive me not. 

Tired or hot, wash me not. 

If sick or cold, chill me not. 

With sponge and brush, neglect me not. 

Wilh bit and rein. Oh ! jerk me not. 

And when you are angry, sl>-ik-< me not. 

The Vermont Wool Growers' Association has pur- 
chased from the flocks of Messrs. 8. G. Ilolyoke and 
Sanford, and Edward Bringham of St. Albans, two 
fine specimens of Vermont sheep, to ha presented to 
the Wool Growers' Association, at New .South Wales, 
through their representatives then attendant at the 

Colin Cameron, manager of the Elizabeth 
Stock Farms, owned by G. Dawson Coleman, Bricker- 
ville, Lancaster county, Pa., shipped, on Wednesd.ay, 
February Gth, to J. B. Binerham, Millersburg, Ohio, 
a young" heifer and her calf; also a young heifer, 
about six months old, of the celebrated Jersey stock. 

In-Breeding of Poultry, 
Breeders are prone to advance ultra viewi on the 
subject of in-breeding of poultry, based on mere 
prcjutliee or constrained opinion oi' the term. All of 
our strains of purebred poultry, wilh but few ex- 
ceptions, liave been produced by a systematic course 
of in-breeding judiciously carried out. Bakewcll,of 
Leicester shee[> fame, Intensified and improved his 
sheep by an intelligent iti-breeding of su<'h animals 
as possessed, in an eminent degree, the iiualities he 
wished to Intensify and perpetuate. In liorse i)reed- 
ing this Is carried on by old breeders, with most ex- 
cellent results. 

Knowing the above, it behooves us to know just 
when to bring the dividing lines together so as to 
combine those qualities in the ollspring from the ani- 
mals or birds coupled which we desire to secure a 
permanency lor. 'iVe hold to the opinion that with 
I'owIk more care is necessary to prevent the intensifi- 
cation of bad qualilles in adoptinir any system of in- 
breeding than with most of the animals which require 
more than a yi'ar to give them age enough to properly 
bear ofl'spring. We Ijelicve that an infusion of new 
blood to be a good thing to do every second year — 
pcrhti/m every year — though we would advise fanciers 
to select male birds from the Kuine xlrain, so as to 
tnake breeding for particular points far more certain 
than it would be if a male bird was selected from 
anv, or no particular strain, nicrely because he was 
line individually. — American Poultry Jiccord. 

Fowl Feeding in Cold Weather. 

At this season of the year, when your fowls are 
mostly eonfiuM within their houses^-or when, at the 
liest, ihey are not able to obtain ninch nourishment 
upon the open ijround, if at litierty — it must be borne 
in mind that they need an extra quantity of ordinary 
food, to keep them in good heart. And if the quality 
he improved as well, during the sharp cold weather, 
it will be better still. 

We counsel the distributing of good, sound grain 
and corn, at all times, to domestic poultry, as the 
best method of feeding. But if, at any season, they 
need this sort of provision, it is in the keenly cold 
weather of January and February, when it counts 
most towards their welfare and thrift. 

Let your adult fowls and the growing stock both 
be supplied then at this season wilh all they will eat 
up clean, twice a day — that is, at noon and evening — 
of whole wheat, cracked corn, and oats or barley. A 
little buckwheat, and a little admixture of sunflower 
seeds, are excellent also. The first meal (in the 
morning) should be fed warm, of scalded cornmcal 
mixed wiih boiled vegetables. This, with the grain 
at noon and at niglit, and an occasional feed of 
ground scraps and green stidf, as cabbages cut up, 
or onions and turnips cliopped fine, will, as a rule, 
keep your birds in first-rate condition, continuously. 
— American Poultry Yard. 

How to Manage, 

The Butter, Cheese and Kg</ lieporter tells of a Mr. 
Benton who keeps eleven ditrcrcnt kinds of fowls, 
ami is very successful in their management. Mr, 
Benton found weaic lye and wood ashes an cfTectual 
remedy lor the canker. The doctors recommend 
chlorate ol' potash. Ashes are also excellent for the 
hens to wallow in, and he keeps a box in each coop 
for that purpose. This ctlectually keeps off lice. 
The flour of sulphur sprinkled in the nest of setting 
hens is excellent. Mr. Benton's principal feed is 
Indian corn, which is kept constantly in reach of his 
hens by means of boxes in tlie partitions, one serving 
for two coojis. Water in a dish set under a nail keg, 
with a liole cut in the side, serves for watering. The 
nests are in a long box along the ends of the coops; 
the hens enter through holes, and are then in com- 
parative darkness. Lids on the outside give access 
to the nests. -Mr. Benton thinks Indian corn the best 
grain for hens, because of its heating nature. In 
addition, he feeds scraps from the table, butcher's 
refuse, and green stuff. Corn and fat will at once 
set hcus to laying. 

Sore Eyes in Poultry. 

If the soreness is not occasioned by the careless or 
excessive use of sulphur upon the hen and chicks, to 
destroy lice, (which is a common mistake made by 
those who do not use powdered sulphur judiciously,) 
then the disease proceeds from colds or roupy affec- 

We should recommend the free use of the German 
Roup Pills for their ailment, which has been very 
prevalent in some quarters. And in severe cases a 
wash, composed of one part each of glycerine, olive 
oil and alcohol, thoroughly mixed before applying, 
will soften, heal and remove the inflamed soreness In 
a few days. 

I'revention of the recurrence of this trouble in the 
poultry yaril may be most beneficial ; and the Ger- 
man lioiip Pills will be found an excellent thing to 
give the chickens (according to directions accom- 
panying each box), for the avoidance of this malady. 
If chicks cannot see to cat they quickly fall away 
and iie.—rouUry World. 



[ February, 1878. 


Harper's Magazine for March offers even 
stronger attractions iu its reading matter than in its 
many beautiful illustrations. In the field of fiction 
this periodical stands easily first with serial stories 
from two such novelists as William Black and Thos. 
Hardy. Miss Constance F. Woolson contributes a 
yery humorous short story entitled "Morganatic 
Matches." The scene is laid in Ohio at the time of 
Morgan's raid, and two situations iu the story are the 
motives of some remarkably fine illustrations by Rein- 
hart. Another short story, "Squire Paine's Conver- 
sion," is one of Rose Terry Cooke's sharpest delinea- 
tions of New England life. 

The number opens with an attractive illustrated 
paper by Martha J. Lamb, which, under the title of 
"State and Society in Washington," gives a great 
deal of novel information about the State Depart- 
ment, and furnishes a picturesque review of social 
life in the National Capital. It would be difficult to 
Bay which is the most interesting — the curiosities 
among the national archives or the piquant detaifs of 
Washington fife and manners. Among the illustra- 
tions is an excellent portrait of George Bancroft, the 
historian ; also, there is a portrait of the oldest office- 
holder in Washington. 

Turning from society to nature, we have in Mr. 
Edward Abbott's "Grand Mauan and Quoddy Bay" 
a striking descriptive paper, with some very effective 
pictures by Brieher. 

An important series of illustrated papers on old 
Flemish masters is begun in this number — the first 
paper being about Quentin JIatsys, the famous 
"blacksmith" painter of Antwerp. 

Household Art is represented by an interesting 
paper on "Fret-sawing and "Wood-carVIng," by Julius 
Wilcox, with seventeen exquisite engravings. 

A picturesque feature peculiar to our American 
educational institutions is treated in C. F. Thwing's 
paper on " Summer Schools," with eleven illustra- 
tions . 

R. H. Stoddard contributes a very dramatic poem, 
"In Alsatia," the scene being laid in a quarter of 
London known by that name. The poem is illus- 
trated by Fredericks. 

A remarkable and exceedingly interesting paper 
is contributed by B. Phillips, based upon a collection 
of thirty-three unpublished letters of Washington. 
Some of these letters are of historical impoi-tance, 
and they all throw a new light upon the most promi- 
nent figure in American history. 

"A Glimpse at Some of our Charities" is con- 
cluded in this number, with a review of the associ- 
ated efforts that are being made for the employment, 
education, and protection of women. 

Anna C. Brackett, in a brief paper, entitled " A 
Triad of Superstitions," vigorously attacks some 
veteran maxims about early rising, Satanic work for 
idle hands, and the value of memory. 

Charlotte Adams, the author of " Christmas in 
Venice," in the January number, contributes an 
equally picturesque article on "Venetian Tapestries." 

The Editorial Departments are full of timely. and 
valuable information, including a capital Editor's 

The Most Complete Nurseries in the W'orld. 
— We think that we are speaking within bounds when 
we say that the Mount Hope Nurseries, Rochester, 
N. Y., fouuded and perfected by Messrs. Ellwanger 
& Barry, are the most cumplete nurseries on the 
American continent. There are others, doubtless, 
that cover more acres, devoted to two or three special- 
ties, as apples, pears, &c., but no other iu which the 
various species of fruits and ornamental trees, shrubs, 
vines and plants are so fufly and so well represented. 

The professional horiicuiturist, florist and land- 
scape gardener can find a better opportunity of ex- 
amining specimens and studying their peculiar merits 
here than elsewhere, and the amateur who wishes to 
ornament his grounds with the choicest that will grow 
in our climate will be more certain to find them here 
than in any other nursery in our land. 

The products of this grand nursery have been 
scattered all over the United States, and have been 
sent far beyond our borders. Scarcely a city, town 
or hamlet in this country but that has been made more 
beautiful and enjoyable by its contributions. It must 
afford the honorable proprietors in this, the afternoon 
of their lives, a great deal of pleasure, when they 
reflect how much they have contributed to the physi- 
cal comfort, ttie refinement and the moral elevation 
of their countrymen by a vocation which, while it 
has conferred such blessings upon our people, has 
brought a generous return to themselves. — American 
Jiural Home, 

The country is flooded with counterfeit money, 
more now than ever before, and storekeepers had 
better avoid all risks, and subscribe for the only re- 
liable and ollicial counterfeit detector issued, and 
then loss from receiving counterfeit money need 
never be incurred. All handling bank notes have 
only to keep at hand for consultation -Peterson's 
Counterfeit I)etcctor,a. semi-monthly publication con- 
taining descriptions of all counterfeit notes as soon 
as they appear, afso a complete list of broken, closed, 
failed and fraudulent banks. Every number of the 
Detector contains likewise lists of all the National 

and State banks in the country, financial news and 
items, price current, reviews of the money and stock 
markets, itc, and is, in short, a very valuable publi- 
cation, and no business man iu the country should be 
without it. The rate of subscription for tlie monthly 
issue is only ^1.50 a year; semi-monthly, §^.00 a 
year. Sutjseriptions may commence with any month, 
and are payable in advance. A canvasser could get 
up a list of subscribers in this neighborhood. Address 
T. B. Peterson & Brothers, Philadelphia, Pa., for 
specimen copy. 

As there is a great furore now about old coins, we 
would advise all to get a copy of Peterson's Coin 
Book, containing perfect fac-simile impressions of the 
coins of the world. It will be sent by mail, postage 
paid, on receipt of $1 — by T. B. Peterson & Brothers, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Tobacco News and Prices Current, 
Alexander Harthill, editor, and published every 
Saturday by the Tobacco News Company, of Louis- 
ville, Ky., at 52.50 a year. This is a remarkably 
well executed demy-folio journal of sixteen pages, 
and is devoted exclusively to the tobacco interests of 
the Union. No journal that has yet reached our 
table, devoted to that interest, can at all compare 
with the News, and its columns are crowded from 
beginning to end with important facts and statistics 
relating to the tobacco trade ; and as it includes the 
foreign as well as the home trade, it must prove a 
most desirable medium through which tobacco 
growers and tobacco dealers may have an opportu- 
nity of communicating with the tobacco world ; and 
judging from the number before us, they are liberally 
availing themselves of the advantages it affords in 
this respect. They publish the proceedings of our 
local society for .January in full, and otherwise notice 
Lancaster county in a manner most flattering to our 
local production. We think our tobacco growers 
could not do anything better than to patronize the 

Babtland for January, 1878, is a fine double 
number, full of tiny Christmas stories and lovely 
Christmas pictures, all in big print, on thick paper, 
just the magazine to teach babies to read. It is only 
fifty cents a year. D. Lothrop & Co., publishers, 
Boston, Mass. How infinitely superior this publica- 
tion is to the Mothers Hubbard and Goose, the Jacks 
Giant Killer and Bean-Stalks and a multitude of 
other senseless and impossible baby literature with 
which the nursery has been flooded for a century. 
The illustrations are remarkably well executed, 
natural and significant. Could anything be more 
expressive than the two scenes of the little cooper 
attempting to hoop his mother's tub, and knocking 
it all into pie. We think it cannot fail to "do a 
world of dood." 

The Phrenological Journal and Science of 
Health for February, 1878, is on our table, full of 
useful and instructive matter on subjects that are, 
unfortunately, too little regarded by the world in 
general. There is not a doubt we would be more 
healthful, harmonious and happy in our social, 
hygienic and domestic relations than we are, if we 
cultivated a closer acquaintance with the principles 
of phrenology and physiology, and carried them out 
in the daily and hourly concerns of practical life. 
The character and stability of this publication may 
be inferred from the fact that it is now in its 8od 
volume. S. R. Wells & Co., No. 737 Broadway, 
Now York. 

Oleomargarine. — If American dairymen would 
resist the encroachments of oleomargarine they must 
one and all do what they can to improve dairy but- 
ter. The average consumer would rather have 
handsome, yellow, 'patent butter' than white, lardy 
looking dairy butter. Repeated trials have demon- 
strated that no addition to butter will do as much to 
improve both its quality and looks as a good color. 
In this connection we would call attention to the 
advertisement of Wells, Richardson & Co., Burling- 
ton, Vt., of their Perfected Butter Color. It is highly 
spoken of by all who use it. We advise our readers 
to send to them. 

Park's Floral Magazine. — A neat little double- 
column octavo of 16 pages, at^L.'JU per year. Edited 
and published by George W. Park, Mount Ver- 
non, Ohio. Beautifully illustrated with floral gems. 
Park is the well-known seedsman and florist of the 
Buckeye State, and therefore his magazine is filled 
with rare and practical matter relating to his vege- 
table specialties, and cannot but flll an important 
niche in the great column of floral literature. Send 
for his catalogue for 1878. Woodward Block, Mt. 
Vernon, Ohio. 

Vice's Illustrated Priced Catalogue. — 
Seventy-five pages— 300 illustrations, with descrip- 
tions of thousands of the best flowers and vegetables 
in the world, and the iray to grow them — all for a two 
cent postage stamp. Printed in German and English. 
Vick's Flower ami Vegetable Garden, 50 cents in paper 
covers; in elegant cloth covers, $1.00. Vick't Ilhcs- 
trated Mntdldy Magazine — 32 pages, fine illustra- 
tions, and colored plate in every number. Price, 
$1.25 a year; five copies for $5.00. Address, James 
Vick, Rochester, N. Y. 

Monthly Reports of the " Kansas State Board 
of Agriculture " for November and December, lfs77. 
By Alfred Gray, Secretary, Topeka, Kansas. This 

is an octavo of fiS pages, and contains more tabulated 
and statistical matter than any of the monthly re- 
ports issued from the Agricultural Department at 
Washington. It also contains a monumental chart 
01' diagram, showing the assessed and real value of 
the personal property of each separate county in 

We call the special attention of our patrons and 
readers to the card of Hull & Scotney, in the adver- 
tizing columns of this number of our paper, from 
which it will be seen that this enterprising flrm has 
changed and enlarged its business facilities, and will 
from hence also conduct a branch iu the City of New 
York. Being extensive buyers and shippers of pro- 
duce, they also do a general commission business. 
Fruits, vegetables, butter and poultry consigned to 
them will receive prompt attention. 

The Stockbridc.e Manures, manufactured and 
for sale by W. H. Bowker & Co., 43 State street, 
Boston ; No. 3 Park Place, New York. A l2mo. 
pamphlet of SO pages of valuable matters in refer- 
ence to fertilizers, which we regret came to hand too 
late, or we should have been pleased to quote it in 
our February number ; in the meantime we believe 
it would be to the advantage of those interested to 
send for the pamphlet and inform themselves on a 
most important subject. 

The Detroit Free Press says : In addition to 
300,000 Universal Almanacs just published by the 
extensive seed house of D. M. Ferry & Co., of our 
city, the flrm are now publishing for gratuitous dis- 
tribution an edition of 100,000 Seed Annuals. Their 
former publications have been unsurpassed, but the 
present one promises to excel all others in utility and 
general excellence. It will be mailed free to all 

Gregory's Seed Catalogue.— Our readers will 
flnd the catalogue of J. J. H. Gregory's well known 
seed house advertised in our columns. To handle 
seed with such conscientious care as to dare to war- 
rant their freshness and purity, is of that class of 
bold, brave acts which the public appreciate. Though 
the warranting is of necessity limited to refunding 
the value of the seed purchased, still, under it, Mr. 
Gregory must sell good seed or make a dead loss. 

The Sunbeam. — A journal of literature, educa- 
tion and general intelligence. Litiz, Pa. Published 
monthly, and edited by John G. Zook & E. Z.Ernst. 
$1 .00 a year in advance. A very neat 16 page quarto, 
faultlessly executed, and teeming with choice liter- 
ary matter. Wefeelproudof our literary cotemporary 
and wish it success, for we feel it will houor Lancas- 
ter county. 

The Western Inventor. — A journal of practi- 
cal science and the useful arts. Published monthly 
in the interest of inventors, patentees and manufac- 
turers. Peck ifc Hosea, No. 9 Pike's Opera House, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. A neat illustrated 4to of eight 
pages, neatly printed, and a new candidate for public 
i'avor ; 50 cents a year. Monthly. 

Benson, Burpee & Co.'s illustrated and descrip- 
tive catalogue of garden, fleld and flower seeds. 
Embracing select lists of the choicest and most valu- 
able varieties iu cultivation, both home grown and 
imported, all of the highest quality, always fresh 
and reliable. Office and seed store, 223 Church 
street, Philadelphia. 

Good, healthy food makes the body strong. Well 
selected reading (especially for the young) strength- 
ens the mind and prepares it for future usefulness. 
The Yovng Folks' Monthly, of Chicago, furnishes 
both entertaining and instructive reading, and should 
be taken by young people everywhere. Price only 
%\M per year. 

Professor Tice's National Almanac for the 
year 1878, giving forecasts of the weather for every 
day in the year, based upon astronomical occurrences, 
is a work particularly useful to farmers. 32 pp. 
octavo, price tirentij cents. Published by Thompson 
Tice ct Co., No. 309 North Third street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Our progressive agricultural readers will be 
specially mterested in the card of Mr. A. B. Travis 
in our advertising columns, and also in the commu- 
nication of Mr. Banta on the 24th page of this 
number of The Farmer. 

James J. H. Grlgory's annual circular and re- 
tail catalogue of warranted vegetable and flower 
seeds ; a liemi-quarto of 50 pages, profusely illus- 
trated. Marblcheiid, Mass. Free to all. 

Bloomington Nursery plant catalogue, includ- 
ing plant novelties, green-house and bedding plants, 
roses, bulbs, <.te. Also, quarterly wholesale price 
list for tin- spring of 1878. W. F. Baird, Trustee, 
Bloomington, Illinois. 

E.P. Roe's new raspberry, "Pride of the Hudson," 
and First Premium Strawberries. Cornwall-on-the- 
Hudson, Orange county. New York. Sixteen pages 

Descriptive Price Current of the " Mapes 
Formula" and "Peruvian Guano Company," 153 
Front street, N. Y. 

John S. Collins' wholesale price list of small 
fruits, plants, itc, for spiing, 1878. "Pleasant Valley 
Small Fruit Nursery," Moorestown, New Jersey. 
Illustrated in colors. 

Annual ajjdress of the "Petroleum Producers 
Protective Union." 1878. Titusville, Pa. 



E. F. Kuukel's Bittor Wine of Iron. 

ThJH truly viiliialil"' tonic has bt-eii ho thoroii|^lily testpd 
by all rliiKKf'H of tin- I'Oinniuuity thut it ih nuw tlfi>nii*d 
imtiBpeusabU' as ii Tenic mediciuo. It cohIh Imi little, 
piiritifH the blooil rtu<l yivea toue to the stomuch, ri'iiovatcs 
the syeteni mid prirTtmgH lifp. Kvcrybudy shoiiUl have it. 
For thu cure of weak HtoniuchB, General Debility, Iinlipt-a- 
tiou, DiscascH of tin- Stomach, and for all cmhch rt'iiuiriii^; a 
tonic. This wine includes the nio«t agreeable uuil i llu-ieut 
Salt of Iron we poHB ss— Citrate of Magnetic Oxide, com- 
bined with the most energetic of vegetable tonics— Yellow 
Peruvian Hark. 

Do you want sonicthiUR to strenRthoL you? 

Do yon want a K^otl ai)i)etite? 
. Do yon want to ^et rid of nervou8UCP8 ? 

Do you want energy '.' 

Do you want to slteji well ? 

Do you want to build up your conetitution ? 

Do you want to feel well? 

Do you want a brisk and vigorous feeling? 


I only auk a trial of thin valuable tonic. 

Beware of counterfeits, u8 Kunkel's Bitter Wine of Iron 
is the only sure and etUcient remedy in the known world 
for the i^erniauent cure ot Dyspepsia and Debility, and as 
there are a number of imitatiouB offered to the public, I 
would caution the community to purchase none but the 
geuuiue article, manufactured by K. F. Kuukel.and haWng 
bis stamp on the cork of every bottle. The very fact that 
Others are attempting to imitate this valualile remedy 
pi*oves its worth .ind speaks volumes in its liivor Sold 
only ia $1 bottles or six bottles for f."*. Try tliis valuable 
medicine and be con\iuced of its merits. Sold by druggists 
and dealers everywht-i'e. 

Tape Worm Removed Alive, 

Head and all complete, in two hours. No fee fill head 
passes. Seat, Pin aud Stomach Worms removed by Dr, 
Kunkel, 259 North Ninth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Send for 
a circular with a treatise on all kinds of worms, advice 
free. Ask your druggist for a buttle of Kunkel's Worm 
Syrup, which will do the work. Price $1.U0, It never fails 
to remove all kinds, from children or grown persona. 
DirectiOLS with it. 



Samples worth $5 free* 
Address Stinson & Co., Portlaod, Maine. 

gm^ gf^ m n^ Ore^it chance to make money. If you 
J ■ fl ■ I 1^ cun'e get gold you can get greenbacks, 
!■ Ill II m^^^ need a person in every town to take 
%J| %^ ^H O^ Isubscriijtlons for the largest, cheapest 
aud feest Illustrated family publication in the world. Any 
one Can become a successful agent. The most elegant 
works of art given free to subscribers The jirice is so low 
that almost everybody subscribes. One agent reports mak- 
ing over $150 in a week. A lady agent reports taking over 
407 subscribers iu 10 days. All who engage make money 
fast. You can devote all your time to the business, or only 
your spare time. You need not be away from home over 
night. You can do it as well as others. Full particulars, 
directions and terms free. Elegant and expensive outfit 
free. If you want profitable work send us your address at 
once. Ii costs nothiug to try the business. No one who 
engages fails to make great pay. Address ** The People's 
Journal," Portland, Maine. 
9-8 -ly 

^^ ■«—«■« is not easily tamed in these times, but it can be 
fljiyr/iy made iu three months by any one of either 

^1^ / / / ^^^* ^^ ^°y V^^^ of the country who is willing 
#|l f I I t<^ work steadily at the employment that we 
^r furnish. $r>0 per week in your own town. You 

need not be away from home over night. You can giveyonr 
whole time to the work, or only your spare momenta. It 
■costs nothing to try the business. Terms and $5 Outfit free. 
Address at once, H. Hallett k Co., Portland, Maine. 


I have cured myself with roots, barks ;ind herl)s, after 
suffering ten years with Liver Complaint, Costiveness and 
Piles, Weak Lungs aud Partial Loss of Left Side. I am a 
witness to God's mercy. Aged j^eople and delicate women 
suffering with Indigestion will lind this remedy invaluable. 
I have also one of the best Cough Remedies known, $1 per 
bottle; the other remedy SI per box, or both for $1.50, 
Post paid Circular and advice free for stamp. 

lO-l-lm* Springfield, Vt. 

Half Dozen for - - - $6.00! 


Linen and l^iiper 4'ollarN aiirl ('iiITn 




No. llO North Queen Street, 
Second door from Shober's Hotel. 



A book containing a list of towns in the U. S,. having 
6,000 pop., and the newspaper having largest crculation. 
All the Religious. Agricultural, Scientific, and other special 
class journals. Tables of rates, showing cost of advertis- 
ing and everything which an advertiser would like to know. 
Mailed OD receipt of ten cents. Addreas 

GEO. P. ROWELL A €0., 
10 Spruc«-8t., N. Y., (oppoBite "Tribune" building). 


FXT I"lli;i-; on & HKO/S 
KlowtT aiiil N't-KM-tublc ('jituloKUf. Our lurgo cropH fli- 
iihW UH to SiCI.I, KI'.IOIIS l,4»W. 

uc)(Uie8Ti:k, n. y., or c:iii(:a(10., ii.i.h. 



Prize Medal aud Diploma awarded at the Centennial, 
and Dipiouni from the Kranklin institute. Premiums from 
every State and county where exhibited. Hues Wheat. Peas, 
Beans and Corn, and Corn when dril ed in for Dairy pur- 
poses. Will hoe one acre of wheat per hour, and every 
acre hoed will add 5 to lu bushels per acre more for being 
hoed, and thereby fully double tae not i)rotits, as has been 
proven by th» best practical i*nd model farmers. Has been 
lately improved for strength aud convenience. Teeth all 
adjustable to any space, drill Or belts desired, and frame of 
hoe Ijeing pivoted to the draft-i)ole, aud Literal molion can 
be held by the use of the lever handles to any desired place 
with great nicety by the attendant. Can be attached to 
any two-wheeled vehicle, or drill, by removing hoes and 
pivoting to the draft-pDle, Price ou board track for 
attachment, $i0; do.. No. 2. much better, $3.5. No. 1, jkt- 
fect, with wheels, $G0. Liberal discount to the Ira'Ie. 
Everything warranted sound, and one day's trial In the 
field, and if not satisfactory, can be returned. Agents 
Wanted. Send stamp for descriittive circulars, containing 
practical trial and results. Send orders early, that they 
may be made and reach dettinatiou in time for spring use. 

1 0-2-1 m] 

A. B. TRAVIS, Manufacturer, 

Brnnilon. Oaklnticl oo.. Mich. 

SEED CORN.— ETer7f»nn«tM(id poa 

Ul I'ur Fii-T" klwut tliifl t-'otTt ; lit pri'm. 

nii>Ti8ft<ij1.-lil; 4UjrB.p<;ilJerr«. WlJJ(a 

Atkinbok, 9U Axoh tiL, PbiUdk., 1"%, 

~W 3000 , 

3000 Engraving^s ; I840 I'agro>< «l>>arto. 

lO.OOO ll'orjsand Meanings not in other Dictionaries. 

More than :{0,04I0 copies have boen placed it) the public 
schools of the United States. 

Recommended by Slate Superintendents of Schools in 34 
different States. 

Contains 3.000 Illustrations, nearly three times as many 
as any other Dictionary. 

The sale of Webster's Diction.iries is 20 times as great .is 
the sale of any other scries of Dictionaries. 

" Indispensable to every student of the English language." 
— M. R. Waite, Chief Justice United States. 

August 4. j^-j-j. The DictioTiary used in the Government 
Printing Office is Webster's Unabridged. 

Published by U.AV. JIEItKI AM. Springfield, Mass. 

I>er 1,000 aud uinvards. for Scedliugs of Shade 
and Timber Trees. A MllrplllN of ytniut; tratip- 
I'lanted KVKK<JRF.KXS. CONl'OlU) GR.M'li 
VINES, ETC. Send for Pi'it-p List. Address, 


Grape and Seedling Nursery, 
10-2-lyl WlJfOX.l, Columbiaua County, Ohio. 




COLOR is recommended by the 
agricultural press, aud used by 
•y best Dairymen in this 
-, Harris Lewis, L. U. Arn- 
ild, O.'S. Bliss, L. tt. Hardin, A. 
Cheever, E. D. Mason, and 
thousands more. It is far better 
than carrots, annatto, or any other 
1 one-fourth the cost, and 
■k to use. It gives j'ure dan- 
delion color aud never turns red, oi rancid, but tends to im- 
prove and preserve the butter. A 'J5 cent bottle colors 300 
pounds. Warranted to add 5 cts. per pound to its selling 
value. Ask your Druggist or Merchant for it, or if yon 
would like to kuow what it is. what it costs, who uses it, aud 
where you can get it, write to 

WELLS, RICHARDSON &C0., Proprietors, 
10-2-2m] BrRi.iN<;To;<. Vt. 


A Vegetable Proparntion, invented in the 17th 
century by Dr. William (irace. Surgeon in King James' 
army. Through its agency he cured thousands of the most 
serious sores and wounds, and was regarded by all who 
knew him as a public benefactor. '25c. a box, by mail 30c. 
For sale by druggists generally. 


Address BEIE W. fOWLI i SOilS, Sottcm, UuL 

\J\)\J \jyj\J lirrrfi, Curriintftt fJi-ripr/t^ Afiptira- 

iiiis. /■•-..,/>. /•..i,/i '/M.^..!. iiKi .K»:i,K4"rFi» VA- 

Klli'l'lIJS. tlrftit Aiif riciiii .Slrtiifhei rirt*. I-ur(.'eMt 
iindbi'Hl. llerrii-M y oz i-ai-h, t) in. iiioutnl. Itv mull lO for 
Kl : KIO for 8^ : I.OOO for HIO. Hiluuti Allmuy, 
f'htln. Itiiwnliil/f Mnliarch uf tin- Wrst , Kfntlirltff, 
llrvru /■/• »»a I'lr I.UOO : < apl. .Itirlc, Ciiinher- 
liiutl 'I'riiniifi/if tStertiiiff, <h>cutttlu, t^Si l.UOO. 
.Vl.l. I'l'ltK. e:aluloKUe Irie. Cut thin out. 

JOIIX S. <'<>■, I.IXN, 
lO-2-3m] ^^•or'■sI'l^^ n, New.Iersoy. 

1760. ESTABLISHED 1760. 


26 and 28 West King-st. 








A^entN for tli« 

" Ohio " Reaper and Mower, 
Whann's Phosphate, 
Pairbank's Scales, 
Dupont's Powder, 
Harrisburg Nails, &c., &c. 

Wc bare tbo largeRt stock of general Hsrdwsre in the 
State, and our iiricee are as low and terms ae liberal as oaa 
be found elefwbere. 9-1-tf. 

SOlVXETHIlNrGl- T«Ji:'\7Cr. 


Good Live .^gents Wanted Everywhere, 
Novelty Di alers and the Trade sup- 
plied at reduced rates. 

Address all orders to tbe sole manufacturers, 


Url<lKC|>ort, Coiiiio«-li«'iH. 

HIE SOlllBCIiSeillMi (111.111 1'll'E 

The merits of this invent iou are at once apiireciated by 
evcrv Smoker; as by using this article (ivhich is as light 
aud portable as a cigar) all smokers can use the best tobacco 
at less than one-leiilh the cxiiense of a i>oor cigar, dispens- 
ing entirely with the cumbrous aud unsightly pipes. 


Remove the mouth piece and piston, fill the tube half ful 
of smokine tobacco, insert the piston and mouth piece, and 
light as you would an ordinary cigar. Sample by mail, 30 

By Mall $1.50 Per Doz. By Express $12.00 Per GrosB. 

Clean the Interior Parts with a damp Rag 
when they become foul. 



[February, 1878. 

My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and Flower Seed 
for 1878, rich iu eiigraviiiRS. will be Bent FRi-L, to all who 
aiirly. Customers ol liint season need uot write torit. I 
offer one of the largest collections of vegetable seed ever 
sent out by any seed house iu America, a large iiortiou of 
which were grown on my six seed farms. Printed (iirec(!o?w 
for ctUtimfinn n» i-m-h packime. All seeds 'Mirmnted to be 
freKh and true to numr; so far, that should it iircive other- 
wise / will rem the order gratis. New Vegetables a 
specialty. As the original introducer of the Hubbard 
Squash, Phinney's Melon, Marblehead Cabbages, Mexican 
Corn, I offer several new vegetables this seaeoD, and invite 
the patronage of a// luho are anxious to have their seed di- 
rectly/rom the grower ,/resk , true, and oj the very best strain. 
9-12 4ml JAMES J. H. GREGOKy, Marblehead, Mass. 


Henry Kurtz's Centennial and Hart ford Tobacco 
Seeds can be obtained by addressing the proprietor at 
Mount Joy, Pa., or the ed'itor of The Faemer, No. 101 
Worth Queen street. Lancaster, Pa. Hrice, 81.00 per 

package. The leaf of these Tobaccos were awarded a 
premium at the Centennial Exposition in 1876. 




Anthor of " Listen to the MockinK Bird," '* I'll sail the aeas 
•Ter,'' " What is Home without a Mother," etc., etc, 
" Out of work, without a penny, 
Pleading hel before thy door, 
Without frieuds among the many — 
Look with pity on the poor." 
• , * One of the most touching and beautlfal ballads ever 
written, will give the author a more extended popularity 
than anything she has ever written. Price 35 cents — or, 
illustrated title page 40 cents. 

For Bale at all music srores. or will be sent postpaid on 
receipt of price by the publishers. 

9-9 723 Chestnut Street, Phihidelphia. 


a. sejser & SONS, 

Mauufacturers and dealers in all kinds of rough and 


The best Sawed Slll^i-I.E.S iu the country. Also Sash, 
Doors, Blinds, Mouldings, &c. 


and PATENT BLINDS, which are far superior to any 
other. Also best I'OAI^ constantly ou band. 


Northeast Corner of Prince and Walnnt-sts,, 

1823. SEND FOR 1878. 



The Best Religious and Secular Family News- 
paper. $3,153 Year, post-paid. 
Established 1823. 





FOR 1878, 

Pontains full lists withjjescriptions, illustratiofis 

and prices of ^^ # 

THE srx^6\ ?ar!)en, ^iflfcjp' 

AND FL.(VW^£|{, ISf DS, 

(all the standard variefies^n^ ma;iy*lroice novelties), Summer 
and Autumn Bulbs plants, Small Fruits, Trees, Agricultural 
Implements, and piooded Live Hiock- and Fancy Poultry. 
Srnd >our n4U]l^ss ou a I'ONtul I'av^^'Afid re- 
ooive a oopy by I'eturn nfnil. 10 package Choice 
Flower Seeds for 25 *»entB. •* 

^ O u r ^ iSl cjve I tl^ s". 

TOAU. ofP" 



We call e'. 
CORN, ai 

in" down. 

•alatten*= .to . ar CALIFORNIA BROOlfl 

"ergreei* *atiety which does not require bend- 

B. B. & COS SURE HEAD CABBAGE, i^^!^"'' 

BAT TIEW HTBRID K CI.OK sfid the new Tomato— Ked Cblef. 

t:^"8end for Catalogue to 

BEITSON, BUHFEE & 0., Seed Warehouse , 223 Clmrcli St. j'FhileAtet^^a* 

_^ ^___^ ______^ , ™ 4 

• V. 



oin-Siiver Tableware 


Given Away! 

An Elee-ant EXTRA *<»fl\-SBrVER PI^ATEO SET <l>5' SIX TKA-SPOONS tbat 

Retails at 84.50 per Siet. and :»i» Elt's:"«»t EXTR.V ^OBN-.SH^VER 

PI^ATEO BrTTEK-KMFE tliat Retails at S1.30: 

Thus makinK both the Sol of Tea-spoons and the Biitttr-knire a valuable and use- 
ful New- Year's 4jiift to every subscriber of this paper, and a Ciift that all should accept 

We have made arrangements with the old established and reliable EAOLE OOI.D ANI> 
SILVER PIjATINW C<>.. Cincinnati. O., to supply every subscriber of this paper with 
Ibis valuable Silver Tableware as a New-Year'.s Gift. 

This elegant Set of Tea-spoons and Rutter-knife are of the latest style pattern, and 
each article is l<t be ensrraved vrith name or initial of subsei-ibei% thus making 
the most useful and beautiful Gift ever presented. Don't neglect to send your initial or name 
with orders to be eng:ravei1. , ^ 

Subscribers will therefore cut out the following premium order and send it to the Kaolk 
Goi.D AND Silver P^ATiNa Co., at Cincinnati, for redemption, together with sulficient to 
rav boxing, packing;, postat^c, or express charges. Under our contract this Silrerwai-e is 
eo'eost you notliinfc except the packing, postage, or express charges, which you are re- 
quired to pay, and the Silverware is then delivered to you free. 

Please cutout the following New- Year's Gift Premium Silverware order and send same to 
Eagle Gold and .Silveu Plating Cu., Cincinnati, U. 

6®- Cut out this Order, as it is worth SG.OO.-Ws. 


On rTfipt of this Orflcr in.l One Dollar "e will mail \<hi fiiiik One Set of Estro Cohl-Sllver Pliited 
Ten-npooiit* worlti $i.5n. aho One (I I Kleeuitt lIutt.T-liiiilc worth SI. 50, wiih yum mnnograni initial 
euKinvi'd iijion Binm; in good .siyle— thus uiakiug the elegant btl of J4.50 Tea-spoons aud the elcgaot fl.oO Butier- 
knire lo you a free Ncw-Ytur's Olfl. 

Send for Silverware at oticc. toKolhcr with One Dollar, stating name in full, with posioffice. county, and 
Siat«. Address all orders lo EAGLE OOLD ANW SlL^TCIt PLATIAG CO., Cliic-Iiinati. O. 

iT'fi^Rpnifniher. noppbut Siibseribersof this paper are allowed this 86.00 New- Year's 
I CVlft of Coiii-^iiver T:ibi4-n:ii-e. I'ul uiu liu- :th<ive order aud send for the Gift, at once, 
toy^cther Willi «iie S^ollar u< pay cliar-rcs of I'ackiiig, postage, or express, so that lliu ar- 
I tides can be delivered to you free iff any ex| 

Address EACI^E OOI^D AND SIIiVER PLATING CO., Ciucinnati, O. 


V,'i\\ 1 

jtiaikd FRKR to 

all iipjilieunts. Itci>n 

laiun colored platf, ;>lif) 

about ]aO [lagos, a[id fu 

prices aud direcliuus f.r ilauiiug over 1*00 

varieties of Vegetable .and Klowur Seeds. Plaats. Roses, KW. 

Invaluable to all. Sei.d ri>r it. Address 

D. M. F£EaY & CO., Detroit, Mich. 



Thoroughbred Short-Horn Cattle; 

Bred and For Sale by the undersigned. 


and at prices to suit the times. Herd open to iiepection by 
strangers at all times (Sundays excepted.) I will be pleased, 
to show my herd to visitors, aud any information in regard 
to the cattle will cheerfully be given, by letter, as desired. 

10-2-1 y] 

A. M. RANK, 

Bird-in-Hand, Lancaster co.. Fa. 

Q "V^o Y* ^"^^ Rubecribere 
O- ^ Kiidl ^ tho couuty. 


To RUbflcribern out of ) ct 1 Q C3 
tUo county. f 4>l.<iCJ 

Prof, S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 




Clubbing, ....--- .33 

Hard Times, - 33 

Odor V6. Color, ...... 33 

Wheu is the Proper Time to Sow Clover-Seed? 33 

Philadelphia Poudrette, . - ... 34 

Notice Extraordinary, 34 

Kitchen-Garden Calendar for March, - - 34 

Penneylvania State Board of Agriculture, - 34 

Correspondence, ...... 34 

Apollo, ---...-- 3.5 

Honey Bees and Fruit Once More, - - - 35 

Curious Story of a Bee. 

Lancaster Park Directors, .... 36 

Commercial Fertilizers, ..... 36 

Keport of Fruit Committee, .... 36 

Kummer Applea — Autumn Apples — Winter Apples 
— Pears — Peiiches — Grapes — Strawberries — Kasp- 
berries — Blackberries. 

Query and Answer, - - - - . - 36 

Vinegar from Sugar Beets, ... - 36 

A Large Horse-Kadish, ..... 36 

BroNvn Leghorns, -..--- 37 


Tobacco Farming, -...-. 37 

When Should it Be Cut ?— How Should it be Handled 
When Cut 1— Housing Tobacco — Stripping lo- 
bacco — Assorting Tobacco. 
The "Short-Palmed Mole-Cricket," or "California 

Potato Cricket," 38 

Visiting Committee, . .... 38 

Manures and Soil Fertilizers, ... 38 

Pennsylvania Apples for Export, . . - 39 

About Dark Brahmas, - . - - - 40 

Grafting, . . - 40 

More About Horned Owls, . - . . 41 

Black Hellebore, 41 

Times and Seasons, ..... 41 

Revu of the February Number, - - . 42 

Fruit — What Varieties to Grow, - - - 42 

Around the Farm.— No. 6, ... - 42 
Sweet Potato Plant— Fire Wood— Farmers' Homes, 

The Tobacco Fever, . - - - . 43 

Fertilizers and Manures — Their Application to 

Corn Crops, --..-.- 43 


Proceedings of tiie Lancaster County Agricultural 

and Horticultural Society, . ■ - 44 

Keport of Special Committees — Crop Ueports— Re- 
port of Fruit Committee — Deferred Business — 
Election of Members — Bills Bead — Busiuess for 
Next Meeting— For General Discussion. 

Tobacco Growers' Association, - - - 45 

Beporfs of Special Committees — Reportson Crops — 
Keading of Essays — Referred Questions — The 
French Exposition — Referred Questions — For 
General Discussion. 

Linnsan Society, --...- 47 

Additions to the Library — Papers read. 

Tobacco Culture, - 47 

Kuising 1 obacco Plants — Open Air Plants. 

Views of a Connecticut Tobacco Grower, - 47 

Pennsylvania Leaf Tobacco, . - - - 48 

How to Use Bones as a Fertilizer, - - 48 

Literary and Personal ,----- 48 

we otter lor Spring of 18TS, the largest and most complete 
stock in the U. S., of 

Friiil Tre«'s, Standard and Dwarf. 

4>rnaiiieiitiil TreeNairKlirubN, deciduous & evergreen 

KoHi'S a specialty — all the huest sorts. 

Ureeii A Mint lloiiHe I'lants.includingbest Novelties 

Descriptive and Illustrated priced Catalogues sent pre- 
paid to customers, l'ri*t»; to othei's, on receipt of stamps, 
as follows : 

No. I. Fruits, with colored pl:ite, I5e.; plain, lOo. 

No. 2. Oraraeutal Trees, colored plate, 23e.: plain, 15c. 

No. 3. Greenhouse, Freo. No. 4. Wholesale, Free. 

No. 5. Rose Catalogue for 1S78, Frre, 

t2'~ Small parcels forwarded by mail when desired. 

ELLWANGER & BARRY. Rochester, N. Y. 


!50]VEZ3i'xzx3Nr<3- 3xn:"\;^. 


Good Live Agents Wanted Everywhere, 
Novelty Dealers and the Trade sup- 
plied at reduced rates. 

Address all orders to the sole manufacturers, 


Bridg^eport, < oniioi'tiout. 

The merits of this invention are at once appreciated by 
every Smoker; as by using this article (tvhich is us liRht 
and portable as a cigar) all smokers can use the best tobacco 
at less thau one-tenth the expense of a poor cigar, diepeue- 
ing entirely with the cumbrous and unsightly pipes. 


Remove the mouth piece and piston, till the tube half ful 
of smokine tobacco, insert the piston and mouth piece, and 
liKht as you would an ordinary cigar. Samijle by mail, 30 

By Mall $1.50 Per Doz. By Express $12.00 Per Gross. 

Clean the Interior Parts with ;i damp Rag 
when they become foul. 


E.4RI.Y OHIO.— Earlier than Early Rose. Ranked 
by general consent, in earlinese, yield and quality combined 
at the head of all the early potatoes. 

mjRBAXK.— Medium late; a prodigious cropper; 
flesh remarkably white ; quality excellent. 

OUXmORK.— A splendid late sort. A greater cropper 
than the Peerless, which it resembles in form, while far 
better in quality. 

Each, per Barrel, $4.00; per Bushel, $2.00; per Peck, 
75 cents. 

My Illustrated Seed Catalogue FBERto all applicants. 


10-3-2m] aiarblebead, Masfl, 


Smoketown Nursery, 

tNmoketown, fjancnnter <'o.. Pa. 

(Bird-in-Hand, 1". O.) 

Buy trees grown Id this county, and suited to this soil 
and climate. A flue stock of 


PEAR, t'llERRT, PI.m. 

Silver Blaple, Norway .Maple, 

GKEEN TREES of every deBcrii>tion. ORAPE VINE 
and SMALL FUUIT.S of all kinds. A large lot of 


SMOKFTOWX NVRKERY is situated on the ol. 
Philadeliiliia Road, five miles east of LanciBler and on^ 
mile wfst of Bird-in-Hand. 

Trees may be obtained at the nursery, or at tho tree 
wagon iu Centre Square, on Market Mornings (Wednesday 
and Saturday), 

Orders by mail promptly attended to and trees delivered 
in Lancaster, free of charge. 


llird-lli-Uaiid P. O., 


Lancaster co., 




A Domestic Jewel that will last a life-time. 


Does a way with the Inconveniences 
connected with other Qraters. ^j 

Its construction comiiends itself to the public, and all 
the leading Kitchen Furnishing Houses speak of it in the 
highest terms. 


Most Simple, Most Dur^ible, and Most Re- 
liable invention ever offered to the 


Directions— Take the grater in (he left hand, palm 
towards you, with your third lluger through the handle 
]>lace the thumb on the spring-lever, remove the feeder and 
insert the uut. 

Price to Agents $1.75 Per Dozen. 

GooU I^jvc Ai^entN Wnntoil Everywbere. 

All orders should be addressed to 

M;triuf;iptnrer'8 Sole Ayent, 

Also Dealer & Maiif'r. of Patent No?eltles, &c. 




Trains leave the Depot in this city, 


Pacific Express" 

Way Passengert 

Niagara Exjirees 

Col. Accommodation 

Mmil train via Mt. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line* 

Frederick Accommodation. 

H:irrsburg Accom 

Columbia Accommodation,. 

Harrisburg Express 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express* 

Philadelphia Expresst. 

Harrisburg Express 

Columbia Accoramodation.. 

Pacific Express*. 

Sunday Mail 

Johnstown Express 

Day Express" 

Harrisburg Accom 


2:40 a. m. 

4:50 a. m. 

9.35 a. m. 

7:'20 p. m. 
11:20 a. m. 
11:20 a. m. 
11:20 a. m. 

2:10 p. m. 

2:15 p. m. 

6:00 p. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

7:25 p. m. 

9:25 p. m. 
11:30 p. m. 

EASTWARD. Lancaster. 

Atlantic Express' 12:30 a. m. 

~ 4:10 a. m. 

7:35 a. m. 
9.28 p. m. 
1:20 p. m. 
2:00 p. m. 
3:05 p. m. 
5:1 S !>. ni. 
5:50 p. m. 


as follows : 



4:05 a. m. 

7:50 a. m. 

10:40 a. m. 

Col. 8:00 p. m. 

1:00 p. m. 

1:25 p. m. 

1:80 p. m. 

3:25 p. m. 

Col. 2:45 p. m. 

8:10 p. m. 

Col. S:00 p. m, 

8:40 p. m. 

10:50 p. m. 

12:45 a. m. 

3:00 a. m. 
T:00 a. m. 
10:00 a. m. 
12:30 p. m. 
3:45 p. m. 
5:00 p.m. 
6:00 p. m. 
7:20 p.m. 
9:00 p. m. 
The Hnuover Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
•with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., and will run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connectaat Lancas- 
ter ^\nth Fast Lino, west, at 2:10 p. m.. and runs to Frederick. 
The Pacific Express, east, ou Sunday, when flagged, will 
stop at Middletown, Elizabethtown, Mount Joy and Landis- 
•The only trains which run daily. 
tRunB daily, except Monday. 


The Century CI art. 

A 100-year Almanac, whereby you cau ascertain what day 
of the week any day of the month is or what day of the 
month any day of the week is, was, or will be, from 1799 to 
1900, or in what day any event has taken place, from 1799 
. to 1900, and 1000 other occurrences. The greatest in- * 
S vention of man. Every person will buy one; also the ft 
^ great Egyptian Puzzle. Sport for>ll. Either article 2 
e sent on receipt of 25c. poet paid, or $1 per dozen. .* 
^ Agents wanted everywhere. Ladies and Gents secure 
your town at once. You can make $20 per week. Send for 

ROOSS BRO'S, Sovdty D-alers. 

9-12-6m] 100 and 102 Washington St., CHICAGO, III. 

P U I- M O N A 

is beyond comparison the beet remedy for the cure of CON- 

BTonchita-%. Catarrh, and all derangements of the NERV- 
OUS SYSTEM. A circular containing particulars of 


treatment of the diseaseB above mentioned, and certificates 
of actual cures, will be sent free by mail to all applicants. 
Address OSCAR G. MOSES, Sole Proprietor, 18 Cortiaudt 
Street, New York. 9.10-6m 



Plain and Fine Harness, 





Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, G-loves, Sec, 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

9-1-ly LANCASTER, PA. 

&:e3:xflts> 1 

Half Dozen for 



X<iueu anil Paper I'ollars and CuITh 




No. 56 North* Queen Street, 



The crowning result of i?j"vA?frn years of care and toil — 

The Cinderella and <'onfinental Strawberries 
and Early Prolifle and Reliance Raspberries is 
now offered to the Public ; Tested Nine Pears, and in 
our judgment the Four Best Paying Market 

W Catalogub and Pbick List Fret. 

Nurserymen and Fruit Growers, Woodbury, N. J. 



Sewing Machine 

1. — Makes ^perfect lock stich, alike on both sides, on all 
kinds of goods. 

2.— Runs Light, Smooth, Noiselhss and Rapid. 

3. — DuKABLE -Runs for years without Repair. 

4. — H'il I do all varieties 0/ Work and Fancy Stitching in 
a superior rnann^^r. 

^.— \% Most Easily managed hy the operator. Length of 
stitch may be altered while running, and machine can be 
threaded without passing thread through holes. 

6. — Design Simple, Ingenious, Elegant. Forming the 
stitch •without the use of Cog Wheel Gears, Rotary Cams, or 
Lever Arms. Ha.s, the Automatic Dro/ Feed, which insures 
uniform length 0/ stitch at any speed. Has our new Thread 
Controller, which allows easy movement of needle bar and 
Prevents injury to thread. 

7. — Construction moU careful ■ax\6. Finished. It is manu- 
factured by the wf^fj/ f^/7^7//£2«(/ experienced inechanics, at 
the celebrated KEm^fG'S'OX A RMORY. Ilion, N. 
Y. Attention is called to our greatlv reduced prices. 

8. — The No. 2 Remington Alachine for Manufacturing and 
Family use has been recently improved, and is offered to the 
public with the assurance that it will give entire satisfaction. 



218 and 283 Broadway, New York 






Numbering 1T5 pages, with Colored Plate, 


To our customers of past years, and to all 
purchasers of our books, either 


Pries $1.50 each, prepaid, by mail. 

To others, on receipt of 25c. 

Plain Plant or Seed Catalogues, without Plate, 

free to all. 


Seedsmen, Market Gardeners and Florists, 
35 Cortlandt St., N. T. 



$t.O0O WORTH FOR $S7.50. 

The cheapest aud best way to reach readers outside of 
the large cities is by using one or more of our six lists- of 
over l.OOO newspapers, divided to cover different sec- 
liouH ot the couutry. Weelily <'irculaiioii over 

600.000. Advsrtisemeuls received for \)ut or more lists. 
For catalogues containing iiami's of papers, and other in- 
form.ition and for eslimates, addrcRs 

SEALS & FOSTEE. 41 Part2ow (Timss Building), Mew Yort. 


Diseasps Cured. New 

paths marked out by that 
plainest of all books— 
"Plain Home Talk and 
Medical Common Sense," 
—nearly 1,000 pages, 200 illustrations, by Dr. E. B. Foote, 
of 120 Lexington Ave.. N. Y. Purchasers of this Book are 
at liberty to ro««?//« its author in person or by mail free 
Price by mail S3. 25 for the S^aiirfaro' edi*ion, or $1.50 foi 
the /»o/»//ar edition, which contains all the same mattei 
and illustrations. Contents tables free. Agents Wanted 

g-lO-ly 129 East 2Hth St. N. Y. 

Scribner's Lumber and Log-Book. 

OVER HALF A MILLION SOLD. The most complete 
book of its kind ever published. Gives correct meas- 
urement of ail kinds of lumber, logs and plank by Doyle's 
Rule, cubical contents of square and round timber, stave 
and heading bolt tables, wages, rent, board, capacity of 
cisterns, cord-wood tables, interest, etc. Standard Book 
throughout United States and Canada. 

Ask yo«r bookseller for it, or I will send one for 35 cents, 


10-a-3m] P. O. B«x 238, Bocliest«r, N, T. 


for all of the following art icles or we will sell them for you on 
^% (5 pel* cent.) commiss^ion n^ em mm^iMmmm ■— ^^ 
Cheese, E G G K. 1» O V I.- O 1 B H H C SS 
T R Y, Lard, Talllow, Feath- H | B I B P if 
ers. Potatoes, APPEES, ftPW ■ 8 BhBII 
t^ "D A T'M" r'lour, Feed, Fur, Hides Wool, 
\3r^mfjC^JbX^ 9 Peanuts, Broom Corn, Dried Fruit, 
Hay, Uops. &c., &c. IJI>erHl ca*«fi a<ivaiic«M mad* 
on large consignments of staple articles. Farmers, shippers 
and dealers in general meichandise should write for refe- 
rence, jirice current, stencil, &t:. When writing us, stat« 
whether you wish to ship on cousigument, or sell; if yon 
wish to sell, name tlie articles, anioant of each, aud your 


B, (free aboard cars) at your nearest shipping point. Also, 
if possible, send sample by mail; if too bulky, by freight. 

Commission & Shipping Merchants, 

931 aud 346 Xorth Water Street, 



We are now selling 

Uew Pianos for $125 

Each, and all styles, including Grand. Sqnnr« and Up- 
ri^^tit, all iieiv and strictly lirHt-clasM, at the lowest 
not cash nrliolesale faclory prices, direct to the 

No Agents; no commisiions; no discounts. Pianos for 
^200, containing 


Nev Patent Dnples Overstrung Scale, 

which is without question the greatest improvement ever put 
into a Square Piano, producing the tnost astonishing power ^ 
richness and depth of tone, and a sustaining singing quality 
never before attained. Our Uprights arc the finest im 
America. Pianos sent on trial. I>on't fail to write for Illus- 
trated and Descriptive Catalogue— mailed free. 


9-T-1y Xo. 56 Broadway, M. T. 

'^ UuqueMtiOBiably the beNt sustained irork 
ot tbe kiud iu tbe World." 



yotices of ike Prem. 
The veteran 3/o^zi7i«, which long ago outgrew its origit 
nal title of the 'Sew Monthly Magazine, has not in the least 
abated the popularity it won at the outset, but has added to 
it in maay ways, and has kept fairly abreast of the times. 
thanks to the enterprise of the publishers and the tact and 
wisdom of its editors. For whatever is best and most read- 
able in the Literature of travel, discovery, and fiction, th» 
average reader of to day looks to Harper's Magazine, just ai 
expectantly as did the reader of a quarter of a century ago; 
there is the same admirable variety jf contents and the same 
freshness and suggestiveness in its editorial department* 
now as then. — Boston Journal, 

T E bTm S . 

Festage Free tc all Subscrlt&rs in tbe United States. 

Hakpeu's Magazine, oue year $4 09. 

$4 01} includes prepayment of U. S. postage by the pub- 

.Sub.scriptiojis to Harper's Magazine, AVbbklt. and Bazab, 
to one addrens for one year. $10 DO ,• or, two of Harper's 
Periodicals, to one address for one year. $T,OU : postage free. 

An Extra Copy of either the Magazine, Weekly, or Ba.- 
ZAR will be supplied gratis for every Club of Fivb Subsobi- 
■BERS at $4 i}0 each, paid for by one mnittance; or, Six Cop- 
ies one year, without extra copy, for $20 00. 

BackSumbers can be sujiplied at any time. 

The volumes of the 3frt7a^//i*? commence with the Num- 
bers for June and Deceiubtr of each year. When no time is 
specified, it will be understood that the subscriber wishes to 
begin with the current Number. 

A complete Set of Harper's Magazine, now comprising 
55 Volumes in neat cloth binding, will be sent by express, 
freight at expense of purchaser, for $2 25 per volume. 
Single volumes by mail, \iostpaid, $3 00. Cloth cases, for 
binding, 50 ceuts, by mail, postpaid. 

A Complete Analytical Index to the first Fifty "Volumes of 
Harper's Magazine has been published, rendering availa- 
ble for reference the vast and varied wealth of information 
which constitutes this periodical a perfect illustrated liters^ 
ry cyclopedia. 8vo, Cloth, $2 00; Half Calf, $5 25. Sent 
postage prepaid. 

Subscriptions received for Harper's Periodicals only. 

Newspapers are not to copy this advertisement without the 
express orders of Harper & Brothers, 

Address HARPER & BROTHKRH. New York. 



A book containing a list of towns in the U. S,, having 
5 000 pop., and the newspaper having largest circnlation. 
All the Religious, Agricultural, Scientific, and other special 
class journals. Tables of rates, showing cost of advertii- 
ing and everything which an advertiser would like to know. 
Mailed on receipt of ten cents. Address 

GEO. P. ROWEEE A €0., 
10 Spruc^-Bt., N. Y., (opposite "Tribune" building). 

The Lancaster Farmer. 

Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 


Vol. Z. No. 3. 


AVc ofler The Fakmer, elubbod with other 
first-class publications, at the followiiiji [irices : 
I'hrmolofjical Jouniiil and Faumer - S^! Oil, $2..50 
Harper's Monthly and Farmeu - - - .').(H), 
Harper's. Weekly and Farmer - - - .^.00, 
Harper's Bazar and Farmer - - - - .5.00, 
i/ei-aido///e<i((A and Farmer - - - 2.00, 
National Lire Stock Journal and Farmer :!.00, 
Jfo«»« /oy //(faW and Farmer - - 2.50, 
FrieneU Journal and Fakmek - - - S..50, 

The first column indicates the regular 
prices of the two .journals respectively, and 
the second column the club rates, if the two 
are ordered together. 

2. .50 


Our whole country, and perhaps the whole 

world, is now, and has beeu for many niontlis, 
experiencing those social, flnaucial and econ- 
omical reverses, which are popularly denomi- 
nated "hard times," and perhaps there never 
existed a greater diversity of opinion as to 
what really constitutes hard times, the original 
causes of them, and the means which ought 
to be instituted in order to abate, or radically 
cure them. The only class not .seriously 
affected by hard times— or the class least 
affected by them — is that which includes tlie 
legitimately constituted farming class of the 
count ry ; tliose who are farmers de facto as well 
as clc jure ; the economical laboring farmers, 
and not the merely speculative or profligate 
among those who assume that honorable name 
and function. It really furnishes one of the 
most striking physiognomical illustrations 
that could be desired, only to look into the 
faces of those two extremes of the farming 
class. The one enveloped in sober garments, 
bland visage, satisfied smiles and solid con- 
tenteduess ; the other in gay acjornments, 
hungry look, careworn visage, and unsatisfied 
expectations. The latter may experience 
much that savors of hard times ; but the 
former, if he is not also hankering after the 
"forbidden fruit," is only very partially, or 
is. not at all disturbed, or disconcerted by 
them. But even admitting that the prevail- 
ing times are hard — an assumption which we 
by no means desire to gainsay— they might 
unquestionably be nuich harder — and they 
/tflce been almost infinitely harder in former 
periods of our country's history. Although 
we have followed a mechanical occupation for 
more than half a century, and although dur- 
ing all that long period we cannot recall a 
more depressing period than the present — not 
even in 1837 or 1857 or any other cycles of 
the sevens, yet we still entertain a faint im- 
pression of harder times, resulting from 
the crash in 1817, and a few subsequent 
years. Of course, we cannot recall any 
of the details with sufficient vividness to 
give a true idea of tlieir effects upon 
the minds and domestic condition of the peo- 
ple, but it seemed to us that the very air we 
breathed had a depressing eflect, and boy as 
we were, we felt that there was something 
wrong ; and to illustrate tliis point, we will 
conclude by (pinting the following extract 
from Bcnton''s Thirtij Years' Recollections, and 
those who passed through that ordeal with 
sutlicient age, intelligence and experience to 
comprehend its scope, will best know how 
near Benton's description is a true relle.x of 
that historical period. 

"The years of 1819 and 1820 were a period 
of gloom and agony. Xo money, either gold 
or silver, no paper convertible into specie ; 
no measure or standard of v.alue were left 
remaining. The local banks, all but those of 
New England, after a brief resumption of 

specie payments, again sank into a state of 
suspension. Tlie bank of tlie Unit»'d States, 
created as a remedy ibr all these evils, now at 
the head of tlie evil, prostrate and lielpless, 
with no power left but tliat of suing their 
debtors and .selling their property, and pur- 
chasing for itself at its own nominal price. 
No iirice for property or produce; no sales 
but those of the sherilf and tlic marshal ; no 
purchasers at the execution sales but the 
creditor, or some hoarder of money ; no em- 
ployment for industry ; no demand for labor ; 
no sale lor the product of the farm ; no sound 
of the hammer, but tliat of the auctioneer, 
knocking down property. Stop laws, property 
laws, replevin laws, stay laws, loan otlice 
laws, the intervention of the Legislature be- 
tween debtor and creditor— tliis was the busi- 
ness of the Legislature in tbree-fourtlis of 
the States of the Union— of all soutli and 
west of New England. No medium of ex- 
change but depreciated paper ; no change, 
even, but little bits of foul paper, marked so 
many cents, and signed by some tradesman, 
barber or innkeeper ; exchanges deranged to 
the extent of fifty or one hundred per cent. 
Distress the universal cry of the people ; 
relief the universal demand ; thundered at 
the door of all Legislatures, State and Federal. 
There is nothing, says the Cincinnati Ga- 
zelle, in the existing condition of afi'airs, or in 
the immediate prospect, that can rival what 
the historian has pictured above. Everything 
is not right ; many things may be very far 
from right, but has there been any period 
since the innocent days of Eden when they 
were ? 

Dull times are hard enough, but a general 
prostration of business is not so much to be 
feared as prosperity with a prevailing epi- 
demic, or with its more common accompani- 
ment, reckless extravagance and decaying 
morals. The men of 1820 groaned under 
their trials, as they had reason enough to do. 
.Some sank under the weiglit of their burden. 
It was about that year that Horace (ireeley's 
father lost his farm because he could not raise 
1100 to lift an encumbrance on it. Tlie 
majority of the people, however, got safely 
tlirougli with their difiiculties, and lived to 
enjoy happier days. If the croakers of our 
own generation will devote half as much 
time to contending with the emljarrassments 
which oppose themselves, as they give to ex- 
aggerating them, the commercial world is not 
likely to encounter troubles which it cannot 
overcome. Courage and common sense are 
the qualities most needed just now." 

flowering iilanls, as bees, wasps, liornets, but- 
terflies, mollis and a few beetles that feed on 
nectar and iiollen. If he means to apiily it to 
tlie wliole, practical observation will 
demonstrate tliat it is an enormous error; 
and, so far as our experience goes, in reference 
to tlie various kinds of bees, we are in sym- 
pathy with tlie opinion of his "critics." We 
believe that insects are largely influenced by 
the odor of the flowers or other substances 
they visit, if not entirely so. This rule applies 
jiarticularly to carniveroiis insects, whatever 
their natural (lUDEits may be. Stercorarious 
and carionilerous flies and beetles are wholly 
attracted to excretal and putrid substances by 
their odors. Let an animal drop its firces in 
the middle of a forest or a field, and many 
minutes will not pass before it will be found 
by the above families of flies and beetles. 
This will atso be the case if a dead and putrid 
carcass is deposited in the most isolated place, 
and where an insect of any kind had not been 
known to exist previous to such a deposit. 
Of course, this relates to the active season of 
insects. We have often noticed the coleop- 
terous genera Canthon, Geotrupes, Phano'us, 
ApliodiiL-f, and other allied species, in fields 
overrun by weeds or high grass, imerringly 
dropping d"own upon the ficces of cattle pas- 
turing in said fields, and under circumstances 
which left no room to conclude that they were 
governed liy any other guide than odor. AVe 
freely admft that there are often appearances 
which seem to indicate that insects are influ- 
enced by color as well as odor, but we think 
that a closer and a more continued oliserva- 
tion would demonstrate that there were other 
causes for this appearaiTce. Enter a field in 
which are growing both white and red clover, 
and you may find the former visited by honey 
bees (njHs) and others of about the same size, 
whilst the latter may be visited by humble- 
bees (boinhus) and butterflies. But it is not to 
be supposed that color has had anything to do 
in determining this choice, but that it is the 
result of physical organization. Even among 
butterflies, where a discrimination is made 
between the flowers they visit, it is likely to 
be due to the same cause. The honey bee 
cannot get the nectar in the fiower-lubes of 
the red clover— if it can reach it at all— as 
conveniently as it can at that in the white 
clover. Moreover, the nectar in one flower 
may be more to its taste, or in greater abund- 
ance than it is in the other. There are also 
cases in which necessity, and not choice, 
determines the actions of insects. There is, 
however, much yet to learn on this subject. 


"Exception has been taken to the opinion 
of Sir John Lubbock that it is not the odor 
but the color of flowers that regulates the 
visits of insects to them. His critic ciles the 
fact from personal observation that a bee sit- 
ting on a scarlet geranium, for instance, will 
not go from it to a distinct variety, but con- 
fine its attention to one species only, whatever 
may be the color of the flowers of that species. 
It does not go from the scarlet geranium to 
another scarlet flower of another species. 
He also points out that if Sir .lolin's view 
were correct, the indiscriminate admixture of 
pollens would be inevitable, thus frustrating 
the designs of natui-e by leading to monstros- 
ities or barrenness." 

Had any common observer broached such a 
theory as that of Sir John Lubbock, it pro- 
bably would not have received the currency 
that his opinion seems to have. It is inijios- 
sible to tell, from the above extract, whether 
he applied that theoi-y to insects as a class, or 
only to a few restricted species — those for 


"As there seems to be so much diversity of 
oiiinion among farmers in regard to the time 
for sowing clover-seed, I take the liberty of 
inquiring through your columns, what is the 
right lime to consign that seed to the embraces 
of mother earth, that we may be the most 
sure of its germination and subsequent 
growth ? Some recommend sowing it in the 
fall of the year, when the timothy is sown ; 
some in the winter, when the snow is on the 
ground ; and some iirefcr leaving it till late 
in the spring, lielieving that it should not be 
I)ut in until all danger of severe frost is over, 
as after germination a .slight frost is pretty 
sure to injure it beyond recovery. 

"I have beeu in the practice of sowing 
about the second week in April, and have 
seldom missed a good take ; but I have been 
under the impression that in a general way 
we do not raise the crops of clover we used to 
do, either from lack of some ingredient in the 
soil necessary for the sustenance of the plant, 

instance that draw their nourishment from or owing to our hot and drj- summers ; and it 



[ March, 

would be well for farmers to inquire a little 
into the subject, for there is no forage crop in 
my estimation that has such advantages for 
feeding purposes as the clover, and I am sorry 
to see any diminution in the yield of the pro- 
duct." — OermanUmm Telegraph. 

The veteran editor does not seem to have 
answered the question of his correspondent, 
and perhaps for the reason that where such a 
diversity of opinion already exists, there is 
little use in making "confusion worse con- 

Had any person asked us the same question 
fifty years ago, perhaps, we would have 
promptly replied, "on a frosty forenoon in 
January or Februrary, of course." We do 
not recollect of having ever sown clover-seed 
on the snow, or ever having seen it thus sown. 
But of course some progress must have been 
made in fifty years, and therefore we may be 
far behind the times — an " old fogy " in the 
matter — and such being the case we feel com- 
pelled to reply as the "learned Fusbus " did to 
"King Arlaxomones :" 

Would the King know when to plant, 
" I can't adyise, upon my soul I can't." 

About the period we refer to, February was 
usually chosen as the proper time, but only 
when the ground was frozen, and then early 
in tlie day, before the ground began to thaw. 
If the ground contained sufficient moisture to 
form bunches of vertical filaments, or icy 
asciculations, with numerous cracks or cre- 
vices between, it was deemed in the best con- 
dition to sow clover-seed. These icy filaments 
always held up by tlieir elongation and expan- 
sion a quantity of tlie earth from beneath, and 
as the ieed would rebound and fall into these 
crevices, when tlie thaw, from the increasing 
power of the sun would follow in the after 
part of the day, these icy crystals would melt, 
and the earthly particles would fall back 
from whence they had been raised, and the 
seed would be completely covered. This was 
the theory and the practice in those days, and 
we know that the sowing had been occasion- 
ally more or less delayed, in waiting for a 
good frosty morning. Clover was usually 
sown on wheat or rye — most frequently on 
the former — and when the grain was har- 
vested, the ground was well covered with the 
young clover, which then began to grow rap- 
idly. Long continued March winds were 
sometimes injurious to the clover, but any 
winds not injurious to the wheat itself left the 
clover intact. Five years of our boyhood 
were spent on a farm, and we cannot recall a 
single instance in which there was a " short " 
hay crop, (1822 to 1827,) although such a con- 
tingency may have occurred some where and 
we not know it. We do not know that any 
apprehensions were entertained of the young 
clover freezing ; we think it generally supposed 
that the growing grain afforded it sulHcient 
protection. It seems wonderful, that we do 
not yet know the best time to sow clover- 



The Philadelphia Poudrette is an active, 
energetic, natural manure, is soluble (like 
barn-yard manure) without the use of acids. 
It contains the soluble salts of plants, which 
have served as food. These elements are the development of cultivated 
crops, and in supplying these excrements to 
the soil, we return to it the constituents 
which the crops have removed from it, and 
renew its capability of nourishing new crops. 
It is an invaluable manure for Tobacco and 
otliiei- plants requiring an early, healthy start, 
and rapid growth, maturing them from ten to 
fifteen days earlier. The increasing demand 
and uniform satisfaction it has given on all 
crops during the past three years, prove it a 
reliable fertilizer. A profitable and high de- 
gree of culture requires a liberal supply of 

Circulars with testimonial can be had at 
the office of The Lancaster Farmer, and 
at No. 101 North Queen street. Price $25 
per ton. Hiram E. Lutz, manufacturer, 
office 1136 Market street, Pliiladelpliia, 


Through a stress of preoccupation we have 
omitted to heretofore call the attention of our 
readers to the cards of C. B. Thompson, and 
Wells, Richards & Co., on the 2ud and 3rd 
advertising pages of The Farmer. Mr. 
Thompson's "Nutmeg Grater, " and "Smok- 
er's Pet," are articles of acknowledged merit, 
and cost a ''mere song," bringing them dis- 
tinctly within the sphere of popular favor. 
We therefore admonish our patrons not to 
forget The Latest Invention, and Something 
JVet«, as either article can be cheaply obtained 
through the U. S. mail. 

Wells & Richardson's Perfected Butter Color 
has already elicited the commendations of the 
dairy men of the eastern and southern portion 
of Lancaster county. All that is necessary to 
insure the popular adoption of the aforenamed 
articles, is an intelligent trial of them. 
Therefore, as soon as you have finished read- 
ing this notice, turn to the advertisements, 
peruse them carefully, and you will be enabled 
to leani what the articles are, what they will 
do, what they will cost, and how you may 
obtain them. They are not reapers and 
threshers, running into the domain of dollars, 
but trifles, confined within the realm of 


Kitchen-Garden Calendarfor the Middle States. 

Spring has arrived according to the calendar, 
but the experienced gardener is not to be 
caught by arbitrary terms ; and though March 
and the almanac may indicate spring, frost 
and storm and biting winds caution him to 
care and patience. He will wait the progress 
of the month and bide his 'time. If the tem- 
perature prove mild, let him proceed as indi- 
cated below, otherwise, delay until more 
favorable weather. 

Artichokes, dress, plant. Asparagus, sow ; 
plant the colossal roots. Cabbage, sow in a 
sheltered place, if not already in a hotbed. 
Test Landreth's new varieties — the Wakefield, 
Early Market, and Bloomsdale Brunswick. 
Beets, Extra Early Philadelphia. Turnip, 
and Early Blood Turnip, sow. Carrots, Early 
Horn, sow. Cauliflowers, attend to those 
under glass. Celery, sow. Composts, pre- 
pare. Dung, prepare for later hot-beds. 
Horse-radish, plant. Hot-beds make ; also 
force. Lettuce sow ; prick out. Mushroom- 
beds attend to. Mustard, sow. Onions, 
put out as sets, those known as "Pliila- 
delpliia Buttons" much the best. Par- 
snips, sow ; the sugar is the best. Peas, 
Landreth's Extra Early and Early Frame, 
sow. AlsoMcLean's Advancer and McLean's 
Little Gem, which can be with confidence 
commended. Potatoes, early, plant. The 
Early Goodrich continues to secure admirers, 
but the Early Rose will distance it ; it is ad- 
mirable in every respect. Last year's experi- 
ence demonstrated that the Snowflake was 
the best potato grown in Lancaster county. 
Radish, the long scarlet and red and white 
turnip, sow. " Strapleaved Long Scarlet," 
an improvement on the old Long Scarlet, are 
recommended. Rhubarb, sow ; plant roots. 
Sage, sow, plant. Tomatoes, sow in hot-bed. 
Turnips, Strapleaved Early Dutch, sow; but 
generally be it observed, so far north as our 
parallel of latitude, these directions will apply 
better to April than to March. — Lanclrelh^s 
Bural Beg. 

[Of course, the backwardness or forward- 
ness of the season will have much to do in 
hastening or retarding these labors, but the 
matters contained in these directions, in most 
instances, should be attended to as soon as 
the ripest judgment of the experienced farmer 
and gardener dictates that the work shbuld be 
done, without injudiciously " taking time by 
the forelock," and prematurely pressing him 
into service, nor yet indolently and undecid- 
edly lagging behind. Details that can only be 
determined by experience, had better be left 
to the suggestions of experience as they 
transpire. — Ed.] 



His Excellency Gov. JOHN F. HARTRANFT. 

Gen. WILLIAM M'CANDLESS, Secretary of Inter- 
nal Affairs. 

Prof. J. P. WICKERSHAM, Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. 

J. F. TEMPLE, Auditor General. 

Ret. JAMES CALDER, President Pennsylvania 
State College. 


Hon. John P. Edge, Dowuingtown, terra expires 
ISSO; Col. James Young, Middletown, term expires 
1879; JohnL. George, Monongahela City, term ex- 
pires 1878. 


Berks, W. G. Moore, of Womelsdorf, term ex- 
pires 1880; Blair, Thaddeus Banks, of Hollidayeburg, 
term expires 1879; Crawford, M. C. Beebe, of Pleas- 
antville, Venango county, term expires 1880; Centre, 
Prof. J. Hamilton, of State College, term expires 
1879; Chester, Thomas J. Edge, of Londongrove, 
term expires 1878; Cumberland, C. A. Mullen, of 
Mt. Holly Springs, term expires 1878; Lancaster, 
H. M. Engle, of Marietta, term expires 1880; Indiana, 
G. W. Hood, of Indiana, term expires 1880; Luzerne, 
John B. Smith, Box 115, Kingston, term expires 
1879; Mercer, A. Robinson, of Mercer, term expires 
1878; Montgomery, W. A. Teakle, of Flourtown, 
term expires 1878; Northumberland, J. M'Farland, 
of Watsontown, term expires 1879; Schuylkill, J. S. 
Keller, of Orwigsburg, term expires 1878; Union, 
J. W. Shriner, of Lewisburg, term expires 1878; 
York, W. S. Roland, of York, term expires 1880. 


Tioga, S. F. Wilson, of Wellsborough; Lycoming, 
D. A. Foresman, of Williamsport; Franklin, C. 
Gilbert, of Chambersbu'rg; Lehigh, J. P. Barnes, of 
AJlentown; Bradford, L. J. Culver, of Towanda; 
Warren, J. H. Hiller, of North Warren; Juniata, 
Prof. D. Wilson, of Port Royal; Northampton, C. L. 
Whiteeell, of Nazareth; Bucks, Eastburn Reeder, of 
New Hope. THOMAS J. EDGE, 



Reading, March 4, U78. 

Mr. Rathvon — Dear Sir. — Thinking it proper, I 
have taken the pleasure to write you a few lines 
more on the new peach insect. Since my last writing 
I have made several more observations. To my sur- 
prise I found this insect also on the plum and apricot 
trees, though not quite so numerous yet as on the 
peach. In many cases, the owners of trees are not 
aware that their trees are affected, and when it is 
made known to them they are surprised at it. In 
reply to your question of how I captured the winged 
insect, I wtU state that the manner which I take to 
get the ancestry of any insect is as follows : I hatch 
the egg, after which I enclose the brood in a glass 
jar, giving the brood plenty of food to live on, until 
transformation takes place, after which will appear 
the winged or flying insect. Thus I become ac- 
quainted with the three different stages of insect life. 
I will send you a brood in proper time, which you 
can also propagate with, receiving same result as 

Would it please you to favor me to inquire of the 
Lancaster county people, through the press, if con- 
venient, whether this insect exists any among the 
peach growers of your section. — Yours truly, Wm. 
Young, 20.5 North 12th street, Reading, Pa. 

[We thank our correspondent for his labors 
in endeavoring to develop the history of the 
new enemy of the peach tree, and hope that 
he may in the end be compensated. From 
the fact that he has found the same insect on 
the plum and the apricot, it may transpire 
that it is the same species we alluded to as 
having been seen in 1860, in which case, it 
would be an old thing become new. In om- 
remarks in the February number of The 
Farmer, we do not perceive that we asked 
hoio he captured the winged insect he sent to 
us through Mr. Engle, but we would like to 
know xchen he captured it, or obtained it, and 
whether it was dead or alive, because we must 
insist that the insect we received was a "lace- 
wing," (c/irysopa) and had no more to do with 
breeding the "peach bark-lice" than it had 
with breeding the "Rocky Mountain grass- 
hoppers;" and we believe that this will be 
clearly demonstrated to him before another 
year. Since the issue of the February num- 
ber of The Farsier we have learned that 
this insect was seen on some of the peach trees 
in this city last summer. Please send us some 
specimens about the 1st of May next.— Ed,] 





Owned by M. W. Diinliam, "Oaklaiitl 
Farm," near Wayne, Du Pafjit counly, Illi- 
nois. Lnporti'il July, IST.") ; ei<jht years old ; 
is a dark dapple gray, Ki'} hands lnfj;li, and 
■weighing, in good eondition, upward.s of 2,- 
0(10 ponnds. Although not a liii;h horse for 
lii.s weight, his length of body and neck, depth 
of shoulder, in fact his whole form, moulded 
in the type of the most elegant rarriaiic liorsc, 
gives him a rangy apjiearance. When in mo- 
tion, the elasticity of his stej), the ease and 
grace of his carriage, the rare symmetry of 
his form, would impress one with the belief 
that he saw before him one of tiiat class, and 
not one of over a ton in weight. He presents 
a rare combinalion of all those i)hysical (luali- 
ties by which perfection is closely approached. 
In feet, legs, stille, ipiarters, body, shoulders, 
breast, neck and head, muscular development, 
spirit and energy, all bear the unmistakable 
evidence of a masterpiece. lie is one of those 

ford )iurchasers an opportunity of selection 
from animals of the most undoubted quality, 
and on terms, and at prices, that can not 
but be satisfactory. 

We would like to sec this breed of horses 
largely introduced into this county, to replace, 
or to cross with, the famous "Co»if.s(o;/o," 
which is now fast jiassing away. We have 
enough of fancy and fast running horses ; we 
want good and healthy walking and working 
horses — less profligate and more economical 


AVe had sincerely hoped that our correspon- 
dents would have referred this (jucstion to the 
Lancaster Counly Bee Keepers' Association, 
which meets in this city in May next, and to 
our bee-keeping patrons in general, as a 
"committee of the whole," to take cognizance 
of the subject during the bee and fruit season 
next suminer ; and if we should respectfully 

skins of any kind of fruit, as tlioy olitain tliclr living 
by suction. Bill tlio wasps ami liorncts arc other- 
wise provided Willi a pair of *nippcrs that are very 
strong; and you may often sec llieni liillni.' and 
trnawinir old wood, out of which tliey huild their 
ncslfl. 1 was niucli ainioyed with tlieni liie past 
summer aiul fall in my grapery— especially with the 
hornets. The mandibles of the hornet arc very 
stroiifT, and they always select the ripest (grapes, 
they bcinft the sweetest and thinnest skinned. I 
have often watclHMl them, and seen them tear open 
the skin of the grapes, and when they were well 
filled they would leave them. Wasps likewise. 
Before the hornets and wasps returned, however, 
the lacerated grapes would he sucked out dry by the 
honey-bees. On the return of the hornets and wasps 
they would soon select another grape, and destroy It 
by the same process, I noticed this destruction of 
my grapes very soon after the aforenamed Insects 
commenced their dejiredations, lliereforc 1 Instituted 
a careful watcli over them for several days in succes- 
sion ; and 1 killed them as fast as they came — they 
becoming very tame and quiet whilst they were lin- 
ing themselves with nectar from the fruit. I soon 
had killed all that visited my grapes. 
Whilst waiting for their return,! plucked from the 

rare specimens of which nature is so sparing, 
and from which grand results may be expect- 
ed. Apollo lias never been beaten in the show 
ring. Won Grand Jledal and diploma at the 
Centennial. Has been exhibited at two State 
fairs, taking the highest prizes at both. See 
our literary columns on the last page of this 
number of The Farjier. For further par- 
ticulars, the connoisseur is referred to the 
"Percheron-Norman Stud Book," Volume I., 
No. 14. ■ 

Mr. Dunham has developed an establish- 
ment that, in its .systematic appointments, its 
practical and common sense management, its 
accumulation of the choicest animals of the 
breed, combining the highest elements of 
value in draft liorses — size, si/mmctry, sti/le, 
action and qitality— has no equal in the imrld, 
and by the aid of large annual importations, 
selected personally from the best stud stables 
of France, he is determined to sustain its 
prestige, and be prepared at all times to af- 

decline to publish any further communications 
relating to the vexed questioiunitil that time, 
we must claim the indulgence of the writers, 
on the ground that a further discussion of the 
question nou\ is out of season. Nothing can 
decide the matter, permanently, but fresh 
facts carefully ascertained through patient 
and persevering observation. 

Our respected friend, William J. Pyle, of 
West Chester, Pa., wishes to bo heard upon 
the sidjject, and we have concluded to give 
him a hearing, "for once," in this number of 
The Fakmbr, and we have only delayed 
because it came too late for oin'.Linuary ninn- 
ber, and was crowded out of the February 
number, for the want of space. 

Mr. Kathvon — Dcur Sir. — On re.ading so much 
controversy in The Faumeu concerning the destruc- 
tion of grapes by the honey-bees, I feel as though I 
ought to say a few appreciative words In their favor ; 
but they will be few, and to the purpose. The 
honey-bee has no mode of destroying grapes, because 
their mouths arc not made for biting or tearing the 

clusters all such grapes a.< had been bitten by them. 
Tlicse I mashed and gave them to my bees, they 
being but a few steps from the grape arbors. Al- 
though the grapes were sometimes black with them, 
(the honey-bee) not one of them attempted to cut 
the skins of them. A corroborating proof of this 
is, that after I had killed all the wasps and hornets, 
and plucked from the bunches all such as had suf- 
fered laceration from the aforenamed inseats, my 
honey-bees ceased to visit the grapes on the third or 
fourth day thereafter. There was not a bee of any 
kind to be seen about the grapes afterwards. They 
ripened without any further disturbance by insects, 
anil were delicious— some bunches weighing a pound 

'These " nippers " (mandibUn) are also present In honey- 
bees, although not so fully develoiied as they are Id Boma 
other species, espcctuUy those Itaat bore holes into aolid 
wood, or capture ^rasstioppers, spidors, caterpilUm, &o^ 
The term Muirti<m does not quite express the Idea as to the 
way the houey-l)ee extracts the uectar from fmita and 
flowers. The process Is rather a species of lafrpintj than of 
mucking. With Its tongue, which it can elong.tte or con- 
tr.ict, it reaches into an ai^eiture, or cell, previously exist- 
ing, and lapa up the sweets it contains, but it cannot pene- 
trate a solid substance with its tongue, aa is the case witl^ 
purely suctional iuBeots, 




and a-half, especially those of the "Christine" 
variety, but the " Concords " and "Clintons" were 
also fine. 

N. B. — My bees are of three varieties, namely, the 
common black, the Italian, and the hybrid, and they 
do not and will not, and I sincerely believe, can not, 
destroy fruit of any kind. Therefore, they should 
not be charged with ofi'euses of which they are not 
guilty. — Tours respectfully, ^YUlia»l J. Pyle, West 
Chester, January 20, 1878. 

Remotely connected with the foregoing, we 
select from a cotemporary journal, for what 
it may be worth, the following : 

Curious Story of a Bee. 

" My aunt was once lame, so that she had to stay 
in the room all day long, and her dinner was always 
carried to her. One day a bee flew in at the open 
window, and alighted on the pear which she was 
eating. There he staid till he had eaten enough, and 
every day after that, he came in at the same hour, 
and found some fruit ready for him. Once he came 
earlier thaa usual, and as the fruit was not yet cut, 
he thought he would try some lobster. He seemed 
to like it very well, and began to saw ofl" a little 
piece. This he rolled over, and then, tucking it 
under his wing, he flew out of the window and away 
over the garden. In a few moments he came back 
again, sawed off another piece, and again flew away 
with it. Then Aunt called the children to come and 
see her pet, and as soon as they were quiet the bee 
came back. We all watched him as he busily tugged 
away at the lobster, this time taking a piece half as 
large as his body. He was gone Ubout five minutes 
and then came back for more. When he found the 
lobster had been taken away, and that some nice 
peaches and pears were on the table, he was very 
angry, and flew round and round the table, but 
would not touch the fruit. My aunt laid a nice piece 
of a juicy pear on the edge of the plate to tempt 
him, but he became quite mad, and buzzed about 
the room, bounced against the window, and then 
went out of the window. He soon came back with 
another bee, and they both seemed very angry be- 
cause they could have no more lobster. They buzzed 
around the head of each person in the room, and 
then went out of the wmdow. After that the pet 
bee never came again, although the window was left 
open for him. He could never forgive my aunt for 
sending away his favorite dish. I have often won- 
dered what he did with the lobster he carried off. 

Of coui-se, this " story " would be more sat- 
isfactory if it could have been known what 
species this " curious " bee was. The simple 
name of "bee," is very indefinite, for it 
covers a large nimiber of Hymenopterous in- 
sects. Perhaps forty-nine out of every fifty 
who read the story, will understand it to 
mean the "honey-bee" {A^ns Mellifica). If 
it was this species, then two factors involved 
in the late discussion on the grape eating pro- 
pensities of this insect, seem very apparent. 
First, it would not — or at least did not — cut 
the skin of the fruit on the table, but partook 
of it freely when it was cut and placed before 
it by the lady. 

Second, if it had suflicient cutting power to 
elimmate a piece of muscular labster, it seems 
evident that it could have cut the skin of a 
peach, a pear, or a grape, with less labor than 
the former operation required, if it desired to 
do so. 

It is a very common thing for bees, wasps 
and hornets (apis, polistes, et vespa) to fly into 
dining-rooms, in summer time, especially 
when there is any thing sweet upon the table, 
although the last named are generally in pur- 
suit of flies. It is also a common thing for 
certain species of fossorial wasps (sphex, ody- 
nerits et stizus) to stock their cells with animal 
food, (usually caterpillars, spiders and flies,) 
upon which to rear their young. Others 
again (as xylocopja, coeleoxys, &c.,) gather pol- 
len and nectar, and compound that peculiar 
jMbuhim known as "bee-bread," and rear 
their young on that kind of food, although 
we have never noticed this habit in the honey- 
bee, so far as concerns animal food. 


At a meeting of the Lancaster Park Asso- 
ciation, held March 8, 1878, at the oflice of 
Alderman McConomy, the following directors 
were elected to serve for the ensuing year : 
K. A. Evans, A. Iliestand, A. C. Kepler, R. 
J. McGrann, George Youtz, J. H. Miller, 
Joseph Royer, George Styer, T- B. Rowe, 
James Stewart, H. Z. Ehoads, 

A tabulated oflicial report from the Penn- 
sylvania State Board of Agriculture, showing 
the analysis of seventeen different commercial 
fertilizers sold in the State of Pennsylvania, 
and their comparative value, as analyzed by 
Prof. F. A. Genth, of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, by order of said Board. 


O CO o 


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M m H c c £ 
s! £ " c; ro p* 
o < ^.° 2- 

g ^ ^ ^ 

Eg ■ 

2 2 

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w '»-*., P" 

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c p- S ^ '■ 

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O T ^ 













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o ; 

S 'Dm? 

-► O CO 

'2 ►„'=■ 


J*.CO*.*.*.tf^CSO' tf..-! 


.-t *0S t-. 

^ bS O 

Sol. & Peeoip. 
Pegs. Acid. 


oitc to Ol o 

Phos. Acid. 



- W .-* CO tO»- 




The committee appomted at the last meet- 
ing of the Lancaster Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society to report on the best varieties 
of fruit to plant in this section, would state 
that owing to the great variety of soil and 
climate, combined with the large numljer of 
valuable kinds of fruit under cultivation, they 
found the taskj'ather a difticuU one, especially 
in regard to apples. Of this fruit they would 
recommend planters to select such varieties as 
are known to do well in their respective local- 
ities, and not to plant too many kinds except 
for experiment. To those who have com- 
mitted the error of planting northern varie- 
ties, which have turned out to be fall apples 
in tills section, we would say, take them up 
and replace them with such as are better 
adapted to their locality and soil. The fol- 
lowing list has proven of merit : 
Summer Apples. 

All Summer, Early Harvest, and Duchess 
of Oldenburg. 

Autumn Apples. 

Maiden's Blush, Fall Pippin, Mellinger, 
Benoui, Smokehouse, Rambo, Pound, Penn- 
sylvania Eedstreak, and Early Winter. 
Winter Apples. 

Smith's Cider, York Imperial, Romanite, 
Ewalt, Dommie, Rome Beauty, and Winesap. 

Bartlett, Seckel, Lawrence, Howell, Man- 
ning's Elizabeth, and Sheldon. 

Moimtain Rose, Early Crawford, Late Craw- 
ford, Smock's Late, Sulway, Stump the 
World, Mixon Free, and Reeves Favorite. 

Concord, Martha, and Telegraph. 


Charles Downing, Wilson's Albany, and 
Boyden No. 30. 


Branchwine, Philadelphia, Drobittle, and 
Black Cap. 


Kittatinny, Lawton, and Wilson. 
There are other varieties of fruits that are 
not generally known, some of which may be 
equally as valuable as those above named, but 
should be further tested before they are recom- 
mended for general cultivation. 

M. D. Kendig, 
H. M. Engle, 
L. S. Reist. 
Lancaster, March 4, 1878. 


Mr. D. S., Lancaster, Fa.' — The pear branch 
you sent us, "scored and grooved in various 
directions," was no doubt infested by the 
larva of a small "Tyiiographer beetle," (Scol- 
ytus piyri) although we were not able to find 
any of the "worms" in it. There are a num- 
ber of these little insects that injure various 
kinds of trees, sometimes called "Blight bee- 
tles." They are about an eighth of an inch 
long and of a black or brown color. The 
only way to destroy them is to cut off the 
infested branches and burn them. The ex- 
ternal appearance of the branch will generally 
show where they are located. 

Mr. S. S. S., Lancaster, Pa. — The small- 
winged insects so numerously issuing from 
the window frames and other wood work 
about No. 2 cotton mill, are "American Ter- 
mites," [Termes frontalis) and represent the 
Termites, or "White Ants" of Asia and 
Africa. They are wood-boring insects, only 
coming forth during their nuptial or swarm- 
ing season, once a year. We have never 
observed them heretofore so early in the sea- 
son as the 8th day of March. We have 
noticed them issuing from several old buildings 
in North Queen street, between Lemon and 
James streets, but, there they usually appear 
in "swallow time," about the end of April 
or first of May, and we have noticed these for 
twenty-five years in succession. People some- 
times confound them with small species of 
"Pearl-flies," {Perla) otherwise called "Shad- 
flies," but this is quite a mistake, for the 
larvce. of the Pearl-flies live in the water, whilst 
these excavate the wood-work of houses, and 
especially old houses. The remedy is to cap- 
ture them as they come forth in the spring, 
and tlien to paint or whitewash the places 
from which they came. See the history of 
Termites, of Asia and Africa, where they de- 
structively abound. 



One bushel of sugar beets properly rasped 
and pressed, will yield five gallons of juice, 
which, treated the same as cider is, will make 
a stronger vinegar, of as good but diflerent 
flavor, and in making cider, nine bushels of 
apples and one of sugar beets will make a 
cider superior to apples alone. Eveiy farmer 
can raise sugar beets, and with the juice ex- 
pressed at the cider mill, make all the vinegar 
he wants for his own use and have a surplus 
for sale. Witli vinegar at a price it could be 
made for from beets, its consumption would 
be increased, as it would enter into many 
articles of manufacture from which the price 
now precludes it. When it is found how 
cheap sugar beets can be raised, and their 
value for vinegar as well as food for stock, 
tliey will be grown more. The best juice can 
also be worked into sugar as easily as maple 
sugar now is, and requires no more skill. — 
Andrew H. Ward, Bridgewater, 3Iass. 


Mr. Wilson Bard, of Oregon, Manheim 
twp., Lancaster county, has cultivated on his 
premises a horse-raddish, with three branch- 
ing tap-roots, 3 feet 10 inches in length, 21 
inches in diameter, and weighing about 10 
pounds. If anybody in or out of the county 
can beat that let them say so. 





■Winners of highest Ccntenninl mcdiil. 
Bred by Benson & Burpee, Pliihuleliihia. 
Ur;iwn from life, immediately after the close 
of the Centennial. Brown I,eghorns. although 
only recently brought prominently before the 
public, have attained a popularity excelled by 
no other variety. They are well deserving of 
all that can be said in their favor ; in beauty 
of jilumage and form they an; equaled by 
none ; in economical merits they have no 
superior. They are not so widely known or 
so common as the white variety, and are 
much more dillicult to breed true to feather. 
In breeding no variety, is the adage "blood 
will tell," better illustrated. These fowls 
have large, solid white ear-lobes, correct 
combs and bright yellow legs, united with 
symmetry and elegance of form. The i)ullets 
are most delicately, marked with beautiful ma- 
roon breasts of that deep rich shade so highly 
esteemed and so ditficultto attain. Cockerels 
have solid black breasts, and resemble the 
black-red game in plumage. The stock of the 
above named firm has been bred with the 
greatest care, and is admitted to be very 

Bred in 1875, from two 

flocks, headed by "All Right" 

and "Philadelphia First." 
"All Right" figured 91 points 

as a cockerel, at Hartford, 

January, 1875; pullet "Ilart- ^^ 

ford Best," figured 93 points 

^they were the best pair on Jig: 

exhibition. " Philadelphia ^g^ 

First," with mates, won the S 

first premium at the Fancier's = 

Show, and first prize and " 

special for best pen of Leg- 

horus of any variety, at the 

Pennsylvania State Show, in 

1874 and 1875. "All Right" 

is deceased, but in his stead 

is a cock that will figure sev- 
eral points ahead of him. A 

young cockerel of this brood 

has been sold by Mr. Burpee 

as high as $40. 

fillers, if saved at all. We may estimate the 
number of wrapper leaves on a stalk to bo 
nine, and that on an average, one on each 
stock gets broken, the loss would etpial the 
ninth part of the quantity of wrajjpers pro- 
duced. This may surprise some. This esti- 
mate, however, is not immoderate. 

]5ut the breaking of leaves is not unfre- 
quently the most .serious injury which the 
tobacco receives on the field after it is cut oil. 
Tobacco when cut and allowed to be on the 
field for thirty minutes exposed to the hot sun 
will be badly burned. A leaf so damaged is 
useless for any purpose excepting to put on 
the manure pile. The spots on the leopard 
are not more firmly fixed than the (/reen brittle 
blotches caused by sun-burn. Should a tobacco 
merchant see sun-burnt leaves in a crop he 
purchased, he will have them pulled out as 
cleaidy as any one would imll out of his gar- 
den poisonous weeds should he see any 

A custom also prevails, in a portion of this 
county, which is most, iiernicious. I refer to 
the hanging up of tobacco on the field and 
allowing it to hang there for an indefinite 


"Preparing tobacco for 
market," may properly be 
said te commence with cut- 
ting it off. 

When Should it Be Cut? 

Tobacco should be cut, 
when, by doubling the leaf 
under, it breaks. Before it is 
ripe, a leaf will not break, neither by doub- 
ling it under or over. Tobacco should not be 
allowed to stand till it is overly ripe. When 
the color of the leaf assumes the .shade of the 
olive, or when it will break as above stated, 
it should be cut ; then it will cure on the pole 
to a delicate tea color, be firm and elastic and 
be all the manufacturer could desire. Some 
farmers are under the impression that a crop 
gets heavier by not cutting it till the leaves 
have turned quite yellowish and thick. This 
impression is correct. But such over-ripe 
tobacco will cin-e yellow — it will have lost its 
native elasticity and will be very brittle. 
AVill the gain of perhaps 5 per cent, of weight 
not be more than neutralized by an inevitable 
loss of from 40 to 50 per cent, of original 
value ? Is it not more profitable to sell 1,800 
1 bs. of leaf at 10 cents, than 2,000 lbs. at 7 
cents, or even for less. 

How Should it Be Handled When Cut? 

With all possible care. Persons without 
much experience in tobacco farming have no 
idea of the tenderness of the plant and the 
injury it is liable to sustain if not carefully 
and properly handled. Leaves will break 
from the weight of the stalk if not carefully 

weather. Thus expo.sed the sun broils it — 
the rains wash off the gum from the leaves — 
it becomes brash — a fit condition for the 
storm winds when they smrji through it, to 
tear and break up completely. A cvop so 
treated will not be bought, since its true 
character has become known to the trade, 
excepting at a very low price for export to use 
for a low grade of smoking tobacco. It may 
be hung up in the field to wilt, but should he 
boused before it rains on it. 

Housing Tobacco 

is the next thing in order. To cure well on 
the jiole, the shed or barn should be well venti- 
lated; with convenience tocloseu]) during pro- 
tracted spells of dani|) weather until thoroughly 
aged. Tobacco so damasrcd is known as 
pole or shed-burnt. In years when the sea- 
son of growing is most favorable — when the 
croiis are large and fine — in those years' crojjs 
is found to be the largest quantity of shed 
burnt tobacco. A building 24 by 24 feet, 17 
feet high with comb roof will accommodate 
the ])roducts of an acre, sujiposing that it was 
planted the proper distance apart, viz : '.\k 
feet one way by 2i feet the other way. What 
farmers, in this age and this country, would 

laid down when cut off ; and a leaf broken at ] think of growing a crop of corn witiiout ]>ro- 
this stage, no matter how large and fine, if i vidiug jiroper and sullicient room to house it ? 
not lost before it is housed, must go to the | Yet, tobacco may be seen hanging up, not in 

sheds or barns iiiei)ar(d for that purpose, but 
above ben-ruosts and wagon sheds and on 
garrets, the most inconvenient and unsuitable 
places; where, to hang it, it gels torn— and 
to take it down, it gets more torn. Is it not 
as necessary, and will the investment not i>ay 
as well, to erect i)roper and convenient build- 
ings to house tobacco as any other crop. 
However, this shiftless way of housing tobacco 
in this county is not the rule but the excep- 
tion. Many have erected suitable buildings 
with all the conveniences to house their croi)s; 
and it is a pleasure to the buyer when he 
comes along to look at the crops so provided 

Stripping Tobacco 

should never be done before the sap has dried 
out of the stems thoroughly— when thoy will 
break like glass ; then as soon as tiie leaves, 
together with the stems, have got soft and 
pliable again from moisture of the atmos- 
phere, it may safely be stripped. If the crop 
was cut early, it will be sulficiently cured 
to strip by the first of .Tanuary. If the sap 
is not all dried out of the stems, they will 
rot when the tobacco is bulked down and will 
imimrt :i very unpleasant odor to the .soimd 
',;W.3ft't'iif in the bulk. Sometimes 
J^when the stems have much 
■ia]i when stripped, the whole 
liulk of tobacco will be dam- 
aged thereby. 

Assorting Tobacco 

pro|)erly into grades is of the' imjiortance. A crop, 
no matter how luxuriantly it 
grows in size and finenes.s — 
m matter how carefully it 
was handled when cut and 
housed — no matter how well 
it was cured on the pole — if it 
i< not projierly assorted into 
grades and sizes when .strip- 
p:'d, the farmer iiays dearly 
fur such carelessness. All 
the hanks of many a crop of 
dbacco after being sold are 
igain opened by the buyer 
uid re-assorted and .sized 
leforc he i)acks it in 
This work is attended with 
the expense of from one to 
wo cents a pound which the 
luyer pays to have it done. 
s it not reasonable, that the 
luyer, for his own protection, 
nust buy tobacco for at least 
wo cents tmder its intrinsic 
market value or he would 
• money? If he would 
not, it would only be a question of time when 
his capital would be sunk and he would be 
obliged to quit the field. 

How should it be assorted '? Into as many 
sorts as there are grades and sizes. This will 
make fillers, binders, and three or four sizes 
of wrappers. IIow is this to be done ? 

Erect tables, at least six feet long and 
three feet wide. This will accommodate a 
set of strippers which shoidd, for convenience 
sake, consist of three persons. One person to 
strip the leaves oft' from the stalk ; one per- 
son to assort them ; and one person to tie 
them into hanks. 

The strip|)er takes off all the ground leaves 
and places them on the table ; the assortcr 
will assort them into fillers and binders. Then 
the strijiper will take off the balance of the 
leaves on the stalk. Then the assorter will 
pick out all the worm-eaten and torn leaves, 
if they don't make good binders thejf must 
go to the filler pile ; then he will assort the 
balance, which are good leaves, into not less 
than two sizes. This is the way tliat every 
stalk should be strijiped and assorted. AVheu- 
ever there are from 18 to 20 leaves on the 
filler pile, the tier will tie them into a hank ; 
when there are from 12 to IS leaves on the 
binder pile, he will tie them into a hank ; and 
when there are from 8 to 12 leaves on a wrap- 



[ March, 

per pile, he will tie them into a hank. He 
will bulk the filler hanks on a pile, the binders 
on another and several sizes of wrappers on 
another. Great care should be taken that the 
tobacco, after being stripped, does not dry out. 
The top of the bulk of the tobacco should be 
covered with boards and a few hundred pounds 
of i^ressure placed thereon to press it down. 

Under no consideration should tobacco be 
tied up in bundles before it is sold. When so 
tied up, it dries out rapidly, the loss .sometimes 
being as high as 5 per cent, in a month's time, 
and, in consequence of its loss of moisture, it 
can not possibly cure well. 

When the tobacco has been stripped, as 
stated, it is "prepared for market." In my 
first communication I stated how "tobacco 
seed may be Improved ;" in the foregoing I 
endeavored to state briefly how to "prepare 
tobacco for market. " Tlie subject of "grow- 
ing tobacco," of paramount importance, is re- 
served for another occasion. — I. W. 0. Wier- 

[Stenopalniata Talpa.) 

East Oakland, Alamedo County, 
California, February 9, 1S78. 
Prof. S. S. Rathvon, Lancastek Citt, Pa. — 
Dear Sir. — In your letter to the Rural Press, of No- 
vember 3d, you requested a few specimens of the 
sienopalmata talpa. I eend you five by mail with 
this. The large ones are nearly as fine specimens as 
I have seen. Presuming that you have had no oppor- 
tunity to study their habits, perhaps a few words 
may not prove uninteresting. They burrow from a 
few inches to three or four feet in depth, in dry soils, 
leaving the hole open to the surface, only coming to 
the top for exploration, which is generally in the 
evening or night time, and are rather slow travelers. 
When domiciled in a hill of potatoes, they are reluc- 
tant to change their quarters, and will sometimes 
tunnel completely through a large potato, at other 
times excavate them to the depth of an inch or more, 
often destroying three or four potatoes in one hill. 
They display the most undaunted courage in attack 
and defense of their kind. When one has his own 
grounds, he admits no intruding neighbor, unless 
possessed of greater strength than himself, and will 
defend his own to the death. Only one is ever found 
in one hill of potatoes. I placed one of the larger 
ones in a tinliox, with one a little smaller, and in a 
few hours, on examination, I found only a portion of 
the legs of the smaller one ; the large one had killed 
and eaten his companion. I then put two of about 
equal size and strength into a cup, and an immediate 
battle was the result ; they attacked each other with 
great desperation, and could only be separated by 
using sufJicient force to nearly tear the legs from the 
body. I have never had an opportunity to see an 
encounter with other than their own kind. They 
thrive best in a dry season ; sometimes by thorough ly 
saturating the ground they will come to the surface. 
I am under obligations to you for giving the informa- 
tion that I could not find in any work here. — Yuurs 
very truly, A. L. Fuller, 

[We are greatly obliged to our correspondent 
for the five specimens of the above named 
insect, and doubly so for his remarks on their 
history and habits. We had received speci- 
mens of these insects from near Sacrameuto, 
California, at least twenty years ago, but 
unaccompanied by a single word relating to 
their history or habits ; but at the same time 
we suspected that they might approximate, in 
this respect, to the liabits of our wingless 
"wood -cricket," (Phalawjopsis maculata) 
which we sometimes find in cavities, crevices, 
or under the loose bark of much decayed 
timber, under or near the surface of the 

Altliough this California insect, from its 
habits of depredating upon the potato tuber 
is herbiverous, yet from the fact that when 
confined together — according to the observa- 
tions of Mr. Fuller — they devour each other, 
we may conclude that it is also carnivorous. 
Indeed, this characteristic attaches to many 
of this family of insects, if not to the wliole 
of them. On one particular occasion, during 
an unusually warm and sunny afternoon in 
the month of November, we discovered hun- 
dreds of our common field-crickets, feasting 
upon the lacerated body of a dead calf, which 
seemed to have met a violent death the pre- 
vious night, perhaps by vicious dogs. Wher- 

ever the flesh was exposed, through ruptures 
of the skin, the crickets were engaged in 
devouring it with the seeming rapacity of as 
many turkey-buzzards ; nor did they heed our 
presence any more than they would have 
heeded a "stock or a stone." On several 
subsequent occasions, we have found them 
under similar circumstances. This carnivor- 
ous character of the California species, under 
consideration, together with their habit of 
coming forth from their burrows in the evening 
or during the night — a characteristic common 
to marauding carnivora of a number of 
species — may suggest a plan for their de- 
struction, by setting traps for them, baited 
with some kind of fresh flesh. We have 
never noticed crickets devouring putrid 
or decomposed animal flesh, and probably they 
never do. The form of the trap, of course, 
would devolve upon the ingenuity of the 
trapper, or contiguous circumstances. Some 
insects seem to be highly endowed with the 
sense of smell, and an alluring bait will often 
draw them from a considerable distance. 

During one of our Tucquan fishing excur- 
sions to the Susquehanna river, we had pro- 
vided several cylindrical tin boxes of angle- 
worms, {lumbricus terrestris) to be used as bait. 
The weather being warm, these boxes were 
buried vertically in the sand at various places 
where they would be most convenient to the 
fishermen, and most protected against the 
rays of the sun. On the last day of the encamp- 
ment, and about an hour before the order to 
"strike tents," we discovered the end of one 
of these boxes projecting above the surface of 
the sand, and as it was one of the largest, and 
had an aperture of about an inch in diameter 
in the lid, for ventilation, we concluded to 
save it for another occasion. The remaining 
worms had died, and from the hole in the lid 
issued a strong stench. On raising it up we 
were surprised to find it about half full of 
various species of "carrion-beetles," "burying 
beetles," &c., including the genera necropho- 
rus, necrodes, oiceoptoma, thanatophilus, silpha, 
nitidula, phenohia, ips, stcqihilhnis, &c. , &c., a 
greater haul tlian we had made during the 
whole four days encampment. 

Now, this experience may suggest a similar 
trap for the successful capture of this pugna- 
cious potato-eater. Perhaps the discovery of 
the best kind of bait to decoy them into the 
trap, would be the most important considera- 
tion. Tlie putrid stench was the attraction 
in our trap, but the stenopahnata, belonging 
to a different order, (orthoptera) may re- 
quire a different bait, and by experimenting 
with different kinds, the right one may be 
eventually found. We offer these suggestions 
for what they are worth. — Ed.] 


The iradersigned, one of the visiting com- 
mittee appointed at a meeting of the "To- 
bacco Growers' Association of Lancaster 
county," begs leave to submit tlie following 
as a part of the labors of said committee, so 
far as relates to his own personal attention to 
the subject in hand. 

My first day's visit was at the house of 
Henry Shaffner, of Mount Joy. Saw a lot of 
tobacco which was grown on li acres of 
ground the second year. Fine, dark color, 
and mostly triple A. Florida and Connecti- 
cut seed, cidtivated by first scoring, and hoed 
in for the hill to plant on. Kows .3 feet apart ; 
26 inches on the row. Favors plaster of Paris 
as a fertilizer. Tobacco well assorted, which 
we could not but expect from an intelligent 
tobacco grower and packer. 

My ne.rt visit was to C. R. Stauffer ; 2J- 
acres, Florida seed, second year's growth on 
the same ground — in an orchard — a good av- 
erage lot. 

Third visit, at the house of Jacob Shirk, 
Bird-in-Hand; 11 acres, mostly raised on new 
land. Large and leafy, fine and very fine. 
Cultivated by throwing two furrows together 
with the plow, cut down to plant in. After 
exhibiting his possessions, he took us to the 
hotel and gave us our dinner and had our ani- 

mals fed at his own expense, for which we 
kindly thanked him. 

Om fourth visit was at the home of Solomon 
Groflf; 14 acres, scored and hoed in to set 
the plants. Used guano, ashes and plaster in 
the hills. A fine lot and a very fine quality. 

The fifth visit was to Mr. Shank, at the Gap ; 
3 acres, fair, mostly double A. Planted alter- 
nately 4 feet and 3 feet apart in rows, 28 
inches apart on the row. 

Sixth visit, to Isaac Eby ; 5 acres, 4 feet 
apart and 28 inches on rows, crop fair. 

Seventh, to William Hamilton ; 3 acres, dark 
and leafy. Mostly A and AA, very good. 
Here we were treated to apples and cider. 

Eighth, to Squire Slay maker ; quality A. A.-, 
dark color, and well assorted. 

John Keneagy, 6 acres, mostly A. A., and 
dark in color. 

Tenth visit to John Kennedy ; 6 acres, 
pretty fine lot of AA. Mr. K. is willing to 
learn, and is experimenting to get on the 
right track, and doubtless before long he wiU 
be one of the first on the list in securing good 
quality and prices. Here we were treated to 
a fine turkey dinner, of which we were not 
slow to partake. We took the cars at Kin- 
zers' station for Lancaster and home. 

As a county, Lancaster makes a clever 
show in the tobacco growing world, but as a 
State we are but a "drop in the bucket," 
when compared with other States. In 1876 
we had but 9,565 acres in tobacco, whilst 
Maryland had 31,159 acres ; Virginia had 
82,166 acres ; North Carolina 29,500 acres ; 
Tennessee 51,111 acres ; Kentucky 188,235 
acres ; Ohio 32,716 acres ; Missouri 53,800 
acres, and Alabama 22,000 acres. — Respectfully 
suhmitted, Henry Kurtz. 


In entering upon this subject to-day, I want 
to forewarn you not to anticipate anything 
very new or startling. 

The subject has been so thoroughly gone 
over, by intelligent farmers and scientific men, 
that it is hardly to be hoped that I can throw 
any additional light upon it. 

But it is one of those questions that are 
ever new and interesting ; that will bear line 
upon line, and precept upon precept, and the 
discussion of which, slowly but surely, leads 
to a better general understanding of the prin- 
ciples involved in agricultiu'al improvements. 
Trusting, therefore, to your forebearance, 
while recalling points and facts with which 
you are already familiar, I will enter upon 
this subject by discussing it under these head : 

First. Commercial fertilizers : Their need 
and application. 

Second. Barn-yard manures and their ac- 

Third. Soil improvement by thorough pul- 

When we consider how small a proportion 
of plant organism is made up of inorganic or 
mineral matters — (9-10 of plant substance 
being obtained from the air) — and how few 
of them are ever deficient in our soils ; we 
might readily that soil fertilization 
was an easy and simple matter. It has been 
found, that as a rule, only three substances 
were needful as apjiiications to secure good 
plant growth, viz: Pho.sphate of lime — potash 
and ammonia ; and as it is easily ascertained 
how much of any, or all of these, ai'e required 
for any desired crop, the question oi fertilizer 
application would seem to be susceptible of 
a jirecise mathematical solution : 

Especially so, as we can ascertain to a rea- 
sonable certainty the amount of these ingre- 
dients already in the soil upon which we 
propose to grow these crops. But when we 
come to put in practice this supposed precise 
knowledge, we find there are mysterious ac- 
tions and counter-actions, not only diflicult to 
understand, but impossible to wholly control. 

Notwithstanding the great increase of our 
knowledge of agricultural chemistry, there 
are many things in God's laboratory of the 

"^-Read before the Lancaster County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, by John I. Carter, 




soil, difficult to understaiid, and the changes 
and alterations going on in it are impossible 
to foretell or calcidate upon. We compre- 
hend this difficulty when we remember that 
woody-liljer — gum, starch and grape-sugar 
are all composed of equal quantities of the 
former original principles, vi/ : C.12 11.10 
V.IO — and yet we see how differently they 
ai)pear to us. Hence when we apply a certain 
number of pounds of i)otash to a a soil deti- 
cient in that ingredient — we must not assume 
that the same potash will be found in tlie ash 
of the plant grown ! But because axiomatic 
knowledge may be beyond our reach at i)re- 
sent, is no reason we sliould refuse the aid of 
the light already gained. Exceptions to rules 
may make results uncertain, and their appli- 
cation in many cases extremely diffieull — but 
established rules or principles should be ac- 
cepted as guides and landmarks, regulating 
our practices, to a certain extent at least. 
Now we are told that a crop of •2^^ bushels of 
wheat and its corresponding weiglit of straw, 
say ;!000 lbs. contain 40.40 lbs. "of nitrogen, 
21 ft)s. of phosphoric acid, 30.12 lbs. of ijotash 
and 9 lt)S. of lime. 

If we fail to grow a crop of thi.s quantity 
per acre, and we have given the soil a fair 
preparation, and no climate or inseetiverous 
trouble has interfered with its growth or 
maturity, we are justified in assuming that 
there is a deficiency in the soil, of some or all 
of the above elements — at least in an avail- 
able form — and it is our duty to set about as- 
certaining the character of this deficiencj', and 
the cheapest and the readiest way of supply- 
ing it — but this may involve considerable 
labor and trouble, because our soils are so 
difEerent, that one farmer's experience is 
hardly a safe guide for others, and each must 
carry on a series of experiments, that will be 
interesting and valuable it is true, but some- 
what expensive. 

I have prepared a series of tables, giving 
the amount of the mineral elements in our 
most important crops — and the kind and 
amount of commercial fertilizers we can buy 
to supply them. Of course the markets otter 
many fertilizers furnishing the needed ingre- 
dients, but I have selected for this table those 
manufactured and sold by Baugh & Son, of 
Philadelphia, l)ecause they are perfectly reli- 
able parties, and their goods of guaranteed 
quality. I will also giv« the country retail 
price as near as I can, but of course that will 
vary with distance and other circmiistances. 

Corn — for 50 bushels of grain, and 4,000 
•fts of fodder, we have in 

Nitroeen. Phos. Acid. Potash. Lime. 
The ffrain 44..50 lbs. 17.76 10.72 Ifi 

The fodder 19.00 " 14. 63.80 18 

The requisite quantities of these articles 
can be bought in the following fertilizers : 

Per Ton. 
63. .50 lbs of nitropren in 470 lbs of a. a. nitrogen |48 
31.76 " phos. acid in 103 " chal. super, phos. 6.5 
84. .53 " potash in 565 " sulph. potash 16 

Oats— in 40 bushels of oats and 2,000 lbs. 


Phos. Acid. 



Grain, 24..53 lbs 

8. .31 tbs 

6.25 lbs 


Straw, 12.20 " 

5.76 " 

28.10 " 


Furnished as follows : 

35.72 tbs nitrogen in 264 tbs of a. a. nitrogen at ?48 

14.87 " phos. acid in 45 " chal. super, phos. at 65 

34.35 "potash in 240 " sulph. of potash at 16 

In 23 bushels of wheat and 2,500 lbs of 

Nitrogen. Phos. Acid. Potash. Lime. 

Grain, 31 ,25 tbs 14.36 tbs 960 tbs 1.0 

Straw, 14.00 " 6.70 " 15.76 " 8.68 

AVe can furnish these as follows : 
The 45.25 nitrogen in .">35 tbs of a. a. nitrogeo. 

21.06 tbs phos. acid in 68 lbs chal. super, phos. 
25.30 lbs potash in 170 tbs sulph. of potash. 

In clover — 2 tons. 
Nitrogen. Phos. Acid. Potash. Lime. 

78.80 lbs 22.40 73.20 39.44 

We can procuie the nitrogen fron 583 ttis of 
a. a. nitrogen, the phos. acid from 70 ttiS chal- 
lenge, the potash from 500 lbs sulphate of 

In timothy — 2 tons. 
Nitrogen. Phos. Acid. Potash. Lime. 

62 fts ■ 28.80 lbs 81.60 tbs 22.56 lbs 

Furnished by 459 lbs. a. a. nitrogen, 92 lbs. 
of challeuge super, phos., 550 lt>s. sulphate of 

In 1,800 tt)S of tobacco— in the 

Nitrogen. Phoe. Acid. Potash. 
Leaf 49.00 lbs. 7..50 fts. 71 fts. 

Stalk 33 lbs. 15.00 fts. 47 fts. 

To furnish these take 007 ftis of a. a. nitro- 
gen, 72 tbs challenge and 788 tbs of sidphate 
of potash. 

TlKue are other sources of supply for tliese 
ingredients. For instance the nitrogen may 
be supplied by sulph.ate, of annnonia costing 
$100 to S120 per ton— containing about 500 
Itis of nitrogen — while the a. a. nitrogen con- 
tains 270 ftjs per ton and costs $48, and in- 
stead of the challenge super iihosphatc cost- 
ing $05, and containing 020 lt)S of available 
phosphoric acid, we could use a common acid 
or rock phosphate, analyzing, say 12 percent, 
or containing 240 Itis of available phosphoric 
acid, and costing $28 per ton, or instead of 
sulphate of potash, containing 14 per cent, of 
potassium or 2.S0 ftis per ton — and costing $10, 
we could use muriate of potash, containing 
44 per cent, potash or 880 ttis, and costing $38. 
The potash from the sulphate is reckoned the 
most assimilable. 

Of course these ingredients can also be fur- 
nished in barn-yard manure, but owing to the 
diflerence in its quality and condition, it is 
very difficult to make any definite calculation 
about it— and if we take the usual estimation 
of the value of ash ingredients, we will find 
barn-j'ard manure a very dear way of supjily- 
ing theiu, if we have to purchase it at the 
usual rates. A ton of l)arn-yard manure con- 
tains about 9 ttis of nitrogen, 42 Itis phos- 
phoric acid, and 10.4 tt)s potash ; hence to 
produce a crop of 1,800 fts of tobacco, which 
according to the foregoing tables, contains 
82 lbs of nitrogen, we would have to use 9 
tons of manure ; to furnish the phosphoric 
acid would take 5 tons, and the potash 11 
tons ! Hence to supply the requisite amount 
of potash for a good crop of tobacco, it would 
take about 4 cords of manure, at a cost of $8 
to $10 per cord, whilst the same amount of 
potash could be bought in the form of sul- 
phate of potash for 6.28 cents. 

But there is a growing dissatisfaction in the 
minds of practical and observing farmers, as 
to the value of nitrogenous manures, or 
of the application of nitrogen or ammonia 
in its commercial foi ms, that its cost is 
too great, that it is merely stimulating, and 
too transient in its effects, and that by supply- 
ing the other ash ingredients in requisite 
form and quantity — and giving the soil per- 
fect tillage — the needed nitrogen will be su])- 
plied, from outside sources. Prof. Sliarii, of 
Baltimore, carries this idea so far as to assert 
that a cord of barn-yard manure btu'ned, and 
the ash applied, may do as much good as the 
unburned manure. Of course this ignores 
any good result from the mechanical effect of 
bulking manure upon the soil, as an ameliora- 
tor, wliich under many circumstances are im- 
portant, but perhaps not so important as is 
usually supposed, and I think the time is not 
distant when thorough pulverization and 
good tillage will be luade to supply the place 
to some extent of those bulky fertilizers, as 
soil ameliorators. By the way a notable illus- 
tration of this idea is given in an experiment 
of a correspondent of the Countrn Gentleman, 
who applied 24 loads of good barn-yanl 
manure, to two acres for fodder corn. The 
ground was worked as usual, while two ad- 
joining acres, upon which no manure was 
applied, wasreplowed, cultivated three times, 
and made as tine as a garden. Otherwise 
both lots were i>lanted alike. The manured 
lot made twenty-two tons, the other twenty- 
eight tons — the extra work which was reck- 
oned at $4 standing against the twenty-four 
loads of manure. "The explanation of this 
result is, probably, that the complete sub- 
division of the soil, rendered available each 
particle of plant food; the roots had free 

access to them, and the aeration attbrded by 
the thorough pulverization, offered every 
facility for the absori)tion of nitrogen from 
the air, or for such chemical changes as 
secured this result. But to take up again the 
consideration of the nitrogcmous or ammo- 
niated niannres, and to show their inconsid- 
erable value with us, I might give tlie results 
of some r)f our experiments with them on 
conunon farm crops. These residts will show 
how poor and transient the action of the 
ammoniacal fertilizers, and that even barn- 
yard manure, whose chi(;f value was supposed 
to be in its nitrogen, makes rather a sorry 
showing, compared with the phosphatic fer- 
tilizers. We have attempted to account for 
this, on the ground tliat one .soil may 
already be well enough su|)plied with nitro- 
genous matter in the form of grass roots and 
decaying vegetable substances, but it may 
rather bo due to the needed supply of nitro- 
gen coming from some other source, as is 
lield by Prof. .Sharp and others. 
To he Contimied.) 


Mr. Puesident. — To give this meeting of 
intelligent fruit growers a dissertation on 
"Pennsylvania Ajjples for Export,"' while 
our State instead of exporting is annually im- 
porting thousands of barrels of apples for 
home consumption, must be considered in the 
])rospectivc. It is, however, not asserted here 
that Pennsylvania does not export any ajjples, 
for some of the western counties have fallen 
in line with the Xew York trade, but our 
trade is so insignificant that it is scarcely 
worthy of notice, compared with that of New 
York and several other States. That Penn- 
sylvania to-day might be rivaling any State 
ill the Union, "in the exporting of apples, had 
she pursued a course similar to that of other 
States now so far advanced in this branch of 
industry, your essayist fn-mly believes. 

Had "Pennsylvania fruit growers formed 
active societies as early as New England and 
New York did, and made etlbrts to dissemi- 
nate and establish, a reputation for the best 
and most reliable apples, native to the State, 
and at the same time dill'u.sed information ne- 
cessary to the planting and management of 
orchards, as well as the picking, handling and 
marketing of their fruits, the commercial 
value of our orchard products would amount 
to hundreds of thousands of dollars annu- 
ally; but instead of taking an independent 
course, we simply aped after New England 
and New York, taking for granted that the 
varieties that succeeded there, were just what 
irc wanted, and thus have for the last twenty- 
live or thirty years planted northern and 
northeastern winter apples trees, and have 
harvested fall apples. No wonder we don't 
export. Now, what makes the present aspect 
the more humiliating is, that all the while 
Pennsylvania had apples, native or otherwise, 
just as good as that been disseminated 
in consequence of their iiopularily at home, 
and just as well adapted to her soils and lati- 
tude as those of other latitudes were to their 
native place. It is not claimed that fruits do 
not succeed except in the vicinity where they 
originated, but it is conceded that varieties of 
fruTt that give satisfaction everywhere are 
few and far between. Under these circum- 
stances your essayist feels more disposed to 
lectiu-e Pennsylvanians for our short-sighted- 
ness in the past, than to tell us what apples to 
export while we have none ; besides, if we 
had them, it is oidv the few that would know 
how to manage them properly for exporting. 

I am, however, gratified to announce that a 
new era has oiiened for our State. By the 
diffusion of pomological knowledge, many of 
our citizens have learned to know the com- 
mercial value of apples in other States, as 
well as the steadily increasing demand abroad 
for the same ; they have also learned to know 
our mistake in the selection of winter varieties, 

•Read bv Henry M. Engle, of Marie'ta, Pa , before the 
Pennsylvania Frlil Growers' AsBoclation. at tbelr annnal 
meeting at Williamnport, on January 16, 1878. 




which onlj' are vaUiable for export. It is 
therefore claimed, that we are rather in a 
transition state, which should tend to repair 
in the next quarter of a century what we 
have lost in the last, in the apple business, by 
not being sufficiently wide awake. My sub- 
ject, however, is "Pennsylvania Apples for 
Export. " I shall consider Pennsylvania seed- 
lings first. I do not see why Smith's Cider 
and York Imperial might not become as pop- 
ular abroad as at home. The former is no 
doubt the most reliable winter apple in Eastern 
Pennsylvania, and York Imperial very little 
behind ; both are showy, of good quality, re- 
liable bearers and good keepers. York Stripe 
is larger, more showy and of better quality 
than either, but perhaps not quite so good a 
keeper. Should it prove as reliable a bearer, 
it is destined to become one of our most valu- 
able winter apples, and therefore may come 
in competition with the best northern apples 
in foreign markets. Belmont. — It seems 
strange that an apple with so many excellent 
qualities should have been so long overlooked 
in its native State, while it became very pop- 
ular abroad. I would bespeak for this apple 
a promising future, when our State goes into 
the exporting business. Smokehouse, al- 
though not a very attractive name, there is 
nothing smoky about it. I know of no apple 
that is more sought for in its season where it 
is known, and it will become popular whenever 
it can be obtained in perfection ; and if its 
season could be extended a month or two it 
would rank among the most promising for ex- 
port. Rambo is equally popular with the 
latter, but simply as a dessert apple, maturing 
about the same time, in early winter, which 
will prevent them from becoming very valua- 
ble for export. Ewalt — This fine, large, 
showy apple is looming up in popularity. In 
appearance it has few rivals among winter 
apples. The most that can be said against it 
is that it is rather acid as a dessert apple 
before it is fully ripe, but for culinary uses it 
is No. 1. I have known it to sell in Chestnut 
street, Philadelphia, at $8 per barrel, while 
the price of winter apjiles generally ranged 
from 13 to $i. Should it bear exporting well, 
it would, in my opinion, outsell any other 
American variety now shipped to foreign mar- 
kets. Major and Creek are both new promis- 
ing winter apples of very good quality, and 
worthy of more extended cultivation. In 
addition to these there are many valuable 
native winter apples tliat have only a local 
reputation, some of which will no doubt 
prove equal to any of the generally popular 
kinds. Among the varieties not Pennsylvania 
seedlings, the green Newtown Pippin has in 
some localities succeeded well, and among 
apples shipped to foreign markets, it has thus 
far sold at higher figures than any other. 
AVere the yellow ]5ellflower as firm, so as to 
bear .shipping well, it would be one of the 
most valuable for export. Peck's Pleasant is 
scarcely inferior in flavor to Newtown Pippin, 
of larger size, more showy, and the tree a 
more vigorous grower. I do not see why this 
apple should not stand as high in any market 
as the Newtown Pippin. I would not hesitate 
to plant Rome Beauty and Ben Davis, both of 
which are good, showy and productive, as 
well as good keepers. Romanite — I do not 
see why this show)' and very productive apple 
might not become valuable for export. It is 
of good quality and an excellent keeper, and 
would bear shipping as well as an}' ajjple with 
which I am acquainted. There are, however, 
two varieties disseminated under the same 
name, with synonyms of Gilpin, Carthouse 
and others. They are both southern a])ples, 
and similar in manv respects. lam confident 
that both have been grown in the same 
orchard, under the same name and as the 
same fruit. I believe the above named varie- 
ties have all proven worthy of cultivation in 
some localities in our State, mostly in the 
eastern division. 

There are many other varieties worthy of 
notice, perhaps as valuable for export as 
those just referred to ; but for some time I 
liave been more disposed to strike a number 

from our catalogues, than to add more, unless 
proving of superior merit. I do, however, 
not wish to be understood as discouraging the 
planting in our State, wherever they succeed, 
those excellent northern varieties, which have 
become famous both at home and abroad ; 
for in our northwestern counties they have 
proved much better keepers than in the eastern 
part of the State. The same may be said of 
the higher altitudes of the mountainous sec- 
tions throughout the State to its southern 
border. Therefore, Hubbardston, Baldwin, 
E. Spitzenljerg, Northern Spy, Rhode Island 
Greening, King, American, Golden and Rox 
Russets and other northern apples may prove 
valuable for export in those sections of our 
State just referred to. 

In order to establish a commercial interest 
in the apple trade of our State, more or- 
chards must be planted, and those already es- 
tablished lietter cared for. There are both 
land and capital lying idle, or partly so, to 
pay investors a large profit, and the State a 
commercial income of hundreds of thousands 
of dollars annually. To such as woidd invest 
in this enterprise of apple growing as a busi- 
ness, I would say select a good location for an 
orchard, better a little rough and hilly than 
too low or wet. 

Prepare the ground as you would for a field 
crop, observe the orchards surrounding yours 
close by, and make the largest proportion of 
your list of such varieties that succeed best 
in your neighborhood, and upon similar soils. 
Plant only young thrifty trees, not more than 
three years old, plant not deeper than they 
stood in the nursery, and head in the branches 
at planting, but get and save all the roots 
you can. Mulch your trees the first season 
with manure or any rubbish that will keep the 
earth beneath moist, and cultivate well with 
summer crops for six or eight years at least. 
Plan the shape of your trees from the start, 
and prune so as never to have occasion to cut 
oil large branches. Nothing but finger and 
thumb and pocket knife should ever be used 
for pruning fruit trees while in thrifty condi- 
tion, and such they should always be so long 
as you expect to harvest paying crops from 
them. When the trees commence bearing, 
keep the ground in good fertility with proper 
manures," which should be applied in propor- 
tion to the crops that your trees will yield. 
Keep out borers from trees, and any other in- 
sects injurious to trees and fruit, but especially 
keep down the codling moth, by the applica- 
tion of bands around the stems of tlie trees. 
When the crop is large, thin out as systemati- 
cally as you would your corn when planted 
too thick. All fruits will keep better if not 
left get too ripe on the tree. In gathering fin- 
market, reject all unsound and gnarly speci- 
mens. It will pay to make two or three grades 
of almost any friiit for market purposes, so as 
to have it run uniform. Pack carefully in 
new barrels, but by all means avoid decep- 
tion, which is too common, in which the bar- 
rel is topped off with specimens far above the 
average. Do not close the barrels at once 
unless the weather is quite cool. Press the 
fruit so as not to move in the barrels while 
they are handled. Place in a cool or rather 
cold place until freezing weather. Slight 
freezing after the barrels are closed will not 
injure them, l)ut they nnist not be roughly 
handled in tliat condition. Fix your brand 
on every barrel and also the grade of fruit it 
contains, and build up a reputation that you 
never need be ashamed of. By planting more 
extensively, and following the above direc- 
tions, I will predict that the rising genera- 
tion of our State will be enabled to talk more 
intelligently on Pennsylvania apples for ex- 
port, than your essayist possibly can on this 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 

There was an article in the last number of 
your journal about the Dark Brahmas. I 
suppose your correspondent is acquainted 
with this breed, and if he has any fowls that 
are as nice as the picture in the journal, he 

would not need to be afraid to put his name 
to his writing. It is a fact that they are good 
layers, and as ihothers I have not had much 
experience, but know that they will make 
sufficiently good mothers. And as a table 
fowl, they can not be excelled. And, as to 
feed, they need less than any other breed. 
My pullets are not fat at present, and still 
they weigh nine pounds. Can that be beat ? 
Farmers and poultry raisers ought to look to 
their interest, and always have the best breed. 
And as I have tried a number of kinds, I am 
convinced that this is the best and most pro- 
fitable breed that I ever have had before. 
And if anybody wants any of these kind of 
eggs I would refer him to Simon Heisey, 
Elizabethtown, Lancaster county. Pa., breed- 
er of thoroughbred Dark Bralrma fowls. — 
s. a L. H. 

[The article referred to by our correspon- 
dent, is our own compilation, and relates to 
the Dark Brahma fowls in general ; but as we 
raise none, and have none for sale, it was not 
necessary to append our name to the article. 
The pictures, however, are not exaggerated, 
for we have seen birds as handsome, if not 
handsomer than those respresented. I3ut we 
do not feel called upon to advertise them, 
until application is personally made. In the 
meantime we feel gratified that our corres- 
pondent is a reader of The Farmer, and 
that, experimentally, he is in harmony with 
our views, theoretically expressed. — Editor.] 

For The Lancaster Farmer, 
Eds. Farmer. — Noticing an invitation to 
all farmers to write for The Farmer, I thought 
perhaps it would not come amiss to give some 
new beginners a few hints on grafting and 
setting out trees, as I have had some experi- 
ence in that line for the last forty years. 
When I first began to graft I was taught to 
cut my grafts in February or March, before 
the sap liad risen in the trees, in order to get 
them before the bark got loose, to prevent 
them from peeling while setting them. An- 
other idea they advanced was that, if the 
grafts became a little shriveled they would 
draw the harder on the sap when set, and be 
more likely to grow than they would if taken 
direct from the tree and set. I could not see 
why anything would grow better for being 
nearly killed. It seemed to me that was too 
much like giving a person medicine to make 
him sick, in order to have him recover quickly. 
I went to experimenting on it and found it 
was a humbug, as there was just as much 
danger of the bark starting on the tree as on 
the graft ; so I took to cutting my grafts 
whenever I was ready to set them, and had no 
trouble in making them grow ; in fact, they 
grew quicker and made a better growtli the 
first year, as many of my neighbors can tes- 
tify. I have cut grafts "both early and late, 
frequently so late that the leaves were quite 
large on the graft. In that case I cut the 
leaves off, being careful to not cut the bud 
too close to the graft, and they would soon 
start out fresh again and make a good growth 
that season. The trees which I speak of are 
those that have grown to be quite large with- 
out being grafted. In grafting cherry or pear, 
I generally cut off a small piece and .split it, 
to see whether the tree is winding or not. If 
it is, I cut the bark down as low as I think it 
will split to receive the graft, on both sides of 
the tree, being careful to cut with the wind of 
the tree, and when you split it leave it 
smooth ; otherwise it would not fit to the 
graft and would not grow. In this way I 
have no trouble to make them grow. In 
grafting small trees, from finir to six feet 
high, I top graft by cutting the top six feet 
high, I to)) graft by cutting the top off and 
getting a graft as near the size as possible, 
cutting the same slant, fitting them together, 
winding a little yarn to hold them in place and 
then waxing it over. The yarn is better not 
to be very strong ; some old ravelings are best, 
as they will give when the grafts grow and 
not stop the growth. If the wax is put on so 
as to exclude the ak and rain, I find no trou- 




ble in making tliem grow. I make my graft- 
ing wax luoportioned in this way : Finir parts 
of ro.sin, two of liccswax, one of tallow. It 
stands tlic sini wt'U witlionl melting. 

I will now give my opinion of setting out a 
yonng oruhard. I think it is best to not go 
"below the top soil, in onr clay, to set, but 
rather raise the ground a little, to keep the 
water from settling around the tree. I have 
seen more trees spoiled by being too wet than 
too dry. I hear of a great many complaints 
in regard to the grub destroying trees. I 
mean what .some call Ihe borer. About nine 
times out of ten, I think, the trouble is in 
setting and shading the trees on the south- 
west side. Th(^ trees should be set to lean to 
the southwest, as the strongest winds come 
from that coiu'se in the spring while the 
ground is soft, and foice the trees to the 
northeast ; that gives the sun full jiower in 
the hottest time in summer, about 1 or 2 
o'clock in the day. It cooks the bark on the 
southwest side of the trees, and bugs soon 
smell tlie sap, and deposit the eggs, and in a 
short time you will notice small, dark spots in 
the bark. Examine, and you will fmd a small 
worm, with a head as big as the whole body. 
You can cut them out, or wash with strong 
lye and kill tliem, but put up something to 
sliade the tree. If you take notice, you will 
find the majority lean to the northeast, and 
that is where the trouble lies. — John Heard, 
I'ractieal Farmer. 

and assure him that we shall always l)e pleased 
to hear from him on any subject he may desire 
to ventilate, within the scope of our journal. 

— ElJITt)U. I 

For The Lanoasteh Farmeh. 

I noticed in a late luunber of a horned owl 
having boon presented to the Editor, and am 
not surprised at its being appreciated. This 
variety was scarce in the vicinity of Lancas- 
ter forty years ago. The first, and only one 
I had seen up to my sixteenth year, was on 
the Pecpiea creek, sLx miles southeast of the 
city of Lancaster. 

On moving to Cumberland county, iu 1837, 
we found them so numerous as to be a severe 
tax on the poultry ; mauy a large one did my 
rifle bring down. 

But to find this bird in its glory one must 
be along the Missouri river ; along these high 
bluffs and extensive bottoms of cotton-wood 
and sycamore. Here they hold high carnival 
nightly, and to any one unacquainted with 
their various noises, and who might be a little 
superstitious, would sujipose that he was 
within hearing of the infernal regions. I 
have .shot them by dozens ; have caught some 
Tiirds with Ijare hands, and am therefore not 
afraid of them ; but must confess that when 
passing through the forest on a dark night, 
these birds disturb my nerves. One trait 
about this bird naturalists have not mention- 
ed, and that is, they are ventriloquists. One 
not knowing tliis might think he had half a 
mile to walk to where the sound proceeded 
from. When in fact it is not one hundred 
yards. At other times they may be two miles 
oft" and be supposed to be quite near. When 
two or three are about to pounce upon a hen 
roost, is the time when they seem to bo pos- 
sessed with the vcnj devil. Many a night have 
I been awakened by their fiendish hoots and 
screams, so that I had to go out and tire a 
gun to silence tliem. We liave some other 
rare birds here, a slight sketch of which I can 
give if you think tliey will be wortli their 
room. Eagles and falcons, also ravens, are 
not uncommon here, while the wild geese are 
here all winter and are seen daily. — Samitel 
MiUer, lilnfflim^ Mo., Fehruar;r>f<.' X^TiK 

P. vS. — I was living in the I'equea Valley, 
six miles from I^ancaster, and one-half mile 
west of Musselman's Mill, and lived there until 

[We have never had the pleasure of meet- 
ing our correspondent personally, but through 
the mediumship of our venerable mutual 
friend Mr. J. B. (iarljer, we have known him 
from reputation these many years : and have 
published a number of his contributions iu 
former issues of Tni-; FAioiEts. We thank 
him for this renewal of his literary favors, 

For TuE Lancaster Fabmeii. 
t llrtlrhvrttH yij/f-r.) 
Gcnniin Schwarze Neiswurtz, Laueasler county Dutch — 
Griblltwurtzel — i'CThai.8 from "CllrbtmuS'" — root iustcad of 

We iiresent our readers with a wood cut of 
tlie black hellebore, llower and root. This 
hardy foreigner is remarkable and highly de- 
sirable both for its oiiiauienlal appearance, 
and the fact of imiducing its large while 
flowers from the '_'.">th of December to. lanuary 
— often in bloom about Christmas, whence it 
has obtained the name of " Christmas Hose." 
It has, liowever, no relation with the rose 
family, its acrid character, and deep green 
and pedately divided leaves, shows its atliiiity 

with the "crow-foot family," the liiDnotcu- 
Jarrir, The root is externally very dark, hence 
called black — the word hellebiu'c has reference 
toitsacrid, poisonous (jualities. Dioscoroides, 
who flourished in the reign of Nero, and was 
the author of five books on tlie "Materia 
Mcdica, " extols the medicinal properties of 
this plant. It is a native of mountain woods, 
in many parts of Europe. Gerard introduced 
it into England in l.'j'.lU, therefore it is nothing 
new in ifiself. This I have met with in 
numerous gardens, wliei-e it was cultivated 
for ornament as well as for domestic use. It 
is remarkable that after a long search in my 
medical botany, and other works, I can find 
no notice taken of the great eflicacy of the 
long, round fibres of the root when eni)>loyed 
as a seaton in cattle and hogs, affecteil with 
serious ailments of inflammation. While 
residing at Mount .Toy, I had a very fine hog. 
that staggered about like a drunken man. I 
called the attention of a neighboring farmer 
to it ; he said the best remedy lie knew was 
the black helleliore. I showed him a jilant 
growing in my garden, no doubt planted by 
the former owner, an experienced gardener, 
Jlr. Frederic Eckert. My friend got two 
fibres of the root, ]iiinctured each ear of tlie 
hog with a jien knife, in.serted a fibre in each 
ear, and interlaced the ends. That was all 
that was done ; the setons formed a running 
sore, and in a few weeks the hog was lively 
and as healthy as ever, leaving a large hole in 
each ear, but all healed up. This may be a 
very common experience, and not new to 
maiiy, but if so, I am not aware of it. Wliy 

might it not prove of the greatest eflicacy in 
"hog cholera?" I throw out this hint — lam 
not now in the liog line — to make the experi- 

This ))lant was highly extolled by all the 
early writers as a hydragoguc purgative and 
enimeiiagogne, i. e., for the cure of dropsy 
ami female complaints, mania, cutaneous 
atfections, worms, &c. It was one of the 
leading ingredients of Bachler's pills, ho cele- 
brated in the treatment of dropsy, which 
induced the Frencli (iovernment to i> 
the receipt at a high price. But like other 
nostrums once in vogue, it has lost caste and 
is forgotten by later nostrums tluit annually 
rise and make a s|)lurge, just to be buried with 
other medical debris — in oblivion — let them 
rest in peace. 

But facts are facts, nevertheless, and what 
ex|)erience has demonstrated it may Ixr well to 
mention — for the benefit of those wlio may 
fancy to cultivate the plant for its beauty — 
tor its flower in winter out in the open ground 
where all else is flowerless — except in tlie hot 
house, and for its use, if so be that it pro- 
duces the curative powers, if only on hogs, 
those that raise them may test it on them if 
not on themselves. — J. Stauffer. 

For The Lancasteb Farmer. 

"Coming events cast their .sliailows before." 

Spring is approaching, and will bring on 
lilenty of work for the farmer. Everywliere, 
where we cast our eyes, there are .stones to be 
jiicked, fences to be made, jilowing to be done, 
trees to be ]iriined, gardens to be planted, 
roads to be made, ditches to be cleaned out, 
niauure to be hauled, and a good many other 
jobs to be done. I'ick stones from and 
grain fields as early as possible. Then roll as 
soon as the frost is out of the ground. A 
good time to roll grass fields is immediately 
after a rain, when the ground is soft, so that 
the i-oller may press down the high places, 
anil make the surface smooth and even for 
the mower. To roll grain fields we must wait 
a little longer, and until the surface gets 
nicely dry, so that the soil will not stick to 
the roller ; and when i^ice dry enough, do not 
delay the matter, but go at it at once, or else 
you might miss it. If a rain comes before 
you have done the work, it will take .several 
(lays to dry again. Then another rain may 
come, and at length the grain may get too 
large to roll it without injury. Boll it length- 
wise along the drill rows. It makes the 
nicest job, and the roller does not press the 
grain jilants. 

A still clayey soil is best if jilowed in the 
"rising" — it will not get so hard as when 
plowed iu the "setting ;" and a light soil that 
is too, is best if plowed in the "setting," 
because, then it will settle a little more than 
it would ; and in spading a garden 
it is the same. Oats if sown iu the rising 
will not lodge as readily as when .sown in the 
settiiKj. I'ole-beans ought to bi' idanted in the 
risinij — they will wind up the poles 1 letter 
than wlieirplanted iu the sdtinij, and bunch- 
beans are most successfully iilanted in the 
«»,ui(/. If thev are planted in the risimj, they 
will throw out shoots and wind more or less, 
and this is also the case with peas. I liavc no 
doiilit but some of the readers of TllE Fak- 
51KU will lauijh at me for writing such non- 
.sense— even those who may be jiracting these 
ndes more or less, "on the sly" — because, 
they may know a great many peojile who 
have no f^aitli in these things, aiul therefore 
entirely disregard them. But let them laugh ; 
it is much lietter to laugh than to cry. 

Nevertheless, some .seed may fall on good 
soil, take root and grow. Eveiy one can try 
for himself; and it is good sometimes to try 
other modes than those we have been accus- 
tomed to, even if we have no faith iu them. 

When we make what we call a "worm- 
fence," we Hud a difference between that 
which was made iu the ri'.si'ny and that in the 
setlimj. The latter soon sinks down on, or into 
the ground, whilst the former remains intact 
for a much longer time. It is about the same 



[ March, 

in shingling a i"oof. I recall one particular 
occasion in the shingling of the shed of a 
cider-press. It was shingled with oak shin- 
gles, all made from one tree. Those shingles 
that were put on in the rising turned up their 
ends, and looked like the reversed feathers of 
a certain variety of chickens, (Siraub-hinMe) 
once very common on every farm ; whilst 
those that were put on in the setting remained 

Pruning trees is best when done in the 
"increase," (Zumemcn) because the wound 
will then heal sooner, and the wood will grow 
over the wound than when the limbs are cut 
oft" in the "decrease," (Abnemen). These are 
matters upon which every one can and ought 
to experiment for himself. — J. O., Wanvick, 
March, 1878. 

[It may be necessary for us to say, that by 
"rising" and "setting," and by "increase" 
and "decrease," our contributor alludes to 
the diflereut phases of the moon. Of course 
we do not hold ourselves responsible for the 
opinions entertained by those who write for 
The Farmer, but equity requires us to give 
our patrons an opportunity to express their 
views on all subjects relating to agricultural 
economy. We may, however, say this, that a 
larger number of the citizens of Lancaster 
county — and perhaps of the whole State of 
Pennsylvania — attach more or less importance 
to these "signs and seasons," than we have 
any idea of ; and, as our contributor hints, 
many of those who puhlidy repudiate them, 
privately practice them. They seem to be 
inborn in our people ; moreover, there are 
many phenomena tliat seem utterly inexpli- 
cable upon any other basis. It is ac- 
knowledged that the moon affects the tides 
and physical health, and this is only carrying 
its influence to the more solid substances.] 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 

Home Expressions. — It shud be som encur- 
agment to the Editor and Publisher of The 
'Farmer, that ther ar a fu of the county jur- 
nals that apreciat its merits, 'but the many 
farmers liu shud patronis it, prefer to help 
bild up jurnals from ain'oad. 

Kitchen Garden Calender. — Farmers hu wil 
not prepar hotbeds, wil be served rit if tha 
hav to wat thre weks longer for thar erly 

Lancaster County Pajjers. — If Iha wil in- 
creas in a proportionat ratio, every man wil 
publish his on paper by and by. 

Queries and Ansioers. — The Editors reply 
is gud advis to planters. Many shud tak 
advantag ov it. Thar is no necesite for hy- 
ing so many peches from other stats, while 
tha can be gron at horn. 

Peek Bark Louse. — Pech groers beter kep 
an I on it, as it mit spoil our pech prospects. 

The Loraljard Plum Inks fln on paper, and 
no dout also on the tre, if the litle turk don't 
put his trad-mark on it. 

Essay on Grape Culture is vere gud, but it 
is tu long to overhaul it in arevu of this kind. 

Half way plowing and harrowing wheat by 
J. G. ma satisfy him, but we must not forget 
that won swalo dos not make a sumer, nor is 
won seson a far test for any crop. 

Ruralist exiilans his fowl air as we expected, 
but he is a litle in the mist with our Fonetic, 
but he wil yet lern to spel it without Ph. He 
givs gud advis for rasing toliaco plants, and 
we are glad that he did not get his bristles up 
instead of puting. them down. 

The Coming Tomato has reched us about 
wons a yer, and no dout wil be coming for a 
long wile yet. 

Planting Trees for Timber and Fuel seems 
to be a mooted question — we hav strong argu- 
ments pro and con. A. B. K. has bandied 
the subject very wel. It wud be beter not to 
trifle with this matter tu long, for we al no 
that timber can not be gron at short notis, 
like field crops. 

Hoeing Wheat. — This is water on our mil. 
We belev strongly in the doctrine, and pre- 
dict a buz if gud reports com in this seson 
wher it is tested. 

Dairying. — This is an interesting subject, 
and Mr. Reall has handled it wel. The asso- 
ciated plan shud work as wel her as in other 
sections, wher it has proven quite succesful. 

Dark Brahma Fowls. — We wud not object 
to receiving a par lik them as a present — we 
wud prefer them to squashes. 

Address on Fruit Growing by President Val- 
der. — This is won of the best articles on this 
subject that we hav sen. But Mr. Calder 
never talks nonsense, nor wastes words to no 
purpose. It wud do yur county societe gud 
to hav him give a lectur on any subject per- 
taining to Agriculture or Horticulture. 

Paris Letter. — We ma alwas expect som- 
thing nu from France. The leter contains 
som things worth trying here. 

Agricultural and Horticultural Society is 
not progressing vere fast, but beter slo than 
not at at. We think som of the smaler coun- 
tes hav mor active societies. 

Tobacco Growers Association sems to spred 
mor than any other societe. Perhaps ther is 
no more in it than in other pursuts. Som ov 
the members, however, sem redy to growl if 
tha don't get 30 cents per lb. Formerle tha 
wer wel satisfid when tha got 10 or 12 cents 
per lb. Wonder if thar aint some sharks 
among the groers as wel as the byers. Can't 
the groers send samples to Paris ? 

The Linnean Society dos not mak so big a 
splurg as the others that met in the sam rum, 
but we think it serves the public as much and 
posterite mor. 

Value of Hen Manure. — This is an articl 
that is niuch neglected. Perhaps if it wer 
caled hen guano it wud be valued more. 

Oat Meal as Diet. — Its incresed consumption 
augurs wel for economy in diet, as also the 
cousequent helth of thos hu us it. Ther has 
ben som prejudis against ethig hors fed, but 
why not et it as wel as hog fed. 

Walking iiorscs.— This articl shud be print- 
ed in larg leters and posted in every farmers 
hors stabl in the county. It mit be of grat 

We must drop som articls, or revu wil get 
too long. — Von Humbolt. 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 

By special request, I will make some note 
of my personal experience in growing apples 
and other fruits, in Lancaster county. There 
are certain localities within our domain which 
we may properly call fruit-belts, where we 
can raise apples, pears, peaches, cherries and 
grapes with the usual success. All we have 
to do, is to plant and replant, and we can 
bring fruit to reasonable perfection. But, it 
is at the .same time a life-study and a daily 
experience. In some localities in this county 
we can raise no fruit successfully but apples, 
and in others both apples and pears, and 
again in other places the apple tree will not 
thrive, or will produce only very inferior 
fruit. It is, therefore, necessary to find out 
the nature of our soil, in order to know what 
is, or what is not adapted to the different 
localities. Forest and fruit trees thrive well 
in some localities whetlier they be high or low 
dry or wet. The Black-oak and Hickory re- 
quire a rich dry soil ; the Po])lar, White-oak 
and Red-oak, a low and wet soil ; the Black- 
walnut and Locust, a deep, dry alluvial soil ; 
the Persimmon, Paw-paw and Pear, a low, 
loamy soil. The sweet-cherry will never 
thrive in low places, and especially not along 
a creek, or low running water. The Early 
Richmond cherry will thrive either on high or 
low ground, and so will the Prune, if it is not 
destroyed by the curculio. 

I spoke in the beginning about fruit belts. 
I own a part of one, where we can raise al- 
most any kind of fruit adapted to this lati- 
tude, almost to perfection. MetaphoMcall)- 
speaking, or in point of altitude, we are one 
of the neighbors of Gen. Geo. M. Steinman, 
of Martic township, in this county, but we 
are twenty miles apart. We are on the 
southern slope of Kissel-Hill, or New Haven 
Hill, running east to the Conestoga, near 
EarlvUle, Our place is MUlport, and our 

township is built from the valley up to the 
hill, from the summit of which we can see the 
residence of Mr. Steinman and other build- 
ings east of the Copper mines and Octoraro 
Hills. I planted a small orchard eighteen 
years ago — also Co trees twelve, and the same 
number eleven years ago ; and at the same 
time filled up an old orchard, where a good 
many trees were missing. The three diflerent 
orchards are less than half a mile apart. The 
old orchard is on a Red-shale southern slope : 
the twelve year orchard on rich gravel, 
southern slope of a lower location, and the 
eleven year orchard is on a wet loam and still 
lower in location. I have most of the new 
popular varieties of apples growing, but not 
yet in a bearing condition. In order to save 
time and space I omit naming the varieties. 
The Red-shale orchard is the best of the three 
and seldom fails to produce a good crop, as 
can be attested by Mr. J. B. Garber and 
others who have seen it loaded down with 
apples, when they were scarce elsewhere. I 
planted from one nursery iu the three or- 
chards, three trees at the same planting. 
Those in the Red-shale orchard are bearing 
heavily. The Hubbardston Nonsuch are the 
largest trees, but they are rather "shy" 
bearers, whilst in the old orchard they bear 
profusely, and come to perfection. As I was 
requested to give a list of apples for our 
county, I must speak of diflerent varieties for 
diflferent localities, because I have experienced 
that some varieties will do best in limestone 
land, or in gravel, sand or loam. Sometimes 
apples in their native places will do well, 
whilst they will utterly fail in others. I think 
it wrong to discard some of the older varieties 
of apples. I desire to have a good word for 
the old Pennsylvania Redstreak and Smoke- 
house, for yield or profit. I have ten trees of 
Northern Spy of eighteen years planting, and 
I got out of patience with them for not bear- 
ing. But two years ago they began to bear 
liberally, and I now consider them worthy of 
culture. The apples on my place are the 
Pound, Baldwin, York-Imperial, Berks coun- 
ty cider, Kj-auser, Conestoga Pippin, Para- 
dise, Winesap, and Romanite. The latter is 
my principal winter apple, and at the present 
writing it is the only apple in use in my 
family. The Millport Sheepnose is also a 
prominent apple with me, but on account of 
their overbearing they are not long livers. 
The Spahnhower is a good summer apple— a 
middle-sized red-api>le — an ornament to the 
tree or table. —i. <5. P.— Oregon, March, 1878. 
[We regret that L. S. R. so completely 
ignores the Rambo. In its season there is not 
a better fall and winter eating apple, and 
none more healtiiful and generous to the taste. 
It is also good in a stew, pie, dumpling or 
fritter — none better. — Ed.] 


For The Lancaster Farmee. 

Sweet Potato Plant. 

Many farmers have a difficulty in raising 
sweet-potato plants. As we have had uni- 
form success in raising fine plants it may not 
be out of place to give our method of laying 
up the tubes : Dig out the old miild of your 
pit about two feet deep and fill up with fresh 
horse manure. Cover the manure about three 
inches deep with the mold that was thrown 
out and on this lay the tubers, covering them ; 
also with mold about two inches deep. Don't 
use glass, the plants don't come quite as soon 
Ijut are much hardier. The bed should be 
sprinkled every morning with warm water 
and covered at night with carpet or matting. 
Care should be taken not to let cold rains to 
fall on the plants. By this method we have 
raised fine plants. 

Fire Wcod. 

In going through the country one sees sights ] 
sometimes which do not uphold the boasted 
credit of Lancaster county. One of these is 
that of women chopping wood. Whatever 
tends to elevate and lighten woman's labor 
should engage the attention of every farmer. 
Their labor is so varied and multitudinous 




that men should take on their shoulders of 
her burdens when ever they can, and I think 
it is an indication of a shiftless farmer who 
lets his women get the tircwood. 

During the winter all wood needed through 
the summer should be drawn home, sawed, 
split and housed. Few things are more an- 
noying tlian the necessity of cutting wood 
when you are busy in the fields. 
Farmers' Homes. 

I think we farmers do no not cultivate 
enough taste for the beautiful. In oiu- inor- 
dinate greed for the "dollar of the daddies" 
we too often lose sight of the beauties of na- 
ture and transform ourselves to groveling 
worms instead of the gifted beings we ought 
to be. This ftict is most forcibly illustrated 
in the general surroundings of our homes. 
There is large room for improvement and I 
trust the day is not far distant when a general 
wakening up in this matter will be had 
through the influence of the few who now 
adorn and beautify their homes, and our 
county will abound in tine rural scenes and 
picturesque liomes as well as fine tobacco 
fields and f;vt steers. The improvements need 
not be sudden or expensive, a few evergreen 
trees planted in the lawn would already im- 
prove it, besides a few tlower beds would 
make such a contrast that you will be induced 
to plant more largely next year. Please try 
it this spring. — liuralist. — Creswell, PemVa., 
March ith, 1878. 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 

Tobacco raising is the main object with 
some farmers, and very few raise none at all, 
in our section of the country ; and much of 
the talk among farmers is about tobacco. I 
often noticed last summer when I went from 
home, that whenever 1 met other people, 
where two or three were together, the talk 
among them was about tobacco. For my 
part, I raise none, and my belief is that I 
would not be doing right in raising this weed. 
God has given us a fine country in which to 
raise grain, and vegetables, and fruit — eatable 
articles — and, before God, I believe it is not 
right to desecrate the soil by raising tobacco. 
Hundreds of acres of our best. lands are abso- 
lutely wasted by planting them in tobacco, 
which would produce good crops of wheat, 
corn, or i)otatoes, and a good many other use- 
ful and nourishing crops — articles for poor 
people to eat. TolDacco robs us of a good deal. 

J'irit, it demands the best soil on the farm. 
SeconiUt/, it demands the best and the largest 
quantity of manure. Farmers haul manure 
liberally on tobacco land, then after harvest, 
they manure very sparingly their wheat land, 
in order to make it reach, and often, through 
their liberality to the tobacco it don't reach, 
and the result is a poor crop of wheat gener- 
ally. Now what is tobacco good for V It is 
chewed, and snulled, and smoked ; and if 
used to excess, it often injures, if it does not 
ruin people physically and financially, to say 
nothing about it morally. It would be much 
better if they had never tasted it. Many a 
poor man spends more for tobacco than would 
buy fiour for a loaf of bread every day in the 
week ; or more in a year than would buy a 
new suit of clothing for each son in the family, 
even if the number were half a dozen. Xot 
long ago a poor young man bought at an auc- 
tion eighteen pieces, or plugs, of tobacco, half 
as long as his arm. Cheap as he considered 
it, it amounted to over six dollars. I am 
informed he chews a ten cent plug every daj'. 
This is more than a good many have to pay 
for house rent, to say nothing about the rich 
who spend dollars where the poor only spend 
pennies. But it often occurs that the ]wor 
are more extravagant in this than the rich. 
It is said in favor of tobacco that it makes a 
good deal of work for the poor among the 
people. So it does ; but other more necessary 
work is neglected on account of the tobacco 
crop. I have seen farms — and a good many 
of them, too— where tobacco was cultivated, 
and I have noticed that the tobacco was kept 

nice and clean, but the com .stood in high 
grass and weeds, and a person would have a 
hard struggle to gel through them in corn- 
cutting. There they lost something of what 
they had gained in tobacco. Had tliey put 
all in corn and applied the same manure, and 
the same cultivation as they did on their 
tobacco, they would have had a much better 
corn crop, and the poor man would have hail 
labor, the soil would not have, lieen rolibed — 
in short every man who is iviUixg to work for 
a reasonable compensation, can always find 
somethiny to do. Often when I wanted a hand 
to assist me on the farm, 1 could gut none. 
They replied, "I must tend my tob,ac('o," and 
1 had to shift along the best way I could. 
Especially when the corn was ripe, I wanted 
men to cut off corn ; but no, the tobacco must 
first be put away ; corn can stand and get dry 
on the stalks, "tobacco is king." Tobacco, 
it is true, brings in a great deal of money, but 
still, on the whole, I believe it would be better 
in the end if a t(jbacco-j>lant had never been 
cultivated in the county. It certainly will 
impoverish the land after a few years. Some 
farms will be so poor that they will hardly 
support an average family, and leave very 
little to sell. But nearly all the people have 
this tobacco fever, and tlierefore there may be 
very little use in saying anything to them 
about it. Like all fevers, I it will 
have to run its course; nevertheless I believe 
it will have its crisis. Many people will not 
believe even preachers of the gospel, when 
they warn their flocks of approacliing danger. 
Therefore we see tobacco-raising saints going 
on in their way the same as sinners. There is 
preaching Sunday after Sunday, but people do 
not repent. They live on in sin from day to 
day, week to week, month to month, and year 
to year, without repentance, until the end, 
and so it will be with tobacco farming — at 
least, as long as there is viojiey in it. — J. G., 
Warxcick, March, 1878. 

[Whatever the moral, physical, and econ- 
omical status of tobacco growing and tobacco 
manufacturing and using — or whatever may 
be its ultimate effect upon the mental and 
constitutional condition of men, there seems 
to be a grave doubt whether there ever will be 
a perfect unity of sentiment on the subject ; 
therefore, it seems that the most we can do at 
the present titne, is to concede to every one 
the privilege of entertaining his own honest 
views in regard to it. In other words, we 
may '• agree to disagree ;" because, like manu- 
facturing and selling or using liquor; selling 
and buying lottery tickets ; keei)ing and run- 
ning fast horses ; dealing in fancy or fraudu- 
lent stocks of various kinds ; men will engage 
in these occupations so long as they can see 
any money in them, or they are not directly 
contraband of law, without troubling them- 
selves much about the abstract right or wrong 
of the thing. Perliaps so long as men do not 
violate their consciences, or invade the rights 
of their neighbors, we will have to leave them 
to their own convictions niuler the forms of 
civil law. One glorious privilege we enjoy in 
a land of freedom, and tliat is, if it is wrong 
to raise tobacco there is no power to compel us 
to do so against our own will, nor can the 
responsibility of another's wrong doing be 
laid on our shoulders. Nevertheless, every 
one ought to enjoy the privilege of expressing 
his own sentiments on the subject. — Ed.] 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 

I have been for several years interested on 
the subject of artificial fertilizers and manures 
of all kinds, and h.ave read whatever came in 
my way, and such works as 1 could afford to 
purchase from time to time. 

There has Ijeen a great change for the bet- 
ter, in the purity and strength of fertilizer.s 
offered by all reputable dealers, the object 
being now to give as much of the valuable in- 
gredients as possible, as the freight and cost 
of hauling on the lower grades is just as much 
per ton as on the higher grades, and this of 
itself makes the lower grades the dearer. 

No less has been the change in the maimer 
of application. Formerly a man would pur- 
chase a certain kind of fertilizer and with 
perhaps the best results. The next season he 
and his neighbors would invest more money 
in the sanies or a different kind of fi'rtili/.er, 
and the crop would be very poor. The dealer 
was of course held res|ioMsil)le for this stale of 
atfairs in furuishinga worthless article. Either 
tliey did not know or diil not lake the trouble 
to inquire whether the failure might not hiVve 
been .ittriliutalile to their own lack of knowl- 
edge of what essential plant food their soil in 
thi^ last case, was lacking. 

The essi nlinl plant foods are three in num- 
ber, and they are i)otasli, phosphoric acid and 
annnouia. The latter is conii)osed of nitro- 
gen and hydrogen, and is mentioned in .some 
works as nitrogen, and the amount accord- 
ing to the ratio between the nilrogen and the 
compound, ammonia, 17 i)artsannuonia being 
only e<pial to It parts nitrogen. 

A soil to produce a crop, must contain all 
three of these plant fcjods, for if any single 
one of them is enlindy absent, the plant will 
not come to perlection. Nothing can 
be substituted for the mi.s'sing ingredient. To 
soil containing neither of these, it would be 
easy to supply in the right (luanlily all the 
ingredients, but many soils contain one or two 
of them in sullicient quantity, but which of 
them is not known, and can be found out 
only by actual experiment. At one time the 
analysis of the .soil was thought to be a sure 
method, but that i<lea is now practically dis- 
carded iiy all reliable and honest chemists, as 
they claim that the amoiuit of any one of 
these ingredients is too small in comparison 
with the amount of soil to dc'termine with 
aecur.acy, and that the iieculiar place or places 
where the sauqih^ was taken from, may have 
more or less of the nece.ssary ingredients, than 
the average would Ije in the whole field. 

No one in America has done more towards 
forming an intelligent idea amoTjg farmers on 
thesubject of fertilizers and ma unrest ban Prof. 
W. O. Atwater. From his articles in Febru- 
ary and March numbers of the American 
AririciiJturist, we condense some experiments 
made on corn in 1877. 

The Experiment Station, at Middleto-wn, 
Conn., sent outlast spring, sets of fertilizers, 
20 Ib.s. of each kiTid, consisting Dried Blood 
(I,) superpho.sphate (II,) salt (III,) 
mixture of^ I and II, mixture of I, II and III, 
and also 2U lbs. of plaster. The amount in 
each set was to lie applied to 10 sipiai'e rods, 
which is at the rate of :!'J0 lbs. to the acre.* 

Mr. I). II. Birdsey, .Miildlelield. Conn., ex- 
perimented on upland, gravelly loam, with 
gravelly subsoil that had been in grass for 
three jirevious years, the yield of hay esti- 
mated at A to i ton jier acre. mamn-ing 
(with oats) leaclied ashes; previous to tliis, 
barn manun^ and bone. 

Where I, II and I II were ajjplied the pro- 
duct was mostly "nubbins," oidy 40 bushel 
baskets to the acre, while the stalks were 
small and weak ; where III and I- II ; III 
were applied the yield was'.Mi baskets of sound 
ears and large sound stalks ; he also applied on 
one iiiece "yard and hen manure and ashes," 
(.5 cords of the yard manure, ben manure and 
ashes applied to the hills but amount not 
stated) and the yield was .S8 baskets. 

When we examine what ingredients were 
contained in the different t'erlilizers we find 
that where there was no |)otash i)re.sent, the 
result was a failure, and that the potash 
itself was as good as any mixture containing 
all three im^redients, and better than where 
horse m.anure wasajiidied, besides being much 
cheaper. In fact Mr. Bird.sey thinks the 
horse manure cost .Sto.OO per acre (by which 
he i)rol)ably means what he could have sold 
the manure and asiu's and what it cost to 
ajiply;) the potash salt (I) would liave cost 
oulv about #7.20 i)cr .acre, and the mixture 
(I-II -III,) .SO. 4(1 per acre. There is no 
statement as to yield where nothing is applied. 

'The Dried Blood furuishes ammonia ; stiperphospluto, 
phosphoric acid. 




Rev. W. J. Bartliolemew reports in sub- 
stance, as follows : 

Hill land, surface, dark loam, moist, with 
clayey subsoil, 1874 no mauuri; ; hay, 1 ton. 
1875, 12 cart loads barn-yard manure ; corn 
35 bushels, 187(5, no manure ; oats 40 bushels. 
1877, experiiueiital crop, white cap corn. 

Where II, III, plaster, and where no appli- 
cation was made the yield was very poor, in 
fact a failure, as the yield was only from 14 to 
20 bushels of very poor and green ears. In 
the first two cases the yield was less than when 
no application was made. Superphosphate 
(II) gave a clear profit of .fll.SS ; mixture 
I+II, $8.72 ; mixture I+II+IH, «5.12. He 
also tried ammoniated superphosphates of diff- 
erent makers, the application costing $0.40 
per acre, and results in a clear profit of $0.92 
to $12.48 per acre. 
He also tried the following : 
Thirty -two bushels ashes, costing $7.20 per 
acre, gave a clear profit of $5.44 ; 48 bnshels 
of leached ashes, costing the same, gave a 
clear profit of $7.30 ; 20 bushels hen manure 
gave an increase of $26.56 ; 20 bushels hen 
manure and 80 lbs. plaster, an increase of 
$27.84 ; all the foregoing had sound grain, 
stalks in the first two cases a little below color 
average, and in last two cases above average. 
16 cart-loads of hog manure gave large average 
stalks, and good yield of ears, but the ears were 
mouldy ; 32 bushel? of light soil gave very 
large, above average stalks, and a greater 
yield of ears than any of the other trials, ex- 
cepting hen manure "and plaster, but the corn 
was very mouldy, in some cases husk and 
corn completely rotten. 

In examining we find: (1.) Where phos- 
phoric acid was not supplied, the crop failed. 
(2.) Where phosphoric acid was supplied, 
either alone, or with some, generally little, 
nitrogen, (in the amraoniated superphos- 
phates), the crop was good. (3.) That the 
amount of increase where II, I+H and I fll-F 
III were applied, corresponded with the 
amount of phosijhoric acid contained in them. 
(4.) With potash salt and with dried blood, 
the yield was less than when no application 
was made. (5.) The crop got no apparent 
benefit from any ingredient in the chemical 
manures, the ashes or the farm manure, ex- 
cept what phosphoric acid they contained. 
(6.) That in every case where phosphoric acid 
existed in the fertilizers, alone, or in connec- 
tion with a little nitrogen, there was a clear 
IJrofit of $10.00 to $12.50 per acre, less where 
it was in connection with other substances, 
and positive loss where it was omitted. Mr. 
Bartholemew's soil needs phosphoric acid 

Mr. Chester Sage, Middletown, Connecticut, 
has a very poor soil, consisting of a heavy 
loam, with hard-pan subsoil. Manured in 
1874 with 300 pounds slaughter-house refuse 
per acre ; crop, 15 bushels of oats ; no man me 
in 187.5, hay J of a ton. No manure in 1876, 
hay i ton. Fertilizers 800 pounds per acre, 
excejjt hen manm-e, a handful to each hill. 
Fertilizers applied in the hill. 

In each case where dried blood, (I) potash 
salt (III) or mixture I hll were applied, the 
yield was no larger (20 bushels ears per acre) 
than where nothing was applied, and in this 
and the last case and the first the kernels were 
mouldy and bitter; where superphosphate (II) 
was applied alone, the yield was 40 bushels 
cars, imperfect kernels, but not mouldy; 
where jilaster was applied the yield was the 
same as in the last, but with kernels mouldy ; 
stalks of all the above small. jNIixture 
I4-II-fIH, which is a complete manure, as it 
contains all the different plant foods needed, 
produced 120 bushels ears, kernels large, bright, 
sound, sweet, very fine, stalks large, fine, 
green, and ears large, long, well-filled; with hen 
manure the yield was 801)ushels ears per .acre. 
In experiment of Mr. S.age, we find that no 
single ingredient would bring a cro]) ; that a 
mixture of two ingredients was no better, but 
that the fertilizer had to contain ah three, viz : 
ammonia, (nitrogen) phosphoric acid and 
potash. The mixture I+II+III supphed all 
three, as did also the hen manure. 

We are sorry that no experiment was made 
on a soil which lacks nitrogen only, but per- 
haps this case does not occur so often, as nitro- 
gen is believed to be absorbed more or less 
from the air by all plants, and on those decay- 
ing leave a portion thereof in the soil. In the 
case of phosphoric acid and potash, the case 
is different, for if not present in the soil the 
plant has no way of putting it there or increas- 
ing what quantity may be there, and it has 
therefore to be supplied artificially. 

Whether it would be profitable to apply fer- 
tilizers to corn land in good condition, say 
yielding 100 bushels or more in the ears, does 
not appear, as nearly all experiments seem to 
be made on partly " run down " or worn out 
soils, and where' the land is not completely 
run down, it may be that the very ingredient 
least needed is supplied more liberally than 
either of the other two. The best way is to 
experiment in small plats, and then supply 
accordingly to that field, for the field is gen- 
erally wanting the same ingredients all over, 
unless, as is sometimes done, the same crop is 
not raised all over the field, hut tilled in 
patches. As diflerent crops remove the differ- 
ent plant food in different quantities, the field 
tilled in this manner may thus lack potash in 
one part, phosphoric acid in another, and 
nitrogen in still another. 

It is therefore safer in these richer soils to 
give the same kind of application as would be 
made on a perfectly worn-out soil, that is, a 
fertilizer or manure containing all the essen- 
tial ingredients of plant food. 

If then we want to apply any fertilizer to 
the best advantage, we must supply as much 
of each ingredient, excepting nitrogen, as the 
amount removed by the increase above the 
natural yield, and in fact should apply a some- 
what larger quantity if we want to increase 
the capacity of the soil. Thus a crop of 100 
bushels corn in the ear (.50 bushels shelled), 
and the natural proportion of stalks removed, 
70 lbs. nitrogen, (19J lbs. ammonia), 35i lbs. 
phosiihoric acid and 98 lbs. potash, which could 
be procured for about $18.20, reckoning potash 
at 7i per pound, phosphoric acid 9^, and nitro- 
gen '21^ cents, and only 35 lbs. of the latter, 
as the air is supposed to supply the other 

The Mapes Formula Company give a some- 
what diflerent ratio, being for their "corn 
manure," ammonia 6 per cent., (nitrogen 5 
per cent.,) phosphoric acid 12 per cent., potash 
7 per cent. In one of their pamphlets, ' 'Lead- 
ing Croi)s," they give the amount of potash 
removed at about 2| times the amount of 
phosiihoric acid removed, and I can see no 
reason why they should make the amount of 
phosplioric acid nearly twice the amount of 
potash contained in their "Corn ISIanure." 
Where barn-yard manure has heretofore been 
exclusively used, it may be that their propor- 
tion is right, for cattle take phosphoric acid 
from whatever they eat to form bone, and the 
manure put back to whence such feed is ob- 
tained, will lose just so much, hut potash is 
not thus assimilated, and the manure there- 
from contains nearly all the potash that was 
originally contained in the feed. It will thus 
be seen while the phosphoric acid in the 
soil may grow less in amount pretty rapidly, 
the potash does not lose in the same ratio. If 
the soil under consideration has been manured 
with barn-yard manure only, I might apply 
the fertilizer as they recommend, but on the 
other hand, if guano, which contains from 
four to seven times as much i)hosphoric acid 
as iiotash, had been used separately, or where 
bone in anv shape, is ground, or burnt, or dis- 
solved, bad been used, in such cases I would 
want the fertilizer to be richer in potash than 
in phosphoric acid, because it is very likely 
that in many of these cases the fertilizers 
mentioned had been used until the land would 
crop no more. The land would then, in all 
probability be, in the case of using guano, 
pretty ricli in annnonia and phosphoric acid, 
but lacking potash ; in the case of repeated 
applications of bones, both ammonia and 
potash might be lacking. 
We woi3d then come to some definite rules, 

arguing as above, and the substance of these 
rules would be in the case of corn: 

1. Has the land been supplied with barn- 
yard manure, use a fertilizer richer in phos- 
phoric acid ; next potash ; last nitrogen. 

2. Has ground bone, burnt bone or dissolved 
bone been used (at any rate if often used) then 
have the fertilizer richest in potash ; next 
nitrogen ; last, perhaps not at all in extreme 
cases, phosphoric acid. 

3. Has guano been used repeatedly, then 
potash may be the only one required ; if any 
other ingredient is wanted let it be phosphoric 
acid in smaller quantity. 

4. If the potash salts have been used hereto- 
fore, then apply some fertilizer rich in nitro- 
gen and phosphoric acid, such as guano ; but 
there is one potash salt, nitrate of potash, 
(salt petre) that is rich in both nitrogen and 
potash, and if this has been much used, apply 
something rich in phosphoric acid, such as 
burnt lione or bone dust. 

5. As a general rule apply that fertilizer or 
manure which is rich in those ingredients 
which the others have lacked. 

The course of reasoning pursued would 
seem to be right, but in practice, in the appli- 
cation of fertilizers, like in many other things, 
the results do not correspond with the assumed 
theory, not that there is anything wrong in 
the theory; but the points and bearings are 
not all known, or are overlooked, but of this 
we may be assured that when practice follows 
theory as far as the latter is known, the 
chances of failure are much less than when 
we go ahead in a hap-hazard, it-may-do 
fashion. — A. B. Kise. 


Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society. 
The reguLar moiitlily meeting of the Lancaster 
County Airricultural and Horticultural Society was 
held Monday afternoon, March ith, at 2 o'clock, in 
the Athenneura rooms. 

The following is but a partial list of the members 
and visitors present: Calvin Cooper (president), 
East Lamoeter; Joseph F. Witmer (secretary), 
Paradise ; Levi W. Groff, West Earl ; Simon P. Eby, 
city; Casper Hiller, Conestoga; Daniel Smeyeh, 
city ; Ephraim Hoover, Manheim ; Johnson Miller, 
Warwick; D. L. Resh, Bird-in-Hand ; J. M. .John- 
ston, city ; Jacob Bollinger, Warwick ; Henry Wolf, 
Warwick ; John C. Linville, Salisbury; A. B. Groff, 
West Earl ; M. B. Eshleman, Newport, Perry county ; 
E.W. Eshleman, Paradise; W. H. Brosius, Dru- 
more; Ambrose Pownall, Sadsbury; John M. Steb- 
man. East Herapfield; C. S. Kauttman, Columbia; 
M. D. Kendig, Manor; Peter S. Reist, Litiz ; Peter 
Hiller, J. G. Rush, Willow Street; Christian R. 
Landis, Isaac Bushong, East Lampeter; F. R. DifT- 
enderli'er, city; Clare Carpenter, city; Christian 
Coble, Mount" Joy ; Adam R. Bear, Lancaster twp.; 
William .McComsey, city; Prof. S. S. Rathvon, city ; 
John H. Landis, Manor; John I. Carter, West 
Grove ; Franklin Sutton, Manheim ; C. L. Hunsecker, 
Manheim ; Levi S. Reist, Manheim ; Walter Sutton, 

The society was called to order by the President, 
Calvin Cooper, Esq. 

On motion, the reading of the minutes of last 
meeting was dispensed with. 

Report of Special Committees. 
The committee appointed to confer with City 
Councils about making arrangements for permanent- 
ly renting the room, reported progress through their 
chairman, S. P. Eby, and were continued. - 

Crop Reports. ■ 

Johnson Miller said the wheat fields look well; 
the young clover is lifted out by the frost, but lie did 
not think it was much hurt. Farmers are preparing 
for spring work. But little tobacco has been sold. 

jAcoi! BoLLixGEU Said some of his wheat was 
hurt by the fly in the fall, but seems to be looking 
better now. But little tobacco sold ; all are ready 
to sell. 

Mr. Linville said wheat looked very well. Clover 
also looks well. The tobacco is moving slowly. 

Mk. Brosius also reported wheat as being unusu- 
ally fine. Grass also looks well. 

Ephkaim Hoover said a friend reported that 
peaches would be a failure in his neiirhborhood. 

The President reported peaches all right in his dis- 
trict. The wheat has recovered from the ravages of 
the fly, and now promises well. 

Jos. F. Wither also reported wheat as good. So 
also the young clover ; it was lifted out by the frost, 
but will get over that. But little tobacco has been 
sold, although farmers are very desirous of selling. 




He also rcail a sliort artieic cut from a ncwsjiiviier, 
in which lime was recommended as a preventive 
for abortion8 in cow6. 

n. M. Enoi.e moved the regular order of l)UBine6» 
he dispcuseil with in order to allow John I. Carter, 
of the Experimental Farm , of Chester county, to «:ive 
the address he was announced to deliver, " Manures 
and Soil Fertilizations." See page HH. 

On motion of Ei'Hiiaim Hoovkh, a vote of thanks 
was tendered to the lecturer for liis able address. 

J. C. LiNvii.i.K said the farmers now believe better 
results can be procured by ajiplying barnyard manure 
in its raw condition; composting is Jiot generally 

II. M. Enole, of Marietta, said eompostinfr was 
not so well understood as it should be. He believed 
much was lost in manures by leaching and evapora- 
tion. Earth makes a good compost ; anything that 
helps to retain the gases and liquids, will add value 
to the manure pile ; they tend to pulverize the 
manure also. 

William McComsey thought the essay was a very 
practical one ; it went to the foundation of things ; 
it treated of manures and plant food from a scien- 
tific standpoint, because agriculture is a science, and 
all farmers ought to be scientists. All farmers 
should make themselves familiar with the character 
and requirements of the soils they own. The barn- 
yard cannot supply all the food our fields need. We 
roust, therefore, resort to the so-called fertilizers. 
We must know what our acres need before we can 
give them what they ask. Lanil requires treatment 
just as our bodies do ; we must find out the nature 
of the disease and then take steps to apply the 

C. L. HuNSECKEB thought the attention bestowed 
upon manures shows we are awake to the importance 
of the subject. The lecture showed us how to make 
use of the various things presented to our acceptance 
for this purpose. After cropping a field for seven- 
teen years and until it would grow nothing, he sowed 
clover, plowed it down, and tlie clover acting as a 
fertilizer, put the land in heart again and good crops 
were again raised on it. The lecture proved that if 
■we knew more of chemistry we would grow larger 
crops ; the farmers must understand the materials 
they use. 

Casper Hiller was pleased with the lecture. He 
was glad to have this talk about artificial fertilizers 
go out among the farmers. There is a prejudice 
against them, but this is wrong. There was great 
fraud formerly in them, but of late years this has 
been changed, and now manufacturers stake their 
reputations that their articles are as guaranteed. 

Mr. Franklin Sutton remarked that while it 
does not require much science to pulverize the soil, 
still we overlook this point ; stirring the soil wkilc 
the crops are growing is also very essential and we 
cannot alftbrd to ignore it. 

H. M. Engle alluded to an experiment referred to 
by the lecturer, that a crop that received no manure 
but more careful cultivation produced much better 
results than another which was heavily manured 
but received no after cultivation ; thorough cultivation 
is almost equivalent to a coating of manure. This 
alone is a valuable fact. It shows us we can do 
without 60 many fertilizers. 

Mr. Esiileman was glad to have heard the lec- 
ture. It will do much good, and he hoped it would 
he printed. The suggestion that manure should be 
kept together and composted, is a very important 
one, because some persons believe in hauling out the 
manure green. 

Milton B. Eshleman was glad to meet so many 
of his old friends. He was never much of an experi- 
menter, but he was sure the more the farmers ex- 
perimented the more they would know. The crops 
along the linwof the railroad look well. 

Mr. Carter thought he was a little misunder- 
Btood. He did not recommend composting the barn- 
yard manure pile ; he alluded more particularly to 
composting with commercial fertilizers. He thought 
• it did not pay to turn over and work the manure 
pile so often. It was well to cover it over, but he 
did favor mixing it with other fertilizers. In reply 
to Mr. Engle, he said top-dressing is better in some 
cases, such as grass, but on wjieat ground he would 
plow it down. Corn fertilizers do better when 
plowed down. He ploughs shallow ; four or five 
inches for corn. Lime does not seem to give good 
results on the Experimental Farm. They keep their 
manure pile under cover, and have a cistern, from 
' which the liquid manure is pumped over the manure 
heap. In this way it is saved instead of being lost. 
C. L. Hunsecker observed that farmers who 
plough, harrow and cultivate the ground thoroughly, 
generally get good crops ; those who cultivate im- 
perfectly get poor crops, in spite of all their manures 
and fertilizers. So much is lost by improperly fer- 
tilizing that hardly one-half the proper result is 

Epiiraim Hoover thought that until we properly 
understand our soils, we will very often be unsuc- 
cessful. We apply manures at random. How much 
and what kinds of manures to apply is what we 
must learn. Until we know better, our common 
sense must be our guide. Some soils in this county 
must have lime, while others, as stated by the lec- 

turer, do not get along well with it; therefore, our 
common sense and observations must guide us. 
Thorough cultivation and proper fertilizers are what 
wc must rclv on. 

M. B. Esiileman tliought it was impossible for all 
farmers to be chemists ; to become an expert chemist 
would cost as much as a farm. The State ought 
to provide cliemists, and If not the State, then the 
several counties. 

S. 1". Env thought the longer the farmers keep out 
of the haniis of the Legislature the better it will be 
I'or them. This society, he thought, was not on the 
right track. Such lectures will do good ; experiments 
are what is needed ; if the Lej^islature were ad- 
journed lor ten years, the better it would be for us. 
Jos. F. WiTMKit said, in Europe the system of 
having experimental stations was practiced. Our 
exiicrimental farms are modeled on them. If we 
watch their experiments closely we get what we 
want ; that will do us more good than a host of 

M. B. Esiileman explained that he thought chem- 
ists would be of more use to tell what there was in a 
fertilizer than to take a handful of dirt and analyze it. 
Mr. Buosius wanted the Legislature to do as 
much for the farmers as they do for other classes of 
society. We need protection against bogus fertilizers, 
but not being practical chemists how are we to tell ; 
Quite a lively discussion here took place as to the 
use or uselcssness of the Legislature in giving aid to 
farmers, and providing fat oliices for jieople at the 
farmers' expense. 

H. M. Engle said there was a bill now before the 
Legislature given protection to farmers, against 
fraudulent fertilizers. 

Levi S. Reist said our beet farmers know least of 

Johnson Miller thought the debate was drifting 
from the subject, and moved it be closed, which was 

Report of Fruit Committee. 
Mr. Kendig, chairman of the Fruit Committee, 
appointed to ascertain the best varieties of fruit for 
home cultivation, presented his report. (See page :i6.) 
Jos. F. Witmek was opposed to endorsing Craw- 
ford's early peach ; it is a poor bearer and hardly 
worth cultivation. 

H. M. Engle said his experience with the above 
peach was very favorable ; it was a great bearer 
with him ; it is our earliest yellow peach, although 
not our best. Still he would not recommend planting 
many trees. Other kinds might have been recom- 
mended, but the committee did not wish to give the 
names of so many. 

The President suggested that the " Benoni " and 
"Hawley" apples be added to the list, as being 
among our very best apples. 

Casper Hiller endorsed the "Benoni" but 
the " Hawley " was a very poor one, in hisopinion. 

H. M. Engle thought there were many good local 
varieties that don't find entrance into nurseries. It 
was well to depend on such apples as do well in your 
neighobrhood. The " Lancaster County (ireening" 
was described as a trifling, knotty little affair, not 
worth planting. 

Levi W. Croff, thirty years ago bought an or- 
chard, and lie tried to improve it. He yearly added 
new varieties, and found they did little good. He 
now relies on the old-fashiond kinds — the "Roinan- 
ite " and " Seek no Further." 

Casper Hiller moved that John I. Carter be 
elected an honorary member of this society. Adopted. 
The report of the Fruit Committee was, on motion, 
accepted, and the committee discharged. 

Casper Hillek moved that as the report of the 
committee that went to Williainsport to attend the 
meeting of the State Society has already been pub- 
lished in The yew Era, the reading be now dispensed 

Deferred Business. 

The question of soiling cattle was called up, and 
the president read an article on the subject from the 
Village Record, which was pertinent and satisfactory. 
The advantages of soiling were clearly pointed out 
in the essay, a number of reasons being given for 
the same. 

W. McComsev believed soiling cattle was one of 
those progressive measures that will eventually be 
adopted very generally throughout this county. More 
stock can be kept, more land can be put under culti- 
vation, while all the interior fences can be dispensed 

M. B. Eshleman thoui;lit it was act of cruelty to 
let the cattle run at large in the hot sun in summer 
time, and be molested l)y flies. 

Levi S. Keist moved that the article in the 
Record be endorsed as the sense of the society. 

Mr. Bollinger objected to the motion. He once 
lived in Franklin county, where they had a great 
man, named Alexander McClure. Believing in him, 
the people sent him to the Legislature, where he did 
some railroading, making about 81U0,U()0 Ijy the job. 
He bad a farm of about 200 acres, and on this he 
began soiling his cattle and tearing out his interior 
fences. The result was he broke up. Shortly after 
another man in his neighborhood did the eam* thing 
and hU fate wa* the same as McClure's ; in conse- 

quence the people have lost all coufldenco in soiling 

The motion was then withdrawn, and the discus- 
sion on soiling will be coiiliimcd at the next meeting. 
Election of Members. 

On motion, ChriKlian li. Landis was elected a 
member of the society. 

Bills Read. 

Several bills, for coal, janitor's services, and other 
necessary expenses were read and ordered to be paid. 

On motlcm, it was decided that inasmuch as the 
first Monday of next month comes on April 1st, the 
regular inectinEr of the society he put olf until the 
second Monday in the month. Agreed to. 
Business for Next Meeting. 

" How shall we manage to raise 100 or more bush- 
els of corn to the acre ;" Referred to Jacob Bol- 

" Have we evidence that commercial fertilizers 
pay in this county ?" Referred to Casper Hiller. 
For General Discussion. 

" Shall we continue to grow apples, and to what 

There being no other business the society ad- 
journed until the second Monday in April. 


The rcL'ular miiiilhly meeting of the Lancaster 
County Tobacco tirowers' Association was held on 
Monday afternoon, February IM, in the Athcnajura 

The meeting was called to order by the President, 
M. I). Kendig. 

The minutes of last meeting were read by the 
Secretary, Webster L. Hershey, and, on motion, 

The following members and visitors were present : 
M. I). Kendig (President,) Manor; Webster L. 
Hershey (Secretary,) Sylvester Kennedy, Salisbury; 
Henry Kurtz, Mount .loy ; Henry Shillner, Upper 
Leacock ; Ephraini Hoover, .Manheim ; -Mr. Hoff- 
man, Donegal ; Washimrton L. Hershey, Calvin 
Cooper, C. L. Hunsecker, Peter S. Reist, .John Brady, 
WiuUeld S. Kennedy, W. D. Hoar, J. G. Rush, J. P. 
Mcllvaine, .\iKlrew Lane, H. Engle, Rapho; J. G. 
Horner, Donegal ; John Shenk, Salisbury ; Jonas 
Meek, John Meek, I. W. Leidigh, Paradise; John 
Hersh, West Hempfield ; .John Huber, Pequea ; 
Daniel D. Hersh, Manor; Daniel Reninger, Cone- 
stoga ; J.Hartman Ilcrbhcy, Hcmplicld ; F. Pennel, 
Mouut .Joy; J. M. Franiz, Manor; I. L. Landis, 
Clare Carpenter, F. K. DitlVndcrller, city. 

Reports of Special Committees. 

The committee on getting samples for the Paris 
Exposition reported, through Henry Shiffner, that 
they had called a meeting and there being no atten- 
dance at the same, they gave up the project. The 
question can be taken uj) to-day if it is deemed proper 
to do so. 

Sylvester Kennedy thought it was now too late 
to do anything ; samples should have been in Wash- 
ington by this time. 

The visiting committee reported through Henry 
Kurtz and .Mr. Kennedy. The latter said the matter 
was delayed loo long. The committee has not got 
arounil as far as they hoped. He thought the com- 
mittee had not done its duty so far, and no fitting 
report can in consequence be made ; 'he report should 
be made by the chairman of the committee. 

Mr. Suikfner also liad a report to make, and was 
ready to do so to-day, but also thought the matter 
should be delayed until all the members were ready. 
A motion to this cIVect was made and carried. 
Reports on Crops. 

Henry KfRTz reported the tobacco was nearly all 
ready to sell. There have not been many sales- 
some were good and ot hers not so good . He reported 
some sold at li-l.'"), 5-1."), .'")-20 and L'O all around. A 
good many buyers were about, but could not come 
to terms with the farmers. 

Sylvester Kennedy reported some sales from 
Salislmry; the oilers arc lower than farmers were 
willing to accept, so very little has been sold. 

Henry Shiffner, of Upper Leacock, reported a 
good deal sold there at 1.5 and IScents. The tobacco 
is good in that township, as it generally is. 

Mr. Hoffman reported sales at i!-l.'> to .')-'.0. 

M. D. Kendig, of Manor, reimrted the tobacco a« 
good ; but there is no market as yet. Farmers want 
to sell but feel assured the times are not favorable to 
hiirh prices. 

Wehsteh L. Hershey, of West Hempfield, re- 
ported sales at from VJ. to 10 cents. The cf)ndition 
of the crop is good and a considerable amount has 
been sold. 

Reading oi Essays. 

Sylvester Kennedy, according to appointment, read 
the "following essay on manures: 

At the last meeting of this association the subject 
of manures being up, I advanced some views at 
variance with those of many of the members present, 
and was asked to give my views on the subject at 
some future meeting, which I now propose to do. 



[ March, 

The question marked out by the society, " Can 
manure be made equally as good without the farm- 
ers feeding their grain to their cattle as by feeding 
it?" was not the question as I argued it, but does it 
pay the farmers to feed their grain to their cattle. 
By pay I mean the benefit to their manure pile, or in 
any other vvaj any profit may seem to accrue. These 
two questions run so nearly parallel that by answer- 
ing the one you may answer the other, only that the 
last gives a little more light and latitude to the 

In ventilating this subject I know I shall encounter 
the prejudices of those who have been led to believe 
that a farm can only be kept in a fertile condition by a 
farmer feeding all his corn and oats to his cattle, 
and in this way transferring it to his manure pile. 
And this idea has been so thoroughly ground in by 
parental precept and example that I may use the old 
proverb, that " the fathers have eaten the sour 
grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge." 
And there are now old fogies in Manor and other 
townships so set in their opinions that what their 
fathers did was right that they pursue the same old 
trodden path to the mill with a stone in one end of 
the sack and grain in the other. Now I want them 
to discard these old fogy ideas and adopt those of 
Young America, of thinking for themselves. Cir- 
cumstances are continually changing, and what may 
seem advantageous to-day may not be so to-morrow. 
The time was when the subject of manures, ground 
bone, phosphates, A:e., was not spoken of, and for two 
reasons : 1st, a farmer did not think he had done 
well unless he got double his first cost when he sold 
his cattle, and, therefore, corn-fed manure came in 
as a consequence and secondary matter; and 2d, 
because he could send his grain to market condensed 
in form of beef, cheaper than he could hall it to 
market. This was before the era of railroads. Then 
Lancaster and Chester counties could put a corner 
on the market for several months in the year ; then 
a few hundred supplied the market-; now it takes as 
many thousands, and Lancaster and Chester coun- 
ties don't supply one-tenth of what they did then. 
Chester county, which used to be the banner county 
for grazing fat cattle, has now gone almost entirely 
into dairying, and Lancaster does little in comparison 
to her former greatness in that line. Ai.d why is all 
this ? Simply because it don't pay. If it was not for 
our large exportations to foreign countries of both 
live stock and beef in refrigerator vessels, beef would 
not bring four cents per pound in our market to-day. 
The great West is only just beginning to be de- 
veloped, and she can now send her produce, corn, 
etc., cheaper to market, condensed in beef and pork, 
than by any other methods. Texas is now sending 
her beef, net weight, in refrigerator cars and under- 
selling both us and the Westin price, and this is only 
the beginning of the end. And now I predict that in 
five, or at most ten years, it will not be argued that 
it pays to feed grain to cattle. 

Now let us see what it costs the farmer to make 
beef, and we will have a better idea of the cost of 
grain for the manure pile. From observation and 
from the best information I can get from our best 
feeders, I find that about 200 pounds is the average 
weight put on cattle ; some make 300, and by graz- 
ing in the fall, and feeding late in the spring, 400 
pounds may be put on. A fair average is 200, and 
that takes 40 bushels of grain or 20 bushels per 100 
pounds. Now, the 40 bushels, at .50 cents per bushel, 
will cost $20 ; this is a low estimate of the price of 
grain, and it will cost five cents per bushel to pay 
the grinding, making .5.5 cents per bushel, or $22 for 
200 weight, or 11 cents per pound of weight put on, 
and about five pounds for every bushel of grain fed ; 
this is the debtor side. 

Now, let us look at the credit side for our profits. 
The average price of feeding cattle I suppose to be 
about 5}i cents per pound. Some have paid, I am 
told, 6 and G}4, and even 7 cents for fine cattle. But 
I wish to make a low estimate of cost of cattle and 
feed, so that no complaint shall be made that I have 
not made a fair expose. Now, the quotation of the 
Philadelphia beef market is from o% to 63,2' cents 
per pound, the latter for choice, and that is one cent 
per pound more for choice than any Lancaster beef 
cattle will bring, as you may notice that this quota- 
tion is entirely for Western cattle. Western cattle 
bring more for two reasons ; first, because we don't 
get the best cattle here to feed, and second, by being 
several days on the road in cars they make more net 
weight per 100 pounds of beef than cattle only one 
day in the cars. The best Lancaster county cattle 
therefore bring but 5\^ cents per pound, and it takes 
at least on-half cent per pound, taking loss of weight 
and other expenses, to get our cattle to market, thus 
netting us five cents per pound, making us lose five 
cents per pound on first cost in the original weight. 
Now I have shown that every pound of beef we 
put on costs us Sll per 100 pounds, and 200 pounds 
costing $22, and by netting us at home §10 for 200 
pounds, we lose §12 per steer, and add to that a loss 
of half a cent per pound on first cost of weight of 
steer, 1,000 pounds being $5, viz: 12 plus 5 makes 
$17 loss on each steer in feeding, not counting any 
loss of substance of hay, fodderand corn fed to the 
Now let us sum up results in profit and loss : 

20 cattle, wt.. 1,000 fts. each= 20,000 tbs.,at SJJ'C. ^lt).$l,100 00 
20 cattle, 800 bush, feed, at 55c. ^ bush 440 00 

:$1.640 00 


20 cattle, wt.l, 200 tliB. each-24,000 lbs., at 6c. ^ ft. .$1,200 00 
By credit to the manure pile 340 00 

$1,540 00 

Here we have the very respectable sum of $340, 
which is supposed in some way to have been added 
to the manure pile. If invested in lime, that money 
would buy 3,400 bushels, which would manure fifty 
acres ; or, if used in the purchase of plaster, it would 
buy thirty-four tons, or three and a-half car loads, 
which, if applied to the farm, would, in my estima- 
tion, be of far more benefit to the soil than that 
which might be derived from the supposed increased 
value of the manure. 

Now, we come to the point : How much substance 
do the cattle take out of the hay, cornfodder, &c.? 
They consume, you say, perhaps nothing but what 
passes to beef and the offal that passes into the 
manure pile. I say more than that. As well might 
you say the fuel you put into a stove all passes off in 
smoke and ashes. Condense the smoke and weigh 
the ashes and you have a very small portion of the 
original weight of fuel left. The rest passes off in 
heat to make comfortable the outer man. Just so in 
feeding cattle ; it takes a large portion of the feed 
you give them to generate the heat and keep life and 
action in the animal. Every motion he makes is 
just so much of the supply used up — extracted from 
the feed he consumes, and not to be counted in the 
manure pile. 

An important question arises : Can you convert 
your hay, fodder, straw, &c., into manure, and as 
good, without feeding grain ? I say you can. Put 
on layer after layer of this vegetable mass, and to 
each layer add plaster as you think it requires, and 
the rain will soon decompose it for you ; and as you 
have a credit of $340 from not feeding grain, for 
which you can purchase 34 tons of plaster (33^ car- 
loads) at flO per ton, or 30 tons of plaster and 400 
bushels of lime to go to your manure pile. 

And here I wish you to especially notice that for 
every pound of grain fed you have the value of and 
can put on 1'^ pounds plaster. Now is not this bet- 
ter and of more value than feeding grain ? I do not 
say you shall use the whole of 34 tons ofplaster, but use 
as much as you think necessary, and have the rest 
in value to put on your farm in any other way, or 
for pocket money. 

In this calculation you will see I have made no 
account of possible loss by cattle dying, of what 
might be made from keeping horses from the city, or 
dry cows bought in the fall to come fresh in the 
spring, all of which might be brought into the profit 

It was contended at a former meeting that whers 
cattle are fed the farms are more productive and 
show better results. With this I do not agree, as I 
know farms the past year in my neighborhood which 
raised 00 bushels corn per acre, and as good wheat 
as any of the cattle feeders, and this where no cattle 
had been fed for several years ; and beside those 
spoken of as not so productive, they did not likely 
apply any of the credits shown before in favor of 
not feeding. 

It was said at our last meeting that facts are stub- 
born things, I say better than this, that figures won't 
lie ; and I want our friends of Manor, who seem to 
be wise above what is written, to make a better 

My friend Kurtz, of Mount Joy, is, I suppose, 
among the largest cattle feeders in the county. Does 
he raise more or better tobacco or other crops on his 
farm and get better prices than those who do not 
feed cattle ! 

Now let us see why the West can feed cattle and 
send them to market cheaperthan we can. To make 
figures easy to calculate we will say a steer weighing 
1,000 lbs. will take 40 bushels of corn, or 2,240 fts., 
to put on '200 lbs. of beef, and in place of sending 
2, '240 lbs. of grain she sends 200 lbs. of beef, saving 
over a ton weight of freight in every beef they send 
to market. 

It looks very much as if raising grain and feeding 
cattle, particularly the latter, is about played out, 
and the sooner we can get to productions in wliich 
the West cannot compete, the sooner may we look 
for more profitable investments. It may be done in 
milk, market truck, and, perhaps, in some other 
ways ; or, if Western soil is not adapted for raising 
first quality tobacco, we may make it pay, and we 
have a better chance to compete with the West in 
tobacco than any other crop, even if she can raise as 
good quality tobacco as we can, from the fact that 
labor is much more costly and scaice in the West 
than here, and it requires more labor in proportion 
to the amount of land put in than any other crop. 

It may be contended that this essny is more calcu- 
lated for agriculture in general than tobacco ; but I 
contend that anything that will throw any light or 
have a bearing on the productiveness of the soil is 
as necessary to the cultivation of tobacco as any 

other crop — in short, what is sauce for the goose is 
sauce for the gander. 

Henrt Kdetz though the essay was a pretty J 
good one, but the essayist had made some wrong es- fl 
timafes. His manure pile made in the above way 
would be next to worthless. On such land not more 
than a ton of hay can be raised per acre. (Here 
Mr. Kennedy inquired of Mr. Kurtz how much corn 
he raised per acre from his grain fed manure pile, 
when it was discovered that Mr. Kennedy raised a 
good deal more than Mr. Kurtz). He said we pay 
too ranch for our cattle ; we should combine to- 
gether not to do it. He knew of an instance where 
a Western dealer got 5% and 7 cents for stock cattle, 
but even then he believes money can be made out of 
them by feeding them grain. Such corn fed manure 
lasts years, and its effects are plainly visible for a 
long time. He kept an account of an 8 acre field 
which he planted one year in wheat and one in to- 
bacco, and he got $4,700 worth of produce off it. 
That paid, but he put on 100 bushels of lime per 
acre and as much manure as he conveniently could. 

WiNFiELD S. Kennedy has fed from 30 to 46 
head of cattle each season ; he always goes to Pitts- 
burg and still further West to get his cattle ; in this 
way he buys them right ; he begins with feeding 
four quarts of corn per day, gradually increasing to 
six quarts. Twelve or fourteen bushels of corn are 
all he feeds to a steer ; he makes about $45 or $50 
per steer, and it pays him : he does not take into 
account the grass they eat — only the grain. He 
makes a large amount of good manure. 

Sylvester Kennedy said the pasturing question 
had nothing to do with the subject. If Mr. Kurtz 
can't raise more than fifty bushels of corn to the 
acre, he ought to quit feeding corn to cattle. If it 
is the wrong plan to pay too much for cattle, why 
does Mr. Kurtz do so ? 

Henry Shiffner related the fact that on two 
farms in his neighborhood no cattle are fed ; they 
are surrounded by cattle feeders, but yet they raise 
one-third more corn !ind wheat to the acre than their 
neighbors. He had carefully observed these farms 
for the past seventeen years, and such was the result 
of his observations. Last year he saw many lots of 
tobacco, and also this year, and he has found that 
where cattle are grain-fed on the farm, the tobacco 
is invariably the best, both in quality and quantity. 
No lime was put on the above farms, but only the 
manure made in the ordinary way. 

Sylvester Kennedy did not believe in over- 
liming ; he would put on a smaller quantity and put 
it on more frequently ; he has found this method 
produces the best results. 

John Brady has a field which he limed fourteen 
times in fifteen years, putting on nothing else, and 
has had good crops every time ; there has never been 
a growth of sorrel as is contended when no lime is 
put on land. 

C. L. HuNSECKER said when a farm was worn 
out, how is it to be made productive again? Lime 
or plaster will make hay and corn, and these in 
turn when fed to cattle, will make manure, with 
which the farm's fertility can be kept up indefi- 
nitely. It is absolutely essential that j'ou have barn- 
yard manure as well as lime or plaster. It pays 
farmers within miles of this city to come to town and 
buy manure for their farms. He has seen farms 
where nothing but rich manure is put on the land; 
there was little grain but much straw. Lime was 
needed to give strength to the wheat straw. 

Sylvester Kennedy admitted lime would bring 
up a farm, but that had nothing to do with the 
manure pile. He contended manure of the common 
sort in conjunction with lime, would be better than 
all grain fed manure, and no lime. 

Referred Questions. 

" How many pounds of moisture will tobacco take 
in per hundred pounds, taking dry tobacco as a 

Henky Kurtz did not know, but he has been told 
that a ton of dry tobacco will absorb at least 300 
pounds of moisture. _ He steamed some once himself 
and the gain was about forty ]>ounds to the case. A 
packer who was present thought it would gain nearly 
one-third in weight. 

" What per cent, will tobacco lose in the process 
of sweating after being cased 3" 

Henry Shiffner thought tobacco will lose forty 
pounds per hundred after being packed in a damp 
condition. He saw some that lost twenty percent. ^ 
of its weight. " 

Washington L. Hershet had some ninety cases 
reweighed and it lost ten and one-half per cent. 

M. D. Kendig had a lot that lost twelve and one- 
half per cent. 

Henry Kurtz thought from twelve to fifteen per 
cent, is the usual loss ; if not sweated properly the 
loss may be greater. 

" What distance apart should the plants be set to 
produce the best results?" 

Henry Kuktz thought from 20 to 24 inches the 
best distance. Some plant from 10 to 20 inches. The 
rows should be four feet alternating with three feet 
rows. At these distances he has been very successful. 

John Brady reported a fie'd that was planted in 
four feet rows with plants 3U inches apart in the 




rows, which proilnced a tremendous crop. At that 
distauoe the sun can have full |ilay on the plants. 
■ Henkv Siiiki'NEU said experience taught him that 
26 inches was the hest ilistance in the row, wirh rows 
3l.j feet apart. The plants need plouty of sun and 
cannot have it at closer distances. 

At this point the debate on the expediency of send- 
ing samples of Lancaster county tobacco to the 
French Exposition was resumed. 

The French Exposition. 

I. L. Lamiiis said it was still time to send eamplee 
of tobacco to the French F.xposilion. lie alluded to 
the fact, previously stated, that a meeting witli this 
end in view was called and none hut reporters were 
present. Since the last meeting he had received 
labels, instructions and other things from the Agri- 
cultural Department at Washington, hut he was mi- 
willing to meet all the expenses that were to be in- 
curred, personally. 

A good deal of discussion was carried on between 
the members on this subject. The main question 
was — "Can the money be raised to cover the neces- 
sary expenses ?'' Various plans were proposed to 
carry out the project. Kut as there was no one ready 
to say how much the cost would be, it was found 
ditflcult to know how to go about tlie matter. J. .\I. 
Frantz discouraged the project. He said as tobacco 
is a government monopoly in France, and as that 
government has agents iu Baltimore and Kiehmond 
all the time, who are fully posted as to the qualities 
of Lancaster county tobacco, and all the other to- 
baccos raised in the country, we would have no pecu- 
niary interest in sending goods over there for exhibi- 
tion, lie did not think there was any special pecuni- 
ary benefit to be derived from it, and thought it 
might as well be given up. It was finally moved that 
the members present be requested to try and raise 
money and gather samples aud meet on next Monday, 
the liSth inst., at 'J o'clock, p. m., to report progress. 
The question was finally disposed of in this way. 

It was moved that a committee of three be ap- 
pointed to prepare business for the next meeting. 
The President appointed Sylvester Kennedy, J. M. 
Frantz and Washington L. Hershey the committee. 
Referred Questions. 

" What variety of tobaeco should be cultivated ?" 
Referred to I. L. Landis. 

" What is the best method of growing tobacco 
plants ?" Keferred to John Brady. 

For General Discussion. 

" Is early plowing advisable for the culture of 
tobacco !" 

There being no rurthcr business, on motion, the 
society adjourned. 


A stated meeting was held on Saturday, February 
2.3d, Vice President Kev. J. 11. Dubbs iu the chair. 
Five members were present. The donations to the 
museum consisted of a bottle containing numerous 
specimens of the "California potato cricket" {Slc7io- 
palmiUa talpa), sent to Mr. Kathvon via U. S. mail, 
by Mr. A. L. Fuller, of East Oakland, Almada 
county, California. These are about the size of our 
iH.ole crickets, and found very injurious to the potato 
crops ; being, however, also carnivorous and very 
pugnacious, they fight and feed upon each other. 
Thus their temper is a cheek upon their excessive 
increase. One bottle with a twig of a peach tree, 
covered with scale insects, first noticed on a single 
tree in Readin.', by Mr. William Young, of that city, 
five years ai.'o; they have spread extensively since 
and two of his trees have perished — hence they must 
be attended to. They seem to differ from those on 
the pear trees, hut are evidently a species of Lecanium 
and for the present may be called Lecanium pcrsi- 
cutn, the name given them by Mr. Rathvon. Master 
Harry A. Uubbs donated a specimen of cannel coal 
from Cornwall, England. Mrs. Zell brought a large 
portion of the stem of a "castor oil plant,'' (Itecinun 
communis) three inches in diameter, hard and dry; 
the outer portion woody, of a fine grain and satin- 
like gloss,, very light, rather brittle, yet strong; 
interiorly hollow, with cross nodes every four inches. 
It might be used in fancy cabinetwork. Mr. W. P. 
Bolton had an exotic flower which he wished a name 
for. It belonged to the natural order of the Acan- 
thace^, much in character like our native Ifianc- 
thera growing along the water's edge on the Cones- 
toga. The numerous species of Juslicia have been 
divided; this may be the Dcclepiera. Mr. J. H. 
Ryan found a double row of imbricated, ovate, grey 
colored bodies on a twig, which was new to him. 
They proved to be the eggs of a species of green 
hopper near the size of our katydid, but of a dif- 
ferent genus, the FhyUoptcra vblongifolia. 

Additions to the Library. 

The Lancaster Faumek for February ; Mrs. 
Gibbons sent two Journah, containing articles writ- 
ten by her ; also a lieformcr, book catalogues and 
numerous circulars of publications. Mr. Rathvon 
deposited 5 envelopes containing 48 scraps of histo- 
rical interest. As chairman of the committee he re- 
ported that the Young Men's Christian Association 
bad abandoned the idea of fitting up a room, as bad 

been mentioned, and per request the committee was 
discharged. Before reading the papers, .Mr. Rathvon 
ofi'ered a resolution : 

Jiexuli/eil, That Microscopy be recognized as a 
branch of Natural Science to be cultivated and de- 
veloped by the members of this society, In connec- 
tion with other branches of science, and report their 
observations at each meeting under the rules of 
ScifutiJIc ^fiKc^^Uttn^/, <'ither verbally or in writing, so 
far as their time and i>leasure will allow. 

Papers Read. 

Jlr. Rathvon read a paper. No. 491, on the "Cali- 
fornia potato cricket," giving an interesting history 
of its relations and habits. He also read a paper, 
"Entomological Kccord," No. 4'.12, giving the history 
and habits of the scale insect found on the peach 
trees, and those of similar habits on other fruit 
trees. J. StaullVr rcail a paper, with illustrations, 
of Infusoria, No. 401!. Having put some moss in a 
bottle, to which hydrant water was added, he was 
occasif)nally exhibiting the crowds of animalcuhv to 
persons coming to his olUee — about five marked spe- 
cies were bred in this lot. The most remarkalile one 
was of larger size than the rest, although by no 
means visible to the naked eye or common magnify- 
ing pocket lens. This assumed very numerous 
forms in c^uick succession — protean-like — but the 
surprise was to find one of those infested with para- 
sites and actually feeding upon it. Mr. (Jeorge O. 
Sanderson, who for some time has been putting heat 
regulators on furnaces, in this city, called attention 
to this fact ; while looking at one of these he saw 
smaller creatures crawling over the larger one. On 
inspection such proved to be the case — like buzzards 
upon a carrion. This truly verifies the old adage. 
Remember this is all in a single drop of water; 
hence it is true that 

Great fleas and small fleas 

Have little fleas to bite 'em ; 
Little fleas have lesser fleas, 

So ou ad iufiaitum. 

No further business offering, adjourned to meet 
Saturday, March 30, 1878. 


Raising Tobacco Plants. 

As the time is approaching when tobacco growers 
will have to prepare their seed beds and provide 
plants for the coming crop, we give below the me- 
thod recommended by Dr. B. R. Senscney, in his 
book on the cultivation and preparation of tobacco 
for market. As most of the plants grown in this 
county are raised in open beds instead of hot beds, 
we give the former method as best adapted to the 
requirements of the large majority of our tobacco 
farmers. The general belief is, and it is doubtless 
correct, that hot bed grown tobaeco plants are not so 
hardy, nor so likely to withstand the vicissitudes of 
the season. 

Open Air Plants. 

This is the best mode of raising plants in .all dis- 
tricts where the climate will allow of working the 
ground and sowing the seed early in the month of 
April, or the latter part of March. It is less expen- 
sive, less trouble, and the plants are hardier and less 
apt to wilt and die, when transplanted from their 
beds to permanent quarters. It has, however, the 
disadvantage which I before mentioned, first, of dan- 
ger of being frost killed, and also inability, very 
often, of maturing them soon enough, so as to allow 
of setting out in time to secure, after cutting, a good 
second crop from the same stalks. 

This is no small matter, for if an early start be 
secured and the crop cut about the first to the tenth 
of August, and the fall be a long and open one, you 
may secure an after yield, jiaying from fifty to 
seventy-five dollars per acre — or even more. I am 
thus plain in these details, because in cultivating 
this plant it is well to observe every point which will 
.add to success. I calculate my second crop will at 
least pay for manuring and plowing the land. 

In preparing my seed bed 1 am always careful to 
select a warm and sheltered locality, looking to the 
south or east. Select, if you can, a piece of new- 
ground, protected at the north and west by a copse, 
piece of woodland or a large building or close board 

Then rake all the dead leaves, old brnsh, corn 
stalks and old limbs of trees into small heaps about 
twenty feet from each other and then set afire. 
When they arc thoroughly consumed, have the ashes 
raked cleverly over the surface which is intended for 
your seed bed. Then have the ground well spaded 
to the depth at least of twelve inches. While it is 
being spaded, work into the furrows a plentiful sup- 
ply of well rotted horse manure. After spading the 
ground, have every clod broken, all stone and stubble 
removed and rake it clean and smooth. Then top 
dress the surface with a comjwst made up of horse 
droppings two parts, leached ashes two parts, and 
one part Peruvian guano or chicken maiuire. This 
must be well raked and thoroughly incorporated in 
the surface soil. When this is done the ground is in 
readiness for the seed. The ground must not be too 
wet, neither too dry, when the seed Is sown, but 

select a day when there Is an appearance of approach- 
ing rain, or one or two days after a light rain. Do 
not sow the seed on a windy day, as the light grain 
will be blown and fall tnievcidy over the surface of 
the bed, but choose a mild and calm morning. For 
over twenty-live S(|uare yards of surface, take one 
tablespoonful of seed anil mix thoroughly In about 
oiii' peck of grounil plaster or finely sifted ashes. 
Then sow It broadcast over the bed, endeavoring to 
secure as even an application to the whole surface ns 
possible. Secure from the slaughter yard about one 
bushel of hog hair and spread It evenly over the bed. 
'I'his answers several purposes. It secures warmth 
atid ]>rotection to the delicate young plants, and, 
chi-mical ingredients which tend to promote their 
rapid growth. When this is done, get a few bundles 
of small branches of pine or cedar ami place them 
over the surface of the bed. These also furnish heat 
and protection, and may be removed when the i>lantB 
have grown to the size of a silver dollar. 

During the iirowth of the plants great attention 
must be given to the weeds, taking them out as soon 
as large enouirh to be distinguished from the young 
plants, and this must be done by hand. In a case 
of a ilrought, sprinkle the plants in the evening from 
a waterini; pot, giving tliem a thorough soaking. 
This will be all that will be found necessary to 
mature the i>lants for use when wanted to set out in 
the patch. 

■Views of a Connecticut Tobacco Grower. 

An intelligent Connecticirt river valley grower 
favored us in an interview within a day or two with 
the following personal view of the situation and 
prospect in the valley : 

" "The business of tohacco is now a very poor one 
with us. Prices have got so very low that none of 
the growers can raise tobaeco at a profit, and further- 
more, their present condition is generally bad, owing 
to the system of gamlding which they have indulged 
in for the past several years, and which has nearly 
ruined them financially. By gambling I mean that 
farmers have been in the habit of raising, we will 
say, a crop of tobacco one year, ami not getting cost 
price for it, have turned right around the next year 
and got into debt to raise another crop, thinking to 
recover the losses of the previous year. When they 
raised good crops they were so stimulated that they 
would at once seek to enlarge their business by buy- 
ing land, erecting sheds, and experimenting In com- 
mercial fertilizers, etc., purely on speculation. 
There are two classes of growers who arc going to 
abandon the growing of tobacco in the Connecticut 
valley, and probably elsewhere as well; one is the 
capitalists who in past years have been raising from 
fifteen to fifty acres. The prices have so depreciated 
iu consequence of the large supjily that has been grown 
and held by them in the hope that they would 
get what it cost to grow it, that they are 
complately discouraged, and at present they are 
throwing their tobacco into the market at almost 
whatever price they can get. This class say they 
have got through with the growing of tobacco. The 
other class comprises the small growers, who, with 
a few acre? of land, have grown all the tobaeco they 
could and have got into debt in doing .so, and have 
had to sell their tobacco for the last three years at 
less than cost prices. They have parted with their 
tobaccos at a sacrifice in order to meet their liabili- 
ties, and now many of them are compelled to leave 
the business and places. Hereafter the tobacco to be 
grown will be mainly grown by the regular class of 
farmers, who will raise a few acres of tobacco each 
year — making and using chiefly their own manures 
— and eultiv.ate sutticient other farm produce to main- 
tain themselves, and set aside their tobacco for their 
money crop. All the tobacco that will be raised for 
the coming few years will be grown by that class, 
and will be put into the market and sold green. 
They will not try to make themselves dealers by 
boxing and casing their crops, as has been done in 
the past few years, greatly to the injury of both the 
growers and dealers. I don't think the tobacco mar- 
ket would have been in nearly as bad a condition as 
it is at the present time if the farmers had sold their 
tobacco directly to the dealers instead of bo.xing it. 
When the dealers bought the tobacco in the valley, 
prices could be set upon it and its [wsitlvc value 
known. Afte.- it was sweated, when one dealer had 
his tobaeco sampled he knew what each class of 
goods was worth in market ; and if a manufacturer 
went to A to buy a bill of goods, aud the dealer had 
in his warehouse the goods the manufacturer wanted, 
whatever price was set upon these goods, the manu- 
facturer was aware that if he went to B's ware- 
house he would have to pay the same price for 
the same quality of grad'es there that he would 
have to pay A. But, as the market Is now, with 
this vast amount of sweated tobacco In the growers' 
hands, there can be no regular price established on 
any quality of goods, because the growers are not 
go<>d enough judges of sweated leaf to know what 
the tobacco is worth when it is sweated; and the 
maimfaeturer, taking advantage of this, starts right 
out Into the country and goes round among the 
growers and picks up his stock sometimes very 
cheap. He will go riding around until he comes to 
some one who is offering his tobacco for less than it 



[March, 1878. 

is worth in the market, or else he will fimi people 
that are hard pressed for money and have g:ot to sell, 
and, of course, in that way he often gets his stocks 
cheaper than he could of a dealer. One reason why 
so much poor tobacco is left in the country is because 
it has been held by the growers and there has been 
no chance to export it. The trade has not had con- 
trol of it. In years past, when the dealers handled 
the tobacco, any of it that was poor, after it was 
sweated, was shipped right out of the country, and 
that kept the market continually drained of the poor 
grades. But since the grower has tried to make 
himself a dealer, a great deal of the poor tobacco is 
persistently held in the growers' hands, and left here 
in the country as a drug in the market. If the 
growers in the valley had never been tempted to 
save a dollar by bo.xing their tobacco, it would have 
been a great deal better for them, as there would not 
now be much, if any, old tobacco left in their pos- 
session." — Tobacco Leaf. 

Pennsylvania is rapidly assuming a leading posi- 
tion in the cultivation and manufacture of tabacco. 
The supremacy for many years enjoyed by the 
tobacco-growers of the Connecticut Valley is being 
stoutly disputed. Pennsylvania leaf tobacco is daily 
becoming popular, and in all the counties of the 
State in which it is cultivated large establishments 
for the manufacture of cigars have been established 
and are doing a very successful business. — AUentown 
Chronicle and Herald. 

Our valuable and usually correct exchange is 
slightly wrong in the statement we copy above. 
Instead of stoutly disputing the supremacy of the 
Connecticut Valley, Pennsylvania already leads that 
famous tobacco-growing district. The product of Con- 
necticut in 187.5 was 9,900,000, and of Massachusetts 
for the same year, S,.500,000, making a total production 
of 18,400,000. Lancaster county alone grew nearly, 
if not quite, that quantity of the weed in 1876, 
while the entire yield of the whole State for the 
same period was between 30,000,000 and .35,000,000 
pounds. We therefore already lead the Connecticut 
valley in the weight and money value of her to- 
bacco crop, and while we have not yet reached the 
enormous production of Virginia, Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky and Missouri, we are rapidly closing in on 
Virginia and Missouri in the matter of pounds, and 
already exceed them in the money value of our 
crop. — New Era. 


How to Use Bones as a Fertilizer. 

The easiest' manner of preparing bones for use is 
to burn them with wood. The phosphate of lime is 
all in the ashes, but the nitrogen is lost as the animal 
matter is burned away. But an equivalent of am- 
monia could be purchased in the shape of dried 
blood, meat, or fish guano, for less money than it 
would cost to reduce'the bones to a fine powder in 
their raw condition. One hundred pounds of dry 
bones contain forty-five pounds of gelatin, in which 
there are about five pounds of ammonia. This could 
be replaced by twenty pounds of sulphate of am- 
monia, at a cost of five and one-half cents per pound, 
or one dollar and ten cents. As the sulphate is at 
once available, while the ammonia of bones is only 
slowly produced, half or a fourth of the former would 
supply an equivalent of the bones. 


The Ferns of North America. — Illustrated by 
superbly colored plates. Text by Prof. Daniel C. 
Eaton, of Yale College , illustrations by Mr. James 
H. Emei-ton ; and published by S. E. Cassino, Natu- 
ralists' Agency, Salem, Mass. This splendid and 
much needed work is published in royal quarto parts, 
of not less than 20 pages each, and each part will be 
accompanied by three quarto plates, finely executed, 
and colored by chromo lithography. By subscrip- 
tion at $1.00 per part. This beautiful work will be 
issued at intervals of two months betweetj each part, 
and will be continued to about 20 numbers. Parts 1, 
'J, and 3 are now before us, and we question whether 
the work can be excelled by any other publication of 
the kind — any where on this planet — certainly not by 
any other in the United States. The publisher has 
availed himself of the best talent, the best material, 
the best artistic and mechanical execution, and has 
access to the best collections in the country, and 
cannot fail to produce a work as perfect in all its de- 
tails, as the present state of science and mechanism 
can aflord. There are no subjects of the vegetable 
realm that are more interesting, easier preserved in 
their natural condition, and more accessible in local- 
ities where they are found, than the ferns ; and this 
work will comprise all the species known to North 

The Secretary's Third Annual Report of the 
American Berkshire Association, together with sug- 
gestions, instructions and rules governing applica- 
tions for entry to the iJecoj-;;. George M.Caldwell, 
of Williamsville, Illinois, President, with 27 Vice 
Presidents, from as many diflerent States. Philip 
Springer, Springfield, Illinois, Secretary and Treas- 
urer. A handsome little diamond pamphlet of 12 
pages. The attention of those interested in Berk- 
Shire stock is called to the following notice : 

If not already furnished with entry blanks send 
for a supply, and on them make your applications, 
without further delay, for registry in the volume 
now in course of preparation. 

Form 20 C is designed for the registry of the im- 
mediate descendants of recorded sires and dams. 

Form 20 D is for animals not the immediiite de- 
scendants of recorded sires and dams. 

In your request for entry blanks state how many 
of each kind you are likely to need. 

Oakland Stud of Perchehon Norman 
Horses. — M. W. Dunham, importer and breeder, 
Wayne, Du Page county, Illinois. Thirty-five miles 
west of Chicago, on the Freeport Division, Chicago 
and Northwest Railway. The catalogue of Mr. 
Dunham for 1878, is an ooiavo pamphlet of 48 pp. 
of letter press, besides twenty full page illustrations 
of the choicest horse-stock in the country; together 
with a map of his locality and the railroads leading 
thereto, executed in the highe,=it art of engraving. 
Any of our patrons who contemplate investing in 
this popular breed of farm and domestic horses, will 
do well to visit Mr. Dunham's Oakland Farm before 
they make their final purchases. Under any cir 
cumstauces, they should send for one of his illus- 
trated catalogues for 1878, if they desire to act intel- 
ligently on the subject; and be sure to give their 
name and address in full, including post office, 
county and State. We call the attention of our 
readers to the illustration and description of Apollo, 
al a noble specimen of the useful horse, on page 35 
of this number of The Farmer, to be followed by 
others belonging to this famous stud, at suitable 
intervals, during the year, or as may be demanded. 
Tue Poltry World. — For the fancier, the family 
and the market poulterer : Devoted exclusively to the 
subject of poultry, in all its various branches. An 
illustrated demy quarto of 16 pages, published by H. 
H. Stoddard, Hartford, Conn., at 81.25 a year, in- 
eluding postage. Clubs of two or more copies, sent 
to separate addresses, at $1.00 per copy. The pub- 
lisher proposes to continue, during 1878, the issue of 
full page chromos, illustrating the choicest varieties 
of fowls, and those who saw his chromos of last may form an idea of what they may expect the 
present year. Twelve of these colored plates will be 
furnished for the additional sum of 75 cents, every 
one of which is worth that money. This publication 
has reached its seventh volume, and its subscription 
to twenty-five thousand is from which it may be in- 
ferred that it is one of the " livest " poultry journals 
in this country, or even in the entire world. We can 
conscientiously say to intelligent and progressive 
poultry breeders, "you cannot possibly afford to do 
without it," so send along your dimes at once and 
secure a copy. 

When bran new pianos can be bought for $125, 
and pianos containing Mathushek's New Patent Du- 
plex Overstrung Scale — which the highest musical 
authorities acknowledge to be the greatest improve- 
ment ever put into a square piano — for only §200, we 
ought to become a musical and music-loving people. 
This is what the Mendelssohn Piano Co., No. 56 
Broadway, New York, are doing — selling pianos 
from their factory at these prices, and all styles — 
Grand, Square and Upright. The great reputation 
of these pianos — having been unanimously recom- 
mended for the liighest honors at the great Centen- 
nial Exhibition — and the high character of the com- 
pany for honorable and straightforward dealins, 
should insure for them liberal patronage. Tlieir 
illustrated and descriptive catalogue, of forty odd 
pages, giving an account of their vulcanized lumber 
process, and highest testimonials of leading musi- 
cians, will be mailed free to all, and all inquiries by 
letter cheerfully answered. 

"Seed Annual," 1878, D. M. Terry & Co., 
Detroit, Michigan. Where so' much excellence ex- 
ists it is difficult to discriminate, but we admonish 
our eastern seedsmen to take care of their laurels, 
else they may be carried ofl" by their western breth- 
ren. This annual is a royal 12 mo. of 146 pages, 
exclusive of the beautifully embellished covers, and 
two full page colored illustrations. It is profusely 
illustrated with the finest cuts, from beginning to 
end, representing vegetable and flowering plants, 
designs for flower-beds, the most improved seed 
drills, gariien implements, &c. It also contains 
valuable tables, embracing careful selections, weight 
of seeds, quantity sown on an acre, itc, &c. If this 
catalogue is a fair representation of the character of 
the firm and their business, it is a credit to the West. 
Office, stores, and warehouses, Nos. 199, 201, 203, 
and 205 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Carrots, Mangold Wurtzels and Sugar 
Beets. — How to raise them, how to keep them, and 
how to feed them. By James J. H. Gregory. Author 
of "onion raising," "cabbage raising," etc., etc. 
Marblehead, Mass., 1877. A handsome 12 mo. of 01 
pages in paper covers, and fourteen fine illustrdtions. 
This neat little volume is printed on fine calendered 
paper and contains an index embracing 33 subjects, 
20 of which are on carrots and 13 on mangold wurtz- 
els ; all written in that plain, practical and truthful 
style which so eminently distinguishes all his writings 
on field and garden vegetation. Price 30 cents by 
mail. Just the book for young and progressive 
farmers and gardeners, containing the "wheat" of 

the subject, with the "chaff" blown away. Will the 
author send us a copy of his work on " Squashes, 
and how to raise them ?" 

Flower Seeds and Bulbs. — Encourage home 
enterprise, concentrate your resources, buy at home 
and save risks and money. If you desire flower and 
vegetable seeds, Japan lilies, tuberoses, gladiolas, 
camias, caladiums, dahlias, and summer flowering 
bulbs and roots, the slio.test way is to make applica- 
tion to Sig. W. Heinitsh, at C. A. Heinitsh's drug 
store. East King street. A large supply received 
from the best and most reliable growers in the 
country. Catalogues free on application. Subscrip- 
tions taken for The Ladiex' Floral Cabinet, Tick's 
Fioral Monthly, and The Lancaster Farmer. 

Descriptive Catalooue of Plants, alphabeti- 
cally arranged in classes, Class 1. Plants of special 
interest. Class 2. Additional list of green-house 
plants. Class 3. Additional list of hot-house plants. 
Forty-eight pages octavo, with 25 illustrations of the 
most beautii'ul flowering plants, including tlie rarest 
floral novelties. This is the 31st edition oif Ellwanger 
& Barry's No. 3 catalogue, especially designed for 
1878, aiid includes the select bedding plants, chrys- 
anthemums, dahlias, &e., cultivated and for sale at 
the Mount Hope nurseries, established in 1840, at 
Rochester, New York, by these enterprising nur- 

Vick's Flower and Vec4etable Garden is the 
most beautiful work of the kind in the world. It 
contains nearly 1.50 pages, hundreds of fine illustra- 
tions, and six chromo plates of flowers, beautifully 
drawn and colored from nature. Price 50 cents in 
paper covers; §1.00 in elegant cloth. Printed in 
German and English. 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 32 
pages, fine illustrations, and colored plate in every 
number. Price $1.25 a year; five copies for ?5.00. 

Vick's Catalogue, 3U0 illustrations, only 2 cents. 
Address, James Viek, Rochester, New York. 

The New Guide to Rose Culture. — The Dingee 
and Conard Rose Company, Rose Growers, West 
Grove, Chester county. Pa. Roses by mail a specialty. 
This is a handsome octavo of 51 pages, with choice 
illustrations, and with a large amount of valuable 
reading matter on the cultivation of roses and other 
flowering plants, together with instructions of a 
practical character, for the destruction or prevention 
of such insects as usually infest the rose. Send for 
a copy of the Guide, make your selection, and then 
send for the plants. 

Descriptive Seed Catalogue, for 1877-8. 
William Renuies, Toronto, Canada , 80 pages octavo, 
on fine tinted calendered paper ; with lOS illustra- 
tions of field .and garden vegetations, embracing 
fruits, melons, vegetables, herbs, flowers, &e., with 
instructions in the management of hot-beds and 
cold-beds, with a copious alphabetically arranged 
index. Mr. Renuies seeds were awarded a Grand 
Prize Medal at the National Exhibition held in Fair- 
mount Park in 1876. Send for a copy. 

The Western Agriculturist, Quincy, Illinois, 
comes to us this year enlarged and improved, upon 
entering its tenth volume. It is now the oldest 
monthly in the West, and that Dollar Seed Premium 
given to each subscriber, is one cause of its success- 
ful and widely extending circulation, which has led 
to this improvement these times, making so desirable 
a journal for every Western farmer. The price is 
still $1.10. 

New Music — "Silver Gray." — We have received 
a beautiful song and chorus, entitled "Silver Gray," 
composed by S. Turney. It is said to be one of the 
prettiest songs now published. Any music dealer 
will mail it to your address on receipt of price, 30 

Published by W. L. THOMPSON & CO., East 
Liverpool, Ohio. 

Vanderbilt's Seed and Illustrated list for 
187S. Every kind of farm and garden seeds and 
implements. Also flower, bird, fruit and tree seeds. 
Peruvian guano, super phosphate, land plaster, &c. 
Plants, trees, shrubs, roots, &c. No. '23 Fulton 
street. New York, 28 pages octavo, elaborately illus- 

L. L. Crocker's spring circular, manufacturer of 
"Buffalo Honest Fertilizers," ammoniated bone 
super phosphate, and pure ground bones. 252 
Washington street, Buffalo, New York., 16 pp. 8 vo. 
No fertilizers in the Union are supported by home 
testimonials of a higher or more practical class of 
farmers than these. 

Report of the proceedings and addresses of 
"Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society, for session of 
1877," held at Lancaster in January of said year. 
Royal octavo of 79 pages and index ; and containing 
one colored and five plain full page illustrations. Pre- 
pared by the officers of the association. 

Twenty-seventh Annual wholesale catalogue 
of nursery stock, for spring of 1878. Foi sale by 
Thomas Jackson, Portland, Maine, 10 pp. 8 vo. A 
very satisfactory detailed price list, which should be 
consulted by all interested. 

Kinzey's Fruit Farm and Small Fruit Nur- 
series, Dayton, Ohio ; 8 pages small octavo with 
four colored illustrations in natural colors. Send for 
catalogue and secure good bargains. 





"Carrots, MHiiRolda ami Sugar Bot'ts. Whut kiiidrt to 
rftise, how to ruisc, aufl how to feed." liy iniiil. Uii ciitH. 
Also, my three works, on '* Ciibbagos, uii-l How to (irow 
Them," '■SquuBhcB. iind How to lirow Them," *' Onions, 
and IIow to (Irow Tliem." Full of Just such minute {lelails 
as farmers wiiuf. Each, 30 cerits, by mail. My largo illus- 
truted Seed Catulogue/rcc to all. 



Miirl>l4>li«*]|<l. MaNti. 

$5 to $20 Addres.s 


at homo. SamplcB worth $■:» free, 
•ess Stinson k Co., Portland, Maiue. 

^^ 0^ ■ B^ Gic-it chance lo juake money. If you 
I I I I ■ I ^■^^^'*^ S^' f^*'**^ >'"" cau get greenbacks. 
■ 1 III II H^^^' need a person in oa cry town to take 
%m %^ bin^ |^nIiscrii>tlonB for the largest, rhea))est 
and KcBt lUiiKtnitod family lublication in the world. Any 
cue can become a successful agent. The most elegant 
works of art given free to subscribers The price is so low 
that almost everybody subscribes. One agent reports mak- 
ing over JIM in a week. A lady agent reports taking over 
407 subscribers in 10 days. All who engage make money 
fast. You cau devote all your time to the business, or only 
your spare time. You need not be away from home over 
night. You can do it as well as others. Full particulurB, 
directions and terms free. Elegant aud expensive outfit 
free. If you want profitable work send us your addresa at 
<)nce. It costs nothing to try the business. No one who 
engages fails to make great pay. Address "The People's 
Journal," Portland, Maiue. 

^|. pHMMMM iBuot easily earned iu these times,but it can be 
tpryrTlT made in three months by any one of either 

^Ik / / / ^*^^'> iu any part of the country who is willing 
#ll I J I to work steadily at the employment that we 
^f furnifih. $66 i>er week in your own town. You 

need not be away from home over night. You can give your 
whole time to the work, or only your spare moments. It 
<j08ts nothing to try the business. Terms and f5 Outfit free. 
Address at once, H, Hallett & Co., Portland, Maiue. 
9-3-1 V 

Flower Seeds. Bqlbs. 

Do not Bend from home for your Flower and Vegetable 
Seeds, Japan Lilies, Tuberoses, Gladiolus, Cannae, Caladi- 
ums, Dahlias, aud otber Summer Flowering Bulbs and 
Koots, but go to 


At Beinilsh'N Drnisi: Store, 16 Kaxt King St., 

■who h^8 received a large supply from the best and most 
reliable growers in the couutry, 


Subscriptions taken for the 






toAereiits* !:>end stamp lor terms. 
• b. C.FoSTEU A Co.tClucinnatUO. 


Vick's Catalogue, — 300 Illustrations, only '2 cents. 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine,— 32 pages, fine 
Ulust rations, and Colored Plate in each number. Price, 
$1.25 a year ; Five copies for $5.00. 

Vick's Flower and Vegetable Garden, 50 cents in 
paper covers ; with elegant cloth covers $l.Oi}. 

All my publications are printed iu English and German. 
A'idress, JAMES VICK, Rochester, N. Y. 


THE subscribers have effected an arrangement with the 
Peruvian Government Agents, by which they have 
constantly on hand 


which they will deliver from their own stores in Philadel- 
phia, or the Government Stores in New York or Baltimore. 

We sell no Guano but what ve Receive Direct from 

Oovernrtient StoreSj 
therefore parties buying of us cau rely on receiving non« 
but a pure article. 


Ko. 141 North M'ater St., Philnd'a. 

Send for Descriptive Catalogue. [10-3-lm 


Applo Trees, 15c. eiicli ; StniKlnril I'enr, 40c. 

each ; Dwarf Pear 30c. each, i^traicberriex, Rwtp- 
berries, and Oraps Tinea by the doz., 100, 1,0U0, or Ui.OOO. 
AU goods packed and delivered at depot without extra 
charge. Price-liat free. Address 8. C. DsCOU, Mo.rks. 
TOWH, Burlington Co., N. J. [10-3-lm. 

p f\T T\ Any worker can niake$!2 a day at home. Costly 
UUijJJ Uulflt free. Addrena TlU'E ii Ct> , Auguatu, Mo. 



I'rIceM <«roafly Ri'diired for 1S7H. 

This is one of the greatest labor saving machines invent- 
ed, it is substautial, made from the best material, is dura- 
b'e and light, waigliing but IS jiounds. Knives to cut any 
width, from (J to ir» inches. It has given perleet satisluction 
wherever used. 

Beecroft's Hand Wheeler 

(see cut above). " 

This iR an indispeueuble implement in a garden whore a 
hoe cannot be used. 
Price List aud descriptive Catalogue sent free. 

10-3-lm Manufacturer, Portland, Me> 







Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

Bepairing strictly attended to. 

North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Fa. 


a week in your own town. Terms and $5 outfit free. 
Address H. Hallett & Co., Portland, Maine. 



of all varieties. Also, large Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Fruit 
Trees, Grape Vines and Small Fruits at very low iirices for 
spring of 1878. Wholesale Price List sent free. 

10-3-lm NurserjTuan, Portland, Me. 

per l,00l> aud upwards, lor Seedlings of Shade 
and Timber Trees. A NiirpliiN of voung trans- 

VINES, ETC. Send for Vricc List. Addresa, 


Grape and Seedling Nursery, 
10-2-lral WINONA, Columlnaua Oounty, Ohio. 




v-'k-^J-J A AJ.J-i COLOR is* neommended by the 
Tr\ "in "p^ *pl T~1 /^ np ;i^'iieiiltinul i.resH. and used by 

I P r\ H P I I *'"" very best Dairymen iu thia 
X J_Jl\L X-k\J L country, Harris Lewis, L. n. Aru- 
•pv TT rp rp "J-r "pj old, O. S. E.iha, L. S. Hardin, A. 

ri I I I I r K ^^* '^''»^e^'«^r, E. D. Mason, aud 
*~^ ^ A A J-J X V thousands more. It le far better 

C/-\ T /~\ p\ I than carrots, annatto, orany other 
ill (ill I color, at one-fourth the cost, and 
V-/ XJ \J X\ ■ uo work to use. It gives pure dau- 
delion color and never turns red, oi raucid, but teuds to im- 
prove aud preserve the butter. A 25 cent bottle colors 300 
pounds. Warranted to add 5 cts. per pound to its selling 
value. Ask your Druggist or Merchant for it, or if you 
would like toknow what it is, wliat it costs, who uses it, and 
where you can get it, write to 

WELLS, RICHARDSON & CO., Proprietors, 

10-2-2m] BUBMNOTON, Vt. 


A Vc^K'etablP Proparation, invented in the 17th 
century by Dr. William Grace, Surgeou in King James' 
army. Through its agency he cured thousands of the most 
serious sores and wounds, and wae regarded by all who 
knew him as a public benefactor. 25c. a box, by mail 30c. 
For Bale by druggists generally. 


Address SITE W. fOWLZ t 20K3, Boitca, Utn. 


Diiiivcift Oiiliiii s I, riii-cl /mm Ihr rhmf'Al eniont of 

Ciicii crup /vr Ji/ty yt'am in iniccetu,iun ! TLe ditTereuce ia 
the crop will be leu times grcster tliin tbe cost of the soeiL 
My Seed Cutulogue free to all. 



.Mnrl>l4>lifiiil. nnNiv. 

ft'rrtf, Ithiek- 

2 500 000 ";-;;"; w:;-.,;i:;r 

f/#i«, ItuntM, I'mrh 'tm-ft,f\c lOO Sl-:i.K4 TEli VA- 
ItlE'riEN. flrftit Am' rictiii Strtitrherrteit, l>argeat 
iind bent. Herries 'i oz. each, '.i in. nrotiml. liv inuil 10 for 
81: loo fnr 85; I.OOO fur glO. llitsf.n Athat,y, 
<ltnm. Jtou-nitty , itltitmrc/i itf tlir \%fst, Ixftilnckjfg 
(irrrit /'ro/i/iV, H- i-er I.OOO : 1 npt. .Inch, <uuih^r* 
hind Trittrn/tft, Strrlittfff Ji.ruiulo, ^5 j er l,0O0. 
AEE l*l'RE. Catalogue fne. ("utthiHout. 



MooreBtowu, S'ew Jersey. 

Use The Buffalo Honest Fertilizer! 


AnO Pure CjronnU Itono. 

The purity of these goods is guaranteed, f nd their stand- 
ard proved by regular auulysis'of Prof. G. A. Llebig, and 
other eminent Chemists. 

No Roek J*hosphate, Mineral Guano, Salt Cake, Spent or 
Sludge Acid, Land Master and other inferior materials enter 
into the manufacture of my j hosphate. which Is solelymadt 
of />onen,Afeat, lilood, Pitre Acid and Potash Satin. 

My works are always open lor inspection to every consum- 
er of Fertilizers. 

Highest premium and medal of Honor awarded to my 
Fertilizers by the Centennial Commiswion, Philadelj^hia, '76. 

Send for new Spring Circular containing full dirertlona 
and testimonials. L. L. CROCKEK, 

10-3-2m 252 Washington St., Buffalo, N. Y. 


Johnson's Anodyne Liniment will posltiToly prevent thia 

terrible disease, and will positively cure nine caHes in ten, 

Informatiou that will save many liTca sent fre« by maU. 

Don't delay a moment. Prevention is belter than cur*. 

I. S. JOHNSON A CO., Bangror, Maine. 


1760. ESTABLISHED 1760. 


26 and 28 West King-st. 








" Ohio " Reaper and Mo'wer, 
Whann's Phosphate, 
Fairbank's Scales, 
Dupont's Powder, 
Harrisburg Nails, &c., <SKo. 

We have Iho IsrgMt stock of general Hardware In th* 
State, and onr pricee are aa low and terma aa Ubaral aa oaa 
b« Xoond elaewhere. ^1-tf . 



[March, 1878. 

My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and Flower Seed 

for 1878, rich iu engravings, will be sent FREE, to all who 
apply. CuBtomerB of last Beason need not write for it. I 
offer one of the largeBt collectiona of vegetable seed ever 
•ent out by any seed house in America, a large portion of 
■which were grown on my six eecd farms. Printed direclioiis 
/or euitivation on each pnckaqe. All seeds warranted to be 
fre»h and true to name; so far, that should it prove Other- 
Wise / will refill the order gratis. New Vegetables a 
specialty. As the original introducer of the Hubbard 
Squash, Phinney's Melon, Marblehead Cabbages, Meiicin 
Corn, I offer several new vegetables this season, and invite 
the patronage of a// Wi* are anxious to have their seed di- 
rectly/rom the groiver, fresh , true, and oj the very best f*train. 
»-U-4ml JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 


Henry Kurtz's Centennial and Hartford Tobacco 
Seeds can be obtained bv addressing the proprietor at 
Mount Joy, Pa., or the «d"itor of The Farmer, No. 101 
Morth Queen street, Lancaster, Pa. Price, Sl.OO per 
package. The leaf of these Tobaccos were awarded a 
preminm at the Centennial Exposition in 18T6. 




A'Bthor of "Listen to the Mocking Bird," "I'll eail the seas 
ever," " What is Home without a Mother," etc., etc. 
" Out of work, without a penny. 
Pleading hel • before thy door, 
Without friends among the many- 
Look with pity ou the poor." 
• , * One of the moat touching and beautiful ballads ever 
written, will give the author a more extended popularity 
than anything she hae ever written. Price 35 centa — or, 
llluetrated title page 40 cents. 

For sale at all music stores, or will be sent postpaid on 
receipt of price by the publishers, 

9—9 723 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 



Mauufacturers and dealers in all kinds of rough and 

The beet Sawed SHIlVOI^ESiu the country. Also Sash, 
Doors, Blinds, Mouldings, &c. 


and PATENT BLINDS, which are far superior to any 
other. Also best C'O A lj constantly on hand. 


Kortheast Corner of Prince and Walnnt-sts,, 




SEND FOR 1878 


The Best Religious and Secular Family News- 
paper. $3,153 Year, post-paid. 
Established 1823. 





F-o-R. 18V8, 

rontains full lists with descriptions, illustrations 

and prices of 



(all the standard varieties and many choice novelties), Summer 
and Autumn Bulbs. Plants, Small Fruits, Trees, Agricultural 
Implements, and Blooded Live Stock and Fancy Poultry. 
Send your address on a Postal Car«l and re- 
eoive a copy by return mail. 10 packages Choice 
Flower Seeds for 25 cents. 




- Bens6n,Burpee&Co' 

Our Novelties. 

We call special attention to our CAT^IFORXIA RR009I 

<'4>KN, an evergreen variety which does not require bend- 
ing down. 

B.B. & GO'S SURE HE AD CABBAGE, ^iei^" "*'' 

BAY VIEW HYBRII> It £1.0 N afid the new Tomato— Red Chief, 
r8r~Seud for Catalogue to 

BENSON, BTTHPEE Si CO., Seed War ehouse , 223 Cliiircli St. , Philadelphia, 



Is a complete, natural organic manure, containing the Sola- ' 
able Salts of plants which have ^served as food. These ele- 
ments are indispensable to the development of cultivated 
crops, and in BUjiplying these excrements to the Soil we re- 
turn to it the constituents which the crops have removed 
from it, and renew its capability of nourishing new crops. 
The increasing demand and uniform satisfaction it has 
(fiven ou all crops during the past three years, prove it to 
be a good and reliable Fertilizer. A profitable and high, 
degree of culture requires a liberal supply of manure. 

Price, $25 Per Ton, 

Delivered o« board of cars or boat at 

HIRAM E. LUTZ, Manufacturer. 


For sale I y the following persons, where circulars can be had: ROBERT H- HILIj, Smyrna and Clayton; 
Stevenson & Slaughter, Dover; Geo. M. D. Hart, Townsend ; M. N. WillctB, MiJdletown, Del. 10-3-4m 



Or Christ's Farewell to his Mother. 


The subject of this beautiful Engraving is taken from JonN-19th Cliapter; 26th and 
27lh Verses-and relates to one of tlie most remarkable Incidents in the lifetime of our 
Savior. The sorrow manifested in the judRnient-hall just prior to his crucihxion, and 
the sad faces of both mother and son as he bids his mother that last farewell, vividly 
portraying the touching scene, makes it a 

mastehpiece of a.r.t, 

and a Gift that all will be 

' than ptfascd with. 


(-)n receipt of this Ceilificate,lr.getln!r with iiiiipteen ciMits ( lOe) in '"' u rr e n c y or Postage 
staiiipt) topav tiDstageand mouTiiin''cliaiyt.s we w.Ueeud thf $a.iPO Steel Engraving 
'1 leet wide by 2'^ feet long, eiilitled 


Free, by mail pusi paid. Btgr" S^-iid lor Eiigiaviug at oiice Btaliug Name in full, togethei 
with I'cst'-OHice address. Cuimty, :iiid Stale. Address all orders to 


Arran<:'ements have been made with thp Continental Pnblishing Co., No. 4 Home St., 
Clncimiati, O., to supply this ::5.(XJ ^Steel Knt,'ravint,'. '2 feet wide and 2'3 feet long, Fkkk. 


Will be" 

mailpd FREI': 

■Jl applicauta. Jtc 

taitiH coioreil platt, 

about 160 [lagcs, and full dc-icrij, 

prices sad directions fur plauiiug over 1.200 

Varieties of VcRctable and Flower Seeds, Plaota, Roses. Eto. 

uraluablo to all. Bend for it. AdJr. 

L. m FEEEY & CO., Detroit, Mich. 



Thoroughbred Short-Horn Cattle J 

Bred and For Sale by the undersigned. 


and at prices to suit the times. Herd open to inspection by 
strangers at all times (Sundays excepted.) I will be pleased 
to show my herd to visitors, and any information in regard 
to the cattle will cheerfully be given, by letter, as desured. 


A. M. RANK, 

Bird-in-Hand, Lancaster CO., Pa. 

-. "Voors (To Bubpcrlbers in 
ct I CdX \ the county. 


To >abBcriber« out of \ ct-l OR 
thecouuty. j ^i..£^ZJ 

Prof. S. S. EATEVON, Editor. 




Clubbing, -...-.. 49 

April, - - 49 

Something Good (ind True, - - - - 48 

Milk, Cheese and Sugir, - - - - - 49 

United States Enlomolopist, - - - - 49 

Scale Insects on the Peach, - - - - - 50 

The Cultivation of Wheat, - - - . 50 

The Brifjton Grape, ------ 61 

Barnyard Manures, ------ 51 

Query and Answer, ------ 51 

Manures and Soil Fertilizers, - - - 52 

Various Notes, ------ 53 

Hovey's Secdlini; Strawberry, - - - 54 

Varieties of Fruit for Pennsylvania, - - 54 

Hard Times of 1817—18^2, - - - - 55 

Farm Notes, - - - - - - - 55 

Washcy Fields — Fences — Koads — Finally. 

Facts for Farmers, ------ 55 

S:ite Aid to Agricultural Societies — A Model County 
Fair — Some Liberal Prerainms — Wheat, Grapes, 
Wiiics, &c.— Wouderlul Fruit Production— Sug- 
gests Foimation of Towuehip Cluba, 

Celandine, ------- 56 

Clothes Moths, ------- 5(1 

Correspondence, ------ 57 

Around the Farm — No. 7, - - - - - 57 

Revu of March Number, . - - . 57 
Questions Suggested in Conversations on Fertil- 
izers, ----.---- 57 

Correction for March, ------ 5S 

Proceedings of the Lanca.ster County Agricul- 
tural and Ilnrticultural Society, - - - 58 
Crop Rei'Ortp — Comniercinl Fertilizere— Beautily- 
iug Kutal Homes — Oue Hundred Bushels of Cocn 
to an Acre— New liusiness— Bubiness for Next 
Meeting — American Silk Worm Moth. 
Tobacco Growers Association, - - - - 60 

Linniuuu Society, ------ 61 

Pennsylvania Wheat Prospects, - - - - 61 


Value of Special Manures, • - - - 61 

Kight Kind of Farm, ------ O; 

The Oats Crop, ------ f,i 

Hauling Manure, ------ 01 

The Benefit of Lime, ----- 6J 

Coal Ashes, - - - - - - -Hi 

Bleaching Broom Corn, ----- Gi 

Selecting Seed Corn, 63 

Wheat in Australia, - - . . . 62 


Coal Ashes and Curculio, ----- 62 

Celery, -------- fi^ 

Peas, --------- 62 

Pruning Dwarf Pears, ----- 62 

Beans, ------- -62 

Potato Planting, - 62 

Beautifying the Grass Plot, - - - - 62 

Running Beans, ------ 62 

Asparagus, -------62 


Preserving Fence Posts, ----- 6.3 

Which is Kichest, Morning's or Evening's Milk? 63 

Profitable Butter Making, - - - - - 6:i 

Rats and Harness, ------ 63 

How a Water-Pipe May be Cleaned, - - - 6 3 

Household Receipts, ----- 63 


Lancaster County Beef, - - • - - 8 1 

Wind Sucking, ------- e4 

Thoroughbred Sheep, ----- 64 

Lice on Cattle, ------- 64 

Abortion in Cows, ------ 64 

Literary and Personal, ----- 64 

We oflei for ^piiu(4 ui 1^.^, luc l^r^tut aud must complete 
stock in the U. S., tif 

Fruit Trees, Ktandiird mid Dwarf. 

4fernaiiienttil TreeNAiSltriibN. deciduous & evergreen 

ROAOM a etppcialty — ail the hnest Rorts. 

Cilroeii * Hot Hoiifie Plani«. including beet Novelties 

Descriptive and lllnstrated priced Catalogues sent pre- 
paid to customers, Iree; to others, on receipt of stamps, 
as follows : 

No. I. FrviitB. with colored plate, l."Sc.; plain, lOo. 

No. 2. Oramental Trees, colored I'lale, 2.'Sc.: plain, 15c. 

No. 3. Greenhouse, Free. No. 4. Wholesale, Free. 

No. a. Bope Catalogue for lfi78, Free. 

f3P~ Small parcels forwarded by mail when desired. 

ELLWANGER & BARRY, Rochester, N. Y. 


isoivEisi'xzxiNrcs- 3Nn:'\7«r. 


Good Live Agents Wanted Everywhere, 
Novelty Dealers and the Trade sup- 
plied at reduced rates. 

Address all orders to the sole manufacturers, 


]Sri«l^<*|ioi*t« l'4>nii<>('li<'iit. 

The merits of this invention aie af once appreciateil by 
every Smoker; an by using this article (^^hich is as light 
and portable as a cigar) all smokerp can uro the best tobacco 
at less than one-tenth the exjieiiFc of a i)oor cigar, diepeua- 
ing entirely with the cuiubrous and iinpightly injies. 


Remove the month jiiero and piston, fill the tnbe half fill 
of smokiug tobacco, insert the piston and month piece, and 
light as you would an ordinary cignr. Sample by mail, liO 

By Mall $1.50 Per Doz. By Espress $12.00 Per Gross. 

Clean the Interior Parts with a damp Rag 

when they become foul. 



KARIiY <HIIO.~Earlier than Karly Koee. Ranked 
by general consent, in earliuese, yield and quality combined 
at the head of all the early potatoes. 

BURBANK.— Medium late ; a prodigious cropper ; 
flesh remarkably white; quality excellent. 

I>L'N:TI0RE.— A di'Iendid late sort. A greater cropper 
than the Peerless, which it resemblee in form, while far 
better in quality. 

Each, per Barrel, $4.00; per Bnabel, $t.00 ; t^t Feck, 
75 centB. 

Hy Illustrated Seed Catalogue FBERto all applicants. 

10.3.2m] Harblehend, Mans. 


Smoketown Nursery, 

mmoketown, I.anraNter Co., 

(Bird-ln-Hand, P. O.) 


Buy trees grown in ttiis connty, and suited to this 8oU 
and climate. A tiuc etoclt of 




Silver 9fnplo, Norway Maple, 

GREEN TRKES of every descrii.tion. ORAPE VINB 
and SMALL FRUITS of all kinds. A large lot of 


fEtnOKF.TdM'K BflTHNKRY is situated on the oh 
Philadelphia Road, five miles east of Lauciiler aud on^ 
mile west of Blrd-in-Hand. 

Trees may be obtained at the nursery, or at the tree 
wagon in Centre Square, ou Market Mornings (Wcdoesday 
and Saturday). 

Orders by mail promptly attended to and trees delivered 
in Lancaster, free of charge. 


10-3. Im Bird-in-IIand P. ()., Lancaster CO., Pa. 




A Domestic Jewel that will last a life-time. 


Does away with the Inconveniences 
connected with other Graters. 

ItB conBtruction conmendfl ilaelf to tbo public, and all 
the leading Kitcbeu Furuishiug HoQBes speaK of it in the 
highest terms. 


Most Simple, Most Durable, and Most^Re- 
liable invention ever offered to the 



DirpcliotiN— Take the grater in the left band, palm 
towards you, with your third flngor through the handle. 
place the thumb ou tbo apring-lever, remove the feeder and 
insert the nut. 

Price to Agents $1.75 Per Dozen 

GooU I^lve Aftronts Wanted Everywhere. 

All orders should be addressed to 


Manufacturer's Sole Agent, 

Also Dealer & Manfr. of Patent Noyelties, &c. 



J I. 



Trains leave the Depot 


Pacific Express* 

Way Passengert 

Niagara Express 

Col. Accommodatiou 

M«il train via Mt. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line* 

Frederick Accommodation . 

Harrisburg Accom 

Columbia Accommodation.. 

Harrisburg Express 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express* 


Atlantic Express* 

Philadelphia Express! 

Harrisburg Express 

Columbia Accommodation. 

Pacific Express* 

Sunday Mail 

Johnstown Express 

Day Express* 

Harrisburg Accom 


in this city, as follows : 

Leave Arrive 

Lancaster. Harrisburg. 

'2:40 a. m. 4:05 a. m. 

4:50 a. m. 7:50 a. m. 

9.35 a. m. 10:40 a. m. 

7:20 p.m. Col. 8:00 p.m. 

11:20 a.m. 1:00 p.m. 

11:20 a.m. 1:25 p.m. 

11:20 a.m. 1:30 p.m. 

2:10 p.m. 3:25 p.m. 

2:15 p. m. Col. 2:45 p. m. 

6:00 p.m. 8:10 p.m. 

7:20 p. m. Col. 8:00 p. m. 

7:25 p. m. 8:40 p. m. 

9:25 p. m. 10:50 p. m. 

11:30 p.m. 12:45 a.m. 

Lancaster. Philadelphia. 
12:30 a. m. 3:00 a. m. 

4:10 a. m. 7:00 a. m. 

7:35 a. m. 10:00 a. m. 
9.28 p. m. 12:30 p. m. 

1:20 p.m. 3;46p. m. 

2:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m. 

3:05 p.m. 6:00 p.m. 

6:1S p. m. 7:20 p.m. 

5:50 p. m. 9:00 p. m. 

The Hanover Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., and wiU run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connects at Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. m., and runs to Frederick. 
The Pacific Express, east, on Sunday, when flagged, wiu 
stop at Middletown, Elizabethtown, Mount Joy and Landis- 
"The only trains which run daily. 
tRuus daily , excejit Monday. , 


The Century CI art. 

A 100-year Almanac, whereby you can ascertain what day 
of the week any day of the month is or what day of the 
month any day of the week is, was, or wiU be, from I'M .» 
1900 or in what day any event has taken place, from li99 
. to' 1900, and 1000 other occurrences. The greatest in- ^^ 
S vention of man. Every person will buy one; also the j 
S great Egyptian Puzzle. Sport for all. Either article = 
8 lent on receipt of 25c. post paid, or $1 per dozen. .■• 
M Agents wanted everywhere. Ladies and Gents secure 
your town at once. You can make $20 per week. Send for 

"'""^"" K005S BRO'S, Sovelty D-alers. 

9-l!-6m] 100 and 102 Washington St.. CHICAGO, 111. 

P U I- M O N A 

is beyond comparison the best remedy for the cure of CON- 

Brcmchilan. Catarrh, and all derangi-ments of the NERV- 
OUS SYSTEM. A circular containing particulars of 
treatment of the diseases above mentioned, and certificates 
of actual cures, will be sent free by mail to all applicants. 
Address OSCAR G. MOSES, Sole Proprietor, 18 Cortlaudt 
Street, New York. 9.10-6m 




Plain and Fine Harness, 






Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, G-loves, &c., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 




Sewing Machine. 

1.— Makes a prr/ect LOCK STiCH, alike on both sides, on ali 
kinds 0/ goods. — 

2.-Runs Light, Smooth, Noiseless and Rapid. 

3.— Durable -Runs for years "'*out Repair. 

^.— WiU do all varieties of Work and Fancy Stitching in 
a superior manner. , „„,i, _r 

tS.-\^Most Easily managed \,y the operator. Length ol 
stitch may be altered while running, and machine can be 
threaded without passing thread through holes. , 

6.-DBSIGN Simple, Ingemous, Eleg^nt^ '^°T ,?• ^r 
stitch without the use of Cog Wheel Gears, 5°»ry Cams or 
Lever Arms. Has the Aulomattc Drop Feed, which ;»^»r« 
uniform length of stitch at any speed. Has our "=" [«'^f^^ 
Controller, which allows easy movement of needle bar and 
prevents injury to thread. i.umanu- 

T.-CoNSTRUCTiDN most careful ^i Finished. It is manu 
factured by the most skillful and "P'^''"'^""4i?"!l'--^^ 
the celebrated IIEMIIVGTON A RMORY. Ilion, N. 
Y. Attention is called to our greatly reduced Pr";"- , 

8.-The No. 1 Remington Machine for Manufecturmg and 
Family use has been recently improved, and is "ff^^" '? '"' 
public wiih the assurance that it will give entire satisfaction. 



218 and 283 Broadway, New York 


Half Dozen for 




l,ineii anil Paper Collars and fuirs 



E. J. EEISl^AN'S, 

No. 56 North Queen Street, 


9-l-ly ,^___ . 


Th6 crowniuB result of .Bij/A/em yearn at care and toil— 

The Cinderella and Com inental Strawberries 
and Early Prolific and Reliance Raspberries is 
now offered to the Public ; Tested Biine Teaj^. and in 
our Judgment the Fonr Best PayiuB Marliet 
Berries, , „ , „ 

•^ CATALOa^K .nd PBI« Li^^Fr«. ^^^^^^^ 

Nuraeryme* and Fruit Growers, Woodbury, N. J. 

Our Combined 






Numbering 175 pages, with Colored Plate, 


To our customers of past years, and to all 
purchasers of our books, either 


Price $1.50 each, prepaid, by mail. 

To others, on receipt of '25c. 

Plain Plant or Seed Catalogues, without Plate, 

free to all. 


Seedsmen, Market Gardeners and Florists, 
35 CorUandt St., N. "S". 

We Will Pa| the Highest MaW Price 

for all of the following articles or we will sell them for you aa 
b^i: (5 per cent.) commisssiou ■^■■^Ml^BBa^ 
Cheese, EGOS. 1' O 11 I.- D I I T^ 1 C D 
TRY. Lard, Talllow, Feath- W% IB I I CIl ■ 
era. Potatoes, A P »» I. ES, ■• *• ■ ■ ^""J 
g^ ^^ » XTkT Flour, Feed, Fur, Hide=, Wool. 
■jr B^,2xiJ3l • Peanuts, Broom Corn, Dried Fruit, 
Hay, Hoj.s, &c., &c. Liberal cash advances made 
on large consignments of staple articles. Farmers, shippere 
and dealers in general merchandise should write for refe- 
rence, price current, stencil, &c. When writing us, staU 
whether you wish to ship on consignment, or sell; if yon 
wish to sell, name the articles, amoant of each, and your 


B, (free aboard oars) at your nearest shipping point. Also, 
if possible, send sample by mail; if too bulky, by freight. 



Commission & Shipping Merchants, 

221 and 346 North Water Street, 


We arc now selling 

ITew Pianos for $125 

Each, and all styles, including Grand, Sqn«re and Hl*- 
rieht, all new and strictly firsl-clnss. at the lowert 
net casli wbolesale factory prices, direct to the 
purchaser. . 

No Agents; no commissiens ; no discounts. Pianos l(X 
tioo, containing 


NeTT Patent Duplex OTsrstrung Scale, 

which is without question the greatest improvement ever put 
into a Square Piano, producing the most astonishing pomer, 
richness and depth of tone, and a sustaining singing tjutlitf 
never before attained. Our Uprights are the >«'»' •" 
America. Pianos sent on trial. Don't fail to write for Illus- 
trated and Descriptive Catalogue— mailed free. 


Xo. 21 East rifteenth St., W. T- 



$t.O0O WORTH FOU $87.50. 

The cheapest and best way to reach readers outside of 


over l.OpO "^5?^ WeeUlT Circulation ov«r 

For catatogufs containing names of papers, and other m- 
formatioii iiud for estimates, address 

SEALS 4 FOSTEE, 41 Pirk Eow (Tunes Bnildmg), Kbt Yorli. 


Diseases Cured. New 
paths marked out by that 
plainest of all books— 
"Plain Home Talk and 

^ ^i^^w .^ — Medical Common Sense," 

-nearly 1,000 pages, 200 illustrations by Dr. E. B Fo"xh, 

°[lifer^no^''o°.".t(MVs''auThor!n"p~ hy mail fre. 
PrcebvinailtS 25 for the StomJa.-^ edi'ion, or $1.50fo 
ttopo/."«r edition, which contains all ^H^^f^^'^^'^H^ 
and^il4t..ations.^C^ont^nt^s tables free.^^^^^^^^ 

j.jO.jy 129E aBta8UlSt. N. Y. 

Scribner's Lumber and Log-Book. 

OVER HALF A MILLION SOLD. The most complete 
boo" of its kind ever published. Gives correct meas 
uremei^f all kinds of lumber, '"88 ""'^ P'^'i^J'JlJ'"^!'' ' 
EuleJPical contents of square and round timber stave 
and hSding bolt tables, wages, rent board <=?l»f' ^ °f 
cisterns, cord-wood tables, interest, etc. Standard Book 
throughout United States and Canada 

Ask yomr bookseUer for it, or I wiU send one for 35 cents, 
post-paid. ^ .^_ FISKER, 

l»-»-3ml P. O. B«x 238, RoebMter, N. T. 

' Unauestlonably the best snsttained work 
et the Kind in the World." 


yotices of the Presft. 
The Teteran Magazine, which long ago outgrew its ortgit 
nal title of the fievi Monthly ifagazine, has not in the least 
abated the popularity it won at the outset, but has add»d t« 
it in many ways, and has kept fairly abreast of the time^ 
thanks to the enterprise of the publishers and the tact an* 
wisdom of its editors. For whatever is best and most read- 
able in the Literature of travel, discovery, and flotion, th« 
average reader of to day looks to Harper's Magazine, just u 
expectantly as did the reader of a quarter of a century ago; 
there is the same admirable variety jf coutent« and the sam* 
freshness and suggestivenese in its editorial departmsnU 
now as theu. — Bosto-n Journal. 

T s bTm s . 

Psstige Free ts ill Sntacritors in tlie United Ststoi. 

Harpeh's Maoazink, one year %* '". 

$4 00 includes prepayment of D. S. postage by the pub- 


Subse'riptiom to Habpeb'b Magazine, WKBKLT.and Bazak, 

to one addrem for one year. $10 00 ; or. two of Harper < 

Periodical, to one address for one year, $7,00 : postage fret. 

An Extra Copy of either the Magazine, Weekly, or Ba- 
zar will be supplied nratis for every Club of Fiyb Subsobi- 
BEBS at $4 00 each, paid for by one remittance ; or, iw Cej»- 
ies one year, without extra copy, for $20 00. 

Back yumber.^ can be supplied at any time. 

The volumes of the Magazine commence with the Num- 
bers for June and December of each year. When no tune u 
specified, it will be understood that the subscriber wishes t» 
begin with the current Number. . . 

t complete Set of Habper's Magazine, now comprismg 
65 Volumes in neat cloth binding, will be sent by eipresa, 
freight at expense of purchaser, for $2 25 per volume. 
Single volumes by mail, postpaid, %i 00. Cloth cases, for 
binding, 50 cents, by mail, postpaid. , _ , . 

A Complete Analytical Index to the first Fifty Volumes of 
Habpeb's Magazine has been Published rendering availa. 
ble for reference the vast and varied «•»»>!,<>' '"f"™.'''"^ 
which constitutes this periodical a perfect illustrated liter^ 
ry cyclopedia. 8vo, Cloth, $2 00; Half Calf, $a 25. Bent 

^InrcrTpl^^fs-receivd for Harper's Periodicals only 
Xewspup'rs are not to copy this advrtxsement without ttie 

express orders of Harper & Brothers. 

Address H ARPSR & BROTHERS. New York. 



A book containing a list of towns in the U. S,. havmg 
8 000 pop., and the newspaper having largest circulation. 
All the BeUgious. Agricultural, Scientific, and other speoal 
class Journals. Tables of rates, showing cost of adT'^^" 
ing and everything which an advertiser would like to kn«w. 
Mailed on receipt of ten cents. Address , -, ^«» 

OEO. P. R»WE1.I. & CO., 
10 Spruo»-8t., N. Y., (opposite "Tribune" bulldl»g). 

The Lancaster Farmer. 

Prof. S. S. RATHVOUr, Editor. 


Vol. X. No. 4. 


We oiler The Fakheu, clubbed with otlier 
lirst-class publications, at the foUovvinrr prices : 
Phrenological Joiiriiiil a.m\ Fahmeu - S:5 00, J^..^ 
ffarper's Monthly i\nt\¥\imKii - - - 5.00, 4.00 
Harper's [Veckiy luid F.\rmeu . - - .5.00, 4.00 
Harper's Bazar and Farmer - - - - 5.00, 4.00 
iy«)-aW 0/ //cdWi and Farmer - - - 2.00, 1.50 
' National Live Stuck Journal sluAYakmek '-^.00, 2..50 
Mount Joy Herald and F AHMiiii - - 2..50, 1.75 
Friendi, Journal and ViRyiEK - - - ;J.50, 3.00 

The first column indicates the regular 
prices of the two journals respectively, and 
the second column the club rates, if the two 
are ordered together. 

The name of this month comes from the 
Latin Aperilis, which itself is a contraction 
of Aperilis, from Aperire ; and means to open, 
because it is the month in which the earth 
usually opens for new fruits and fiowers, as 
well as vegetation in general. In old French 
it was called Abreen ; modern French .^lc)-i7 ,• 
Portugese and Spanish vl6ri7 ,• Italian ^4pn7c. 
According to our present time-calciidor it is 
the/o!()-(/i month of the year, but anciently, 
on account of this opening quality, it was re- 
garded as the first month. And, indeed, for 
all practical purposes, agriculturally con- 
sidered, we may still regard it as the first 
month ; for, no matter what the cliaracter of 
the preceding winter has been — whether mild 
or severe — not much can be expected in vege- 
table development until the advent of April. 

Kitchen-Garden Calender for the Middle States. 
"Now is the time to plant and .sow if we 
would hope to reap. Those of us who do not 
avail ourselves of the i)re.sent need not 
expect to profit in the future. The exact 
time, however, in which certain seeds must 
be sown must depend not only on location, in 
respect to latitude, but also on the nature of 
our soil ; if it be heavy a little delay will 
rather promote than retard our object. It is 
impracticable underthe contingencies to which 
we' are subjected to give undeviating direc- 
tions — the common of each one must be 
brought into requisition. Artichokes plant ; 
dress. Asparagus sow, if uot attended to last 
month. This vegetable is now cominsr into 
season. Whenever practicable, a bed of sufii- 
cienfsize should be made to permit an ample 
supply without cutting every feeble shoot 
which peeps above the surface ; indeed, where 
space and means admit, two beds should be 
maintained and cut alternate seasons. The 
newcollossal appears to sustain its reputation. 
Beans, bush or bunch, sow. Beets, early and 
long, sow. Broccoli, Purple Cape is the best 
to sow. Cabbages, Drumhead and Flat Dutch, 
sow freely, that there may be enough for the 
fly and to plant ; also, other varieties described 
in catalogues and books, which will afford an 
uninterrupted succession, so desirable in every 
country family. Carrots, Early Horn and 
Long Orange, sow. Cauliflower, late, sow. 
Celery sow, if not sown last month. Cress, 
sow. Cucumbers, Early Frame, sow in a warm 
spot. Horse-radish, plant, if not already done. 
Hot-beds, attend to. Leek, sow. Lettuce, 
sow in drills ; also plant from beds of last 
autumn's sowing. Marjoram, sweet, sow. 
Mustard for salad, sow. Mushroom beds, 
make; attend to those already formed. Nas- 
turtiums, sow. Onions, plant Buttons for 
table use, and sow thickly for sets. Parsley, 
sow. Parsneps, sugar, sow. Peas, early 
and late, for a succession, sow. Pota- 
toes, plant plenty of the Early Rose and 
Suow-flake for the maiu supply during sum- 

mer and autumn. Kadisli, Long Scarlet, and 
White and Hcd Turnip, .sow, it not alreaily 
sown ; also, the (iolden Glabe and While 
Summer for succession. Salsify, sow. Sage, 
sow or plant. Spinai'h, the Savoy, .sow at 
short intervals. Thynie, sow or jilant. To- 
matoes, sow, to .succeed those Sown in hot- 
beds. Turnips, sow, if not sown last month — 
they may succeed. In short, this is the sca.son 
for the main sowin,g and planting in tlie Mid- 
dle Stales. Some tender vegetables nuisl, of 
course, be deferred until next month, which 
we will then refer to. It is presumed the 
reader full^' appreciates the importance of ob- 
taining the seeds which he designs to sow from 
a reliable source, else all his labor maybe cast 
away, and instead of reaping the reward 
whicii attends well-directed efforts, a barren 
harvest will prove his only recompense." — 
Landreth''s Rural Jtegister. 

Health Suggestions. 

"As the spring advances we should modify 
our diet to suit the altered condition of nature. 
Less cornmeal, hominy, milk and other higlily 
carbonized articles should be eaten. In brief, 
wtiat was said on former occasions on this 
subject, should be urged now ; that is, if a 
greater proportion of fruits, and especially of 
tart fruits, were used at this season of the 
year, we should have less of hissitude and 
spring sickness. If a person eats properly 
and lives correctly in other respects, there is 
no reason why he should uot feel as well in 
spring time as at any other season. But he 
must not think of indulging himself in other 
respects, and then ward olf all evil results by 
eating fruit or some good thing. Moreover, 
those people who eat largely of meats, fats 
and greasy food will often conclude that fruits 
do not agree with them, tliough the fact is 
that the fruits and the fat do not harmonize 
with each other." 

"If one is bilious or troubled with humors 
and a dyspeptic tendency, he should find relief 
and strength and satisfaction in a diet which 
includes wheat meal bread, crushed wheat 
mush with date sauce, cornmeal mush with 
fig sauce, oatmeal mush with grape sauce, 
rye bread with apple sauce, Graham crackers 
with canned fruits, &c., &c. Vegetable eggs 
are excellent if you insist on the name of 
animal food. Mix equal parts of Graham 
flour and cornmeal with the coldest water ; 
knead thoroughly into a stiff dougli ; make 
into cakes of the size and shape of anj' fowl's 
egg you please, with a stewed fig inside, and 
bake in a hot oven." — Wells'' Annual Ikalik 

To one having a great a petite, a large 
stomach, powerful digestion, and much vital 
energy, we would suggest an ostrich egg — if 
not a "mare's egg" — as the proper "size and 
shape" of the egg to be formed. Under cer- 
tain conditions and in the present physically 
demoralized state of the human family, the 
foregoing suggestions are no doubt, in the 
main, good ; but there has been many an oc- 
togenarian and ccntennarian wlio never heard 
of them. No doubt we are all in the habit of 
eating too much meat and fat, and do not 
make the necessary seasonable discrimination 
in the use of food, but we find the bread used 
among our farmers generally far preferable to 
the stufls called bread in the above paragraph, 
and as likely to prolong life and healtli as they 
are. Poor families, compelled to live on 75 or 
80 cents per day, could hardly atlbrd to pur- 
chase the fruits therein named. Fruit, and 
especially canned fruits, are about the most 
expensive articles any one could live on. It 
will be a good time for poor afflicted and dis- 
eased humanity, when the time comes when 
the poor can atlbrd to freely use it as articles 
of daUy food.— Ed. 


We call the special attention of the readers 
of The Fah.mkh to tlie card of ilr. C. H. 
Anderson, in the advertising columns of this 
number of our journal, not only as something 
new, but also something "good and true." 
The intrinsic mt^rits of "Iron .Stone" as a 
water and drain pipe, are sullicient of them- 
selves to recommend this material to the con- 
fidence of the ))ulilic. Mr. Ander.sou is so 
respectably endorsed by those who have used 
the "Ardeidieim Iron Stone Pipes," and is 
.socially so highly connected in this county, 
that we believe our farmers may repose the 
utmost confidence in him, especially as 
through the superiority of his wares he has 
Ijcen enal)led to build up a llourislnng busiuess. 

Are all articles of prime necessity, and are 
also products of agriculture ; the first two are 
now produced largely by co-operative effort 
among the farmers, and tlie last can t)e as well, 
if the cheese factories now organizeil would 
add tlie retpiisite machinery for grating and 
pressing the sugar beets; such as is now used 
for making cider, and such pan as is used for 
evaporating sorghum juice, will answer the 
jnirpose as well as that more costly. If the 
farmers .sliould raise the Sugar beets, the pulp 
and leaves of which are good for stock, par- 
ticularly milch cows, improving the quality as 
well as increasing the quantity of the milk 
produced; the patrons of the cheese factory 
would be benefited pecuniarly, and as cheese 
is an article of large export demand and 
sugar principally imported, if these interests 
were united, as suggested above, it would bene- 
fit the whole county, and the dairy interest in 
particular. The cost of the necessary appa- 
ratus is but little and the product large ; it 
adds another remunerative crop to those now 
grown, and as all the mineral elements are 
again returned to the soil, its capacity for 
larger crops is increased without any extra 
expense, which enables the farmer to carry 
more stock, and consequently increase his 
profits from the sale of its products. — Andrew 
If. Ward, Bridyewater, 3Iass. 


We understand that Prof. C. V. Riley, late 
State Entomologist of Mis.souri, and the head 
of the United States Entomological Commis- 
sion, is a candidate for the position of Ento- 
mologist of the Department of Agriculture. 
Professor Riley has a record unequaled by 
any entomologist in the country for actual 
work iierformed during the insect plagues of 
the last few years. In the above-mentioned 
capacities, he has done work of great value to 
the whole country, especially in the study of 
the potato beetle and the Western grasshop- 
per. It is true, that he was most favorably 
located ; but he saw the opportunity, acted 
at once, and so intelligently, energetically and 
effectively as to i)Ut the means in the farmers' 
bands to conquer their terrible enemies, and 
no more can be asked of the greatest general. 
He has shown himself master of the situation, 
and it is due to Ike country that he be placed 
in a position where he can do the most effec- 
tive work Tltrec hundred million dollars is 
the amount of ascribed annually to insect 
pests in this country ; yet wliile the past 
entomologists of the Department of Agricul- 
ture may have been able men, they have not 
l)een made of the metal required to battle 
such powerful hosts. Professor Riley does 
possess tlie ability to act in such emergencies, 
and sliould be given the opportunity to do the 
most possible good. 

With him as the Entomologist, the Depart- 
ment o£ Agriculture would not be placed in 




the position it was last year, of seeing itself 
ignored and an entomological comiuission 
appointed to do the work itself ought to do, 
and under the supervision of a department 
entirely distinct — the Hayden survey, under 
the Treasury Department — which was a very 
sure way of showing the contempt in which 
this department has been held.^ySciejifi/ic 
Farmer, April, 1878. 

Coming from the East — and the very 
"Hub," too— this is certainly no ordinary 
compliment to a Western entomologist. If a 
change is to be made in the national depart- 
ment of entomology, judging from the record 
which Prof. Riley has thus far made, there is, 
perhaps, no man in the country who has 
higher practical claims to the chieftainship of 
that department than he. But should he at- 
tain to the position of National Entomologist, 
we hope that Congress will vouchsafe a more 
sustaining recognition of the claims of that 
department than it has heretofore, and not 
like the State of Missouri, ignore the office by 
withholding the necessary appropriations to 
make it efficient and useful to the country. 

The heads of our National Department of 
Agriculture may not have been all that such 
positions require, but it is more than probable 
that much of the inefficiency attributed to 
that department was due to the meagre support 
of the National Congress. If there is any truth 
in Webster's aphorism, "The farmer is the 
founder of civilization," then that depart- 
ment of the General Government which speci- 
ally relates to the interests of the farming 
public, has been most shabbily treated, from 
its first org:anization down to the present time. 
If Prof. Riley should happily be placed in the 
entomological "chair" of the department, Con- 
gress should provide, at least, sufficient means 
to enable him to bring out his publications in 
a manner equal, if not superior, to those which 
have distinguished him heretofore. 

Should the War Department, or any other 
department, attempt to conduct its afEairs 
upon such principles as have been imposed 
upon the Agricultural Department — compel- 
ling it to beg for information from thousands 
of different localities in the country without 
the least compensation — we wonder how effi- 
cient it would be or what progress it would 
make ? Fundamentally, agriculture is the 
basis upon which the vitality of the govern- 
ment rests, and it should be so recognized. 


"The editorof this journal was lately shown 
a twig cut from a peach tree growing in this 
city, which was completely covered with these 
Bcales. Subsequently the locality was visited 
and seven trees were found so badly infested 
with these insects that not a twig could be 
found, or a space of an inch on twigs or 
branches, that was not occupied. Altogether 
it was about as bad a case as an entomologist 
could meet with. Of course the trees were par- 
tialy dead and presented the sickly, diseased 
appearance usual in such cases. Singularly no 
other, peach trees in the immediate neighbor- 
hood had been attacked, although the insects 
have, seemingly, from appearances, held high 
carnival in this one enclosure for a number of 
years. The insect is known as Lccanium 
persiccB,* and is not very destructive or even 
common in this country. The eggs deposited 
by the females are said to hatch in July, and 
the males, which are minute, two-winged 
flies, to emerge in August, though an Euro- 
pean authority states that the males emerge 
from the scale in May, and pair with the 
females, which deposit their eggs ' in the com- 
mencement of summer.'" — Field and Forest, 
January, 1878. 

The foregoing relates, presumably, to the 
same insect of which we received specimens 
from Mr. Wm. Young, of Reading, Pa. , in 
January last, and which we have discussed in 
our February and March numbers, pp. 18, 19 
and 34. 

•In a letter received from Mr. Uhler, since the above wa« 
In type, he eays the inflect ''probably belongs tc the genua 
Aapidiotus. It has some of the characters of the European 
A ■ peraicceoblongtis, 'Baumer,' but differa In some respects." 

And, now, this same insect has "turned 
up" here in the City of Lancaster, and we 
have a number of the infested peach twigs 
before us, from the premises of Mr. Giindaker, 
of North Queen street, not more than a hun- 
dred yards from our place of business. We 
do not positively know that they are else- 
where in this city, but Mr. Wm. Harry in- 
forms us that the peach trees on the premises 
he occupied inl877 were badly infested by them. 

If it is a fact that the eggs are hatched in 
July, then will be the proper time to deluge 
the trees with whatever solution or decoction 
that may seem necessary to destroy them, but 
any attempt to destroy them now would not 
be practicable. As intimated on a former oc- 
casion, they have no doubt been imported from 
Europe. — Ed. 



The cultivation of the wheat crop, just as 
we cultivate any other plant which we expect 
to improve and increase its yield, although 
perhaps not entirely new, is a subject that is 
looming into importance in various sections 
of our country, and conspicuously so within 
the domain of our own "Garden County," 
and the results have been as favorable as 
could be expected under all the vicissitudes 
which usually accompany a "new departure," 
in any direction, from the modes and customs 
of our fathers. We need not give the reasons 
why cultivation improves the quality and in- 
creases the quantity of wheat or any other 
crop, for on a little reflection it must become 
self-evident. If we were to sow fields of corn, 
tobacco, cabbages, &c., and then leave them 
to take care of themselves, without any 
further culture whatever, as we have been in 
the habit of treating our wheat, does any 
rational man for a moment suppose we would 
be able to gather such crops of vege a- 
bles as we do from them when we subject 
them to thorough culture ? As "like causes 
produce like ettects" in the general phenomena 
of nature, we are compelled to include wheat 
in the same category. To Messrs. L. W. 
Groff and his son, A. B. Groff, of West Earl 
township, belongs the credit of initiating the 
cultivation of wheat in the county of Lancas- 
ter, and we must refer our readers for the re- 
sults of their experiments to their plain state- 
ment, and reports of committees on the sub- 
ject, published on page 164 of The Lancas- 
ter Farmer for 1877. Since that period the 
subject has gradually been growing into favor, 
and now some of the best and most practical 
agricultural minds in the country have mani- 
fested an interest in it, and are successfull}' 
engaged in experimenting. 

The Messrs. Groft''s success last year has 
stimulated their efforts in the present crop, in 
which they are joined by their most intelli- 
gent neighbors. 

On Tuesday, the 0th inst. , we, in company 
with Mr. J. B. Weisgarber, paid a visit to 
the farms of Messrs. Grolf, and witnessed the 
practical operation of their mode of culture, 
and its visible effects upon the growing wheat, 
and we must confess that both the manipula- 
tion and the results far surpassed our ultimate 
expectations. The distance from Lancaster 
city is about ten miles, over a well-conditioned 
road, through quiet, tidy-looking villages, 
and a fine rolling country expanding on either 
hand. The wheat fields decked in their luxu- 
rient vernal sheen, were "just beautiful," 
and we doubted whether they could be ex- 
celled anywhere, but when we reached the 
Groir farms, the illusion quickly vanished, 
and the effects of cultivation were unmis- 
takably apparent, in color, in firm and erect 
setting in the soil, and in the breadth of the 
blades. Of course, the difference between 
cultivation and non-cultivation can only be 
fully determined when the crops are gathered; 
but if external appearances indicate anything, 
then we without hesitation should record our 
judgment in favor of cultivation. It doubt- 
less will be said that the Messrs. Groff liber- 
ally manure or fertilize their lands, and hence 
the difference in favor of their grain ; but we 
found the fields of all then- neighbors, who 

cultivate by their system, in the same pros- 
perous condition, even among those who are 
proverbial for their sparing of manure, and 
" hard working " of their lands, and this con- 
dition has been produced by cultivation alone. 
But that is not all. In fields that had been 
cultivated last spring, and then sown in clover, 
the same beneficial effect is seen in the said 
clover fields at the present time. 

As an illustration of the benefits of cultiva- 
tion to the "after crop," it is only necessary 
to mention that in a field where clover had 
been sown on cultivated wheat, in the month 
of May, 1877, a very clever crop of clover hay 
was harvested about the beginning of October 
of the same year. When you enter a field of 
wheat over which the cultivator has passed 
the second or third time, you find the earth 
between the drills as mellow as it is in a vege- 
table garden, and it must be evident that this 
condition of the soil is as beneficial to the 
growing crops in one case as in the other. It 
seems to us a rational conclusion, because it 
absorbs more and retains longer the dews and 
rains which fall upon it ; it allows a freer ex- 
pansion and development of the main roots 
and the feeding rootlets, through which the 
stalk becomes firmerset,and therefore not so lia- 
ble to fall or "lodge, "as under the old system. 

The Messrs. Groff use a common wheat 
drill, six feet between the wheels. These six 
feet are divided into five spaces, each space 
being a fraction over fourteen inches. Instead 
of eight feeding hoes, as in the common drills, 
there are but /owr, so that the space between 
the two outside ones and the wheels is the 
same as that between the inner hoes. This 
leaves the drills wide enough apart for the 
horses to walk between them without t.-eading 
down the wheat. It is not necessary to describe 
how a grain drill is operated, adjusted, feeds, 
&c., for that is familiar to all who have ever 
used one. It may, however, be necessary to 
say that the lower end of the hoes spread out 
.something like a horse's foot, only more 
pointed, being a little over four inches in di- 
ameter inside, and have a double beveled or 
deflexed diametrical bar near the lower end, 
upon which the wheat falls, and is thus more 
equally or evenly distributed — that is, it does 
not fall in one single crowded line, as in a 
common drill. These hoes can be attached to 
any drill by a re-division of the spaces; and 
the old hoes can be used by attaching the 
spreading foot and cross-bar below, because 
there is less crowding of the seed and it is 
more scattered on the ground as it leaves the 
drill, whereby every sound grain is sure to 
produce a vigorous plant which will mature its 
fruit. It is claimed to be more economical in its 
consumption of seed on a given quantity of land 
than the common eight-holed drill. 

When the time for cultivation comes, if it is 
not desirable to have two machines, the feed- 
ing hose can be removed and the cultivator 
can be attached to the same running-gears. 
These consist of as many three -clawed culti- 
vating hoes as there are feeding hose, and ar- 
ranged the same distance apart. Between 
these are suspended triangular or V-shaped 
inverted troughs, that pass over the rows of 
wheat and protect it against injury during the 
process of cultivation, and it is remarkable to 
notice how complete this protection is accom- 
plished. The young wheat comes from 
under them as erecl and uninjured as it 
was before the cultivator passed over it. 
The claws of these cultivating hoes are in tri- 
angular groups, the middle one in advance of 
the two outer ones, which prevents clogging, 
and leaves the work even and clean. Of, these cultivating hoes are so arranged 
as to be raised up and let fall again, the same 
as in the process of planting. It only re- 
quires the progressive agriculturist to see the 
process to be convinced of its utilitj'. Not- 
withstanding all the wheat looks promising 
the present season, yet we observed none so 
vigorous, so uniform in size, so firmly set and 
so rich in color as that under the cultivation 
of the Messrs. Groff', Ranck and others who 
use this process, and we await corresponding 
beneficial results. 





Grown and for sale by Edward .1. Evans & 
Co., York, York county. Pa. Price, by mail, 
post-paid, for one year old, Sl.UO ; for two 
years old, $1.. 50. This (Jrape, wliicli is des- 
tined to become popular, is a cross between 
the Concord and Diana Hamburg, and was 
originated by Mr. .lacob Moore of Brighton, 
New \''ork, who is well known for hisentluisi- 
astic devotion to the business of artilicial 
crossing of fruits, in order to iirodnce im- 
proved varieties. Mr. E. II. Hooker, of Ro- 
chester, who has the original vine, has tested 
it for five consecutive years, and it has given 
unqualified satisfaction. It received the Wilder 
Medal, for Mr. Hooker's display of the fruit 
at the Exhibition of the " American Pomo- 
logical Society," at Baltimore, in September, 
1S77, and those who had llie pleasure of tast- 
ing the fruit on that occasion, fully sustain all 
that has been claimed for it by its originator, 
and those who have gnnvn it, and have it for 
sale. It is confidently named among our 
Hardy Varieties by Nursery men of the liigh- 
est standing in the country, and Mr. Hooker 
who has tried it longist, and perhaps knows 
it best, declares that he knows of xo oxe va- 
riety of grape which combines so many ex- 
cellent traits as are found in this. It is confi- 
dently believed that a general trial will amply 

ripens too early to be well adapted to packing 
and keeping iu this latitude. 

cult. Jkaidi/ fif Vine and Foliage. — It is no 
small advantage that the Brighton Vine has 
immense glossy dark green leaves, whicli are 
very attractive, and effectually resists diseases 
which afllict feebler growing kinds. 


Mr. J. M. J., Lanraster, Pa.— The branch 
of tlie peach tree submitted to us was in- 
fested by a species ot IScolytus or Tnmicits, 
small black or brown cylindrical beetles. We 
cannot be positive about the species by .seeing 
the larva alone ; but they probably are pyri — 
the pear-blight beetle. Two years ago a 
branch, similarly infested, was sent to us from 
Cecil CO., Maryland. See third column, page 
3(!, March nuniber of The Farmer. 

The small, luird spherical object submitted 
to us two days ago, was the "uutlet" or seed 
of the "hack-berry," (Celtis occidentali.^ \a,T. 
pumila,] a small tree, growing on river banks 
and in woods, from New England to Wiscon- 
sin, and southward, belonging to tlie sub- 
order Ulmace^, or elm family. The fruit 
grows on a peduncle or stem, reddish or yel- 
lowish in color, but turning a dark purple at 
maturity ; sweet and edible ; as large as bird- 
cherries ; flesh thin, and ripening in autumn. 

it becomes necessary to give tlie matter seri- 
ous attention, and to note with care liow best 
to prepare sufficient for one's own use, and 
the most economical method of manufacture. 
The time and method of application, and the 
effect of different kinds upon various crops, 
are a'lso matters of great and growing im- 
portance. But this essay proposes to treat 
mainly upon the best and most economical 
methodsof manufacture, embracing not theory 
simply, for years of practice and watching the 
result of application are both embodied in 
everytliing herewitli presented. 

The richest barnyard manure produced is 
from corn-fed cattle ; the next is, perhaps, 
from the droppings of grain-fed The 
two mixed together make a very acceptable 
fertilizer, and a liberal application thereof to 
any soil will make the whole face of nature 
smile with an abundant liarvest. In this con- 
nection tlicre is another element richer and 
more acceptable to the land, that is almost 
wholly lost from nearly every barnyard. This 
element is the liqui<l matter so soggy, sputtery 
and unpleasant ibr faruiers witli leaky boots 
in moist weather. When a farmer can so ar- 
range his barnyard that this licpiid will run 
into a pit aud be preserved for sprinkling his 
soil, he will find, by a few applications, that 
tlie richest of all his accessories has for years 
been running to waste. It is surprising how 

bear out the following recommendations, as 
coming distinctly witliiii the sphere of what is 
claimed for it. 

1st. Excellency of Quality. — It is equal to or 
better than the Delaware in flavor and rich- 
ness, with even less pulp; very pure, sweet, 
and delicate in character. A most excellent 
table fruit, surpassing every other early grape 
in quality. 

2d. Vigor and Hardiness of Vine. — The vine 
grows with remarkable rapidity, ripens its 
wood early, and very perfectly; proving fully 
as well able to resist the severest winters as 
the Concord. 

3d. Early Ripening. — The Brighton ripens 
along with our earliest sorts — the Delaware, 
the Euraelan and the Hartford. This is a 
very valuable peculiarity for all planters north 
of Pennsylvania, as many of our other best 
grapes fail to ripen in unlavorable seasons, or 
in any but the earliest and dryest .soils and 
situations. Ripe in Rochester, September 
5th, 1876. 

4(/i. Beauty and Size of J'rKrt.— Itis aslarge 
and beautiful as the celebrated Catawba, 
which it resembles in color and form of bunch 
and berry. When first ripe it is of a reddish 
purple color, but if sulii-rcd to hang upon the 
vine until very ripe, it becomes purple. 

The fruit never drops from the stem, but 

! The kernel is albuminous, and has a fine nutty 

i flavor. 

Mr. D. H. G., North Queen street, Lancas- 
ter, Pa. — Y'our peach twigs were infested by 
the "peach bark-louse," (Lecanium persica:,) 

\ which is becoming numerous in the country. 
See The Lancaster Farmer for February, 
March and April. 

AVhat was once considered in this country a 
disagreeable appendage to barns, and a neces- 
sary nuisance, lias of late years resolved itself 
into one of the greatest blessings of the farm. 
What would a farm in the Middle States be 
now without its barnyard manure V What 
would the Pennsylvania fanner now i)Ut upon 
his land in return for the annual drain upon 
it, if he were deprived of the offal of his cat- 
tle? Not only has the barnyard manure 
grown in importance, but there is an increas- 
ing sentiment that unless there are larger de- 
posits than the barnyard can afford to each 
farm, the land will soon lie worn out, and the 
once fertile soil become utterly unfit for use. 
Since barnyard manine has taken such a high 
position among the thinking class of farmers 

*Aa eseay read before the January meeting of the Penn- 
sylvuuiii Utiite Board of Agriculture, by Col. Jajact Young, 
ot MlddletowD. 

much of this liquid will accumulate in one 
year on an ordinary farm ; and it is more sur- 
prising to the experimenter when lie notes the 
beneficial results of this liepiid upon his fields. 

In preparing a sufficient quantity of manure, 
experience has demonstrated that it p.ays to 
buy up a quantity of cattle every year — 
enough to consume all the corn raised "on the 
place, and sometimes more. It is far more 
economical to have cattle enough to eat up all 
the corn raised, and turn that into manure at 
home, and the fat cattle into money, than to 
sell the corn in market and witli the proceeds 
buy artificial manure. Our farmers are sell- 
ing too much feed and manufacturing too 
little manure. Consequently tlicir land is 
becoming poorer, instead of richer, and with 
the present course pei-sisted in, Pennsylvania 
will not be long in having a larger percentage 
of worn-out lands than some of the New 
England States now have. The more a Penn- 
sylvania farmer judiciously puts upon his 
land, the more be will be able to take off. 
The great mistake now being made is putting 
so little on and taking so much off. 

One of the best ways of securing an abun- 
dance of manure is to go along creeks and, 
where there arc eddies,gatherup the deposits. 
If the fanner is living along a river or canal, 
J hundreds of thousands of loads can be gath- 




ered at the eddies in low stages of water ; and 
the deposits, gathered with judgment, will be 
found to make the richest of fertilizers. 
Large quantities of exceedingly rich manure 
gather in mill dams, the accumulation, oft- 
times, of miles of territory. Millions of dol- 
lars' worth of such rich manure now lie un- 
disturbed throughout the State, which, if 
placed on corn or grass, would invariably 
manifest its value in improved crops the very 
next harvest. There are seasons when a 
farmer's time cannot be more profitably em- 
ployed than in gathering up the rich beds of 
so-called "muck" in the eddies of small and 
large streams, in the beds of canals, and in 
the bottom of mill dams, or in other places 
■where rich soil has been washed in. In fact, 
with some this work will be found more profit- 
able ultimately than gathering in the crops of 
a double harvest. Much of this manin-e can 
be gathered at diSerent times and piled up 
for use until the laud is better fitted to receive 
it. Having personally to use large quantities 
of fertilizers, it became an imperative neces- 
sity for me to look around and learn where I 
could get it, the best and the cheapest, and 
now I use hundreds of thousands of loads, 
gathered in the manner described. I was 
first led to this course by noting the gratify- 
ing effects of the deposits of a large reclaimed 
swamp spread over my fields. These deposits 
proved to be from two to seven feet deep over 
the entire reclaimed space. It was first used 
in the garden, upon the suggestion of the 
German gardener, and found so valuable that 
ere long it was being scattered over the fields. 
Manure of this description lasts longer, and 
one gets barnyard manure. 

Some farmers appear to place considerably 
stress upon manure made of forest leaves in 
compost heaps ; but they will find a great sav- 
ing and better manure by hauling from eddies 
of creeks and other streams, and from the 
deposit of mill dams. 

Another very good and really economical 
method of manufacturing barnyard manure 
is, if you live near a town, to give your sur- 
plus straw to owners of horses and stock, ask- 
ing in return only the manure from their 
stables or barnyards. This applies only to 
those who feed grain. Where they keep their 
horses or cattle on straw for provender it is 
best to send the straw elsewhere. But to those 
who feed their animals well, it pays to furnish 
them with straw for bedding gratuitously, 
with the privi'ege of hauling away their ma- 
nure. Then the farmer is more likelv to be 
called upon to furnish these parties with hay 
at remunerative prices. In hauling away 
manure it is best to .select and load by itself 
that which will do for immediate distribution 
over a field, and dispose of it accordingly; 
that which is not fit for this purpose can be 
taken to the pile held in waiting for decompo- 
sition. It is not profitable business to handle 
manure too often, and if once loading will 
accomplish the purpose there is not much 
wisdom in loading twice. 

To prepare manure properly requires care- 
ful study of soils and fertilizers, close obser- 
vation of the effects upon crops, and a tact 
sufficient to make the best uses of the best 
methods. When I was in the lumber business 
I conceived the idea that it did not require 
much intelligence to be a farmer. I find that 
it requires not only intelUgence, but, after 
years of experience, more intelligence than I 
possess. There is not enough education in the 
farming of this country. It is the most im- 
portant of all secular occupations, and requires 
wisdom, judgment and understanding, all the 
time, and in every season. A practical farmer, 
to successfully carry on his work, can not be 
too well educated. 
Fertilizers artificially manufactured through- 
out, are not the most economical in my ex- 
perience. The good old barnyard manure 
first, then deposits of the streams, and then 
the next best you can get, is the policy of my 
experience. With economy and method, and 
a steady, persistent attachment to the calling 
of agriculture, then the manure, such as I 
have described, may well be accepted as the 
staff of life of the thrifty, profitable farm. 

j manures and soil fertilizers* 
An experiment testing the continued action 
of fertilizers through a rotation of crops. The 
fertilizers were applied at the rate of eight 
dollars jier acre to eighth of an acre plots, 
in the spring of 1874, and plowed down for 
corn. No further application made during 
the rotation. The results on the various crops 
were as follows : 

Net profit from ap- 

Value of grain over ^ § aS^^' 
no fertilizers «=: ". °':'^.'°,". 


Whole value ccf crops . ■=.=". ■'. ='. ". ". ". 

ha lO to OS r-i -* «5 

Pounds of grass in ^ooo e.>*oo> 
1877 per ii acre.... "S*" gggS 

Pounds of wheat in 
1876 per >o acre , . . 

Pounds of oats in 
1875 per }g acre.... 

is;:*;;;? s;:s!:>t 

in o t- (oi— I— 1 oi 

U iO U3 r-4 OQ CO X 

,-1 -J. o ci in « 00 

OOt- 00 O O i-i t-H 

Pounds of com ears ^tco ^^mt~ 

Pounds of Fertilizer. 

o) .-.9 



CO oj' <^ 

■ • i^ 

E O OD Sd 

Sffl * o 
^2 -a a a 

« (J IE to 

In the above table we have estimated the 
corn as worth 52 cents per 72 lbs of ears. 
The oats at .32 cents, the wheat at SI. 50 and 
the hay at $15 per ton, which was about the 
price when the crops were harvested and sold. 
The barn-yard manure was estimated as 
worth the same as the other fertilizers, though 
had it been bought would have cost more. — 
W. P. a 

The above table shows such extraordinary 
results from the use of phosphate fertilizers, 
that it may be satisfactory to give the results 
of another set of experiments on another 
part of the farm. The fertilizers were applied 
to eighth acre plots as in the above case, and 
plowed under for corn in Spring of 1875. 

Net profit from ap- 
plication in three 

■ • eo o oi 

Value of gain over no 

Whole value of crocs g S 3 S o m S 
on. J) acre 'tokoot— t-oot— 

Pounds of wheat in|;<i;^:K^ 

Pounds of oats in 
1S76 per ^8 acre. . . . 

Pounds of corn in 

o o o la lo to la 

: :6£g-g.'c, 

^ . ij ^ ffl o o 
S ■< 9 .aj3 

.- S a ® ® 

Z Z X H fc n 03 

The wheat plots in 1877 were very badly 
injured by the Hessian fly, and the product a 

*Read before the Lancaster County Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural Society, by John i. Carter, 

very low one, hence the net profit from the 
use of the fertilizers was seriously lessened. 
In these estimates no account is taken of the 
increased quantity of fodder and straw on 
the plots fertilized, as I allowed that to bal- 
ance the increased labor of harvesting. 

To go back to the tables in the earlier part 
of this paper. They are based upon a popu- 
lar idea advanced several years ago by Prof. 
Ville, of France, and later by Prof. Stock- 
bridge, of Mass. — and many commercial fer- 
tilizers are now compounded on the theory of 
supplying all the leading ingredients of a cer- 
tain crop by a fertilizer containing them in the 
proper proportion. However plausible this 
may look, it ignores the important fact — that 
a soil may already contain some of these in- 
gredients in sufficient quantities — and hence 
it would be a waste of material to give it 
more than needed — and this, as before stated, 
seems to make it desirable for farmers to do 
some experimenting for themselves, on their 
own soils. I would suggest the following 
programme of experiments that would be 
easily made, and might prove interesting and 
valuable to the maker. 

Take plots containing 1-16 of an acre, and 
put on the following fertilizers for corn : 

1. No manure ; 2. Nitrogen— in the form 
of 30 lbs. a. a. nitrogen ; 3. Phosphoric acid, 
in the form of 10 lbs challenge superphos- 
phate ; 4. Potash — in the form of 36 lbs. sul- 
phate of potash ; 5. Nitrogen and phosphoric 
acid — half of No. 2 and 3 ; 6. No manure ; 
7. Corn formula — j of No. 2, 3 and 4 ; 8. 
Barn-yard manure ; 9. Plaster ; 10. Lime ; 
11. No manure. 

A careful observation of the results of such 
a series of experiments, will inform us, with 
reasonable correctness, which class of these 
representative manmes our individual soil 
requires ; and that class that shows no good 
result, may be safely discarded from further 
trial. For instance. If we see no effect what- 
ever from potash, we may conclude that the 
disintegrating work of our soil keeps up the 
supply, or that the soU itself contains a suffi- 
ciency for our present wants — and so with 
the other ingredients. But if we find one of 
these classes or compounds making a marked 
improvement ; our next step is to find out the 
cheapest and most available form and source 
of supply. Experiments upon our "Farm," 
and upon soils in sections long under cultiva- 
tion, indicate the exhaustion of phosphoric 
acid. The importance of this fact is shown 
when we remember that this acid appears in 
every cultivated plant and in every part, from 
the strong, hard stem to the delicate stamens 
and pistils of the blossom — in the straw and 
the perfect grain. It is almost impossible to 
grow a plant without this acid being present 
in it. It is true that all soils contain more or 
less of this acid, and in quantities compara- 
tively large, when compared with the amounts 
in the ash of cultivated plants ; but as it is 
more plentiful in the grain of cereals, and in 
such crops as farmers frequently sell, it is 
apparent that without removing the supply, 
exhaustion will slowly but surely follow long 
cultivation. Phosphoric acid makes many 
combinations with difl'erent bases, the most 
important of which— to the farmer— is its 
union with lime, and the three most common 
combinations are : First, the tri-calcic phos- 
phate of lime, or where 142 parts of phos- 
phoric acid combine with 168 parts of lime. 
This is also called insoluble phosphate, and is 
the form in which it is found in our phos- 
phatic rock deposits — in bones, and, indeed, 
is the prevalent form found in our soils. 

The second form is the di-caicic phosphate, 
or where 142 parts of phosphoric acid unite 
with 112 parts of lime ; this is also called re- 
verted or precipitated phosphate, and is in 
a form so available as plant food that it is 
reckoned of nearly equal value with the soluble 
phosphate. Third, the mono-calcic phosphate, 
or where 142 parts of phosphoric acid unite j 
with 56 parts of lime ; this is called the soluble! 
phosphate, or true superphosphate of com-l 
merce, .and is reckoned the most valuable,! 
because it is readily soluble in water. ThereJ 




is a marked diflcrence in the value of the tri- 
calcic or insoluble i)hosi)hate in the rock 
deiiosits and that found in common bone — the 
former being hard to dissolve, responding 
slowly to the action of the acids on the soil — 
while the deconijiosing animal matter in tlie 
latter, when on the soil, gets it in a condition 
easily acted upon. 

To test the comparative value of soluble 
and reverted phosphate, we applied on a j 
acre, 00 lbs. of challenge superphosphate, con- 
taining over 30 per cent, of .soluble or mono- 
calcic pho.sphate ; on anotlier i»lat we a|)plied 
the .same number of pounds of the challenge, 
combined with 20 ttis. of quick lime, presum- 
ing that the mono-calcic would take up an- 
other portion of lime, making a di-ealcic or 
reverted phosphate. The result was that No. 
1 made 70 S-72 bushels of corn, and No. 2,70 
bushels, or only 8 tbs. in favor of the soluble 

Phosphoric acid, like lime, is never found 
on the soil, except in combination witli an- 
other element ; and like lime, as belbre stated, 
is present on every plant, and really much 
more important to its welfare. Yet there is 
a wonderful difference in the amounts used as 
fertilizer applications— from 2,000 to 5,000 
itis. of nearly pure lime being used per acre, 
whilst 50 to 100 ttis. of pure soluble phosphate 
would be considered a good application. But 
of course the great value of lime does not de- 
pend alone on furnishing, directly, a few 
pound.s of plant food. It is due to its action 
on the vegetable matter or humus in the 
soil ; and as these substances have to be re- 
solved into their original elements, such as 
carbonic acid, water, nitrates or ammonia, 
&c., before they can enter again into plant 
circulation, and as lime is a powerful resol- 
vent, not only of vegetable matter, but of the 
inorganic or mineral matters of the soil like- 
wise, setting free potash, magnesia, silica 
and other minerals, we can see at once the 
important part lime serves in its indirect ac- 
tion. Hence, we can account for a measure 
of its popularity on strong, rich soil, where 
an abundance of vegetable or animal manure 
is used, and for its lamentable failure where 
the vegetable matter is worked out— no 
manure supplied and the natural character of 
the rock a poor one. But even so good a 
tiling as lime may some day fail us when we 
exhaust the mineral elements in the stone 
and rocks, upon which lime has been so suc- 
cessfully acting. 

' 1 shall not tire you further by saying much 
about plaster, or sulphate of lime ; and an- 
otlier reason for not doing so is, that our in- 
formation about its action is vague and un- 
certain. Probably under .some circumstances 
it may supiily lime and .sulphuric acid directly 
to the jjlaut as food. But its great benefit is 
like that of lime in its solvent action on the 
mineral elements in the soil. It is said, also, 
that when taken up largely into the circula- 
tion of the plant, to impede excessive 
evaporation of moisture from growing vege- 
tation, thus enabling it to withstand drouths 
orgrowindry times. Plasterisalso valuable in 
seizing upon carbonate of ammonia, the vola- 
tile form of ammonia resulting from decom- 
poBing manure and vegetable matter, and 
changing it into the sulphate, a non-volatile 
form. It no doubt acts in the same way upon 
the carbonate of ammonia in the air, in which 
there is always a small quantity. 

I find I have no time to refer to potash, 
magnesia, the sodas and other mineral plant 
ingredients, and must even pass barnyard 
manure in a very hasty way, only recommend- 
ing its persistent accumulation and careful 
saving. There are two considerations, how- 
ever, that I might efl'er for its treatment : 
First, the adding of some of the more valuable 
mineral constituents to the manure pile 
during its accmuulation, as in the form of 
ground bone, or a good dissolved rock or sul- 
phate, or muriate of potash. These would 
not only enrich the pile, but notably improve 
the assimibility of the whole. 

The other is, that all as manures, to be per- 
fectly available, must be finely divided and 

thoroughly distributed, therefore great care 
should be taken t() have our yard manure 
well decompo.sed and completely spread. 

A word or two on soil cultivation as a 
fertilizer : The sjiongioles, or feeding root- 
lets of a growing jilant, are organs of ex- 
ceeding delicacy, and thrive best in a feeding 
ground, mellow enough to offer no hindrances 
in their search for food. The food itself nnist 
be so fine as to be almost in a li(piid or 
ga.scous form, and to ell'ect the cliemical 
changes in the .soil necessary to the develop- 
ment of plant-food requires a thorough com- 
munication of (he soil, allowing the free in- 
terchange of jiarticles and the unobstructed 
action of light, air, heat and water. Let any 
one examine a clod from our fields, and he 
can easily imagine how impervious it must be 
to all tlie above-mentioned infiuences and how 
illy adapted to support plant life. I fear we do 
not appreciate the importance of atmosiiheric 
influence as a source of fertility ; how it may 
not only supply carbon, but that the abundant 
nitrogen of the air may. in some w.ay furnish 
to the soil and plant the much needed nitrates 
and ammonia, which, when furnished in ma- 
nures, cost us so dear. And this new theory 
of root-iiruning, lately advanced by Dr. 
Sturtevant, claiming that great advantages 
result from seasonable root-iiruning by judi- 
cious cultivation— cutting off long straggling 
roots, forcing them to branch and semf out 
an increase of fresh feeders, just as we shorten 
the long branches of a tree to make it stocky 
and strong. He applies it to the culture of 
corn, and claims great results. This, an<l the 
air influence, may account for the wonderful 
results from cultivating wheat, as reported })y 
some of your member.?. To close this branch 
of the subject I would advise a careful pul- 
verization of the soil, the application of 
manures in as fine condition as possible, and 
of fertilizers in a composted f(n-m, as far as 
practicable. I think the a.ssimibility of many 
of our connnercial fertilizers would be greatly 
increa.sed by judicious composting; such 
treatment would also secure their more even 
distribution throughout the soil, and in easy 
reach of searching roots. 

If it were not tiring you too much, I would 
like to refer in closing to the desponding way 
many farmers speak of our competition with 
the West, and I notice the same .sentiment 
has been exjiressed in this society. If we look 
at the matter fairly, we will find the advan- 
tages prejionderating in favor of the eastern 
farmer. Our western brothers have their un- 
exhausted lands as their only advantage— and 
that will be lost before many genei-ations — 
while our contiguous markets iiermit us to 
ship clieaply and safely our more perishable 
products, and lessens ifreight on such heavy 
articles as hay and roots. We have an abun- 
dance of cheaj) capital and labor, and much 
of the land of Eastern Pennsylvania to-day is 
cheaper, counting improvements, than the 
improved lands of the West. Our dense 
population gives us sujierior educational and 
social advantages, and we have enlarged 
facilities for obtaining knowledge in all mat- 
ters pertaining to our business. 

Let us then resolve to take eveiy advan- 
tage of our favored jiosition, and make the 
farmers of Eastern Pennsylvania a worthy 
type of a happy, Intelligeht and prosperous 


For The Lancasteb Farmer, 
Prok. S. S. Rath von— <S'uv As the bee and 
grape (piestion is about almost wore thread- 
liare I simply wish your respected corres])on- 
dent in the ^larch number of TnK Farmer, 
Mr. Wm. J. Pyle, to try a very simple experi- 
ment, which he can do at any time, without 
waiting for the grapes to ripen. Just let him 
take a very small jiair of pincers and very 
tenderly grab an Italian bee in the middle, 
being careful to keep the bee's natural armour 
(stinger) out of the way, and let him i)lace 
the bee's nijiiiers or mandibles on a tender 
part of his skin, and unless his skin is as hard 
and tough as an elei)hant's, I'll venture to 

predict tliat the bee will give him such a 
|)inch as to convince him that the inno<-ent bee 
may, after all said to the contrary, po3.sibly 
he capable of cutting the tender .skin of tho 

Planting Apple Trees. 
We see it recommended, time and again, 
" plant your trees no deeper than lliey stood 
in the nursery." This may be good advice if 
the season hai)i)ens to be wet, but if the sea- 
son proves dry it would be better to plant a 
little deeper. I well remember that about 
fifty-five years ago a neiglibor planting a small 
orcliard, and as I hap])ened to visit him at the 
tinii', I saw that he dug holes with a crowbar 
.some eighteen to twenty inches deep. I was 
surprised that he was planting his trees so 
veiy deep, full eighteen inches. I told him I 
thought he was not planting them as they 
ought to be planted, that the roots thus thrust 
down into the cold ground the trees would not 
live or do well. He said we nnist ])ut the 
roots deep down so that the wind would have 
no chance to blow the trees about to loosen 
the roots ; of course I kept my eyes on tliat 
orchard ; it was cultivated for eight or ten 
years ; potatoes and other truck i)lanted, then 
sowed with grass seed, and from tliat time to 
the present has had a thick sod of gra.s,s, which 
is cut and dried for hay once or twice a year ; 
never manured ; the hay removed off the 
ground annually. The gi-ound was not rich 
naturally, and no decaying material placed 
on the ground, except the leaves falling from 
the trees. That soil is now richer than at the 
time of planting the trees. Most of those old 
trees are now dead and peach trees are now 
])lanted on the ground, yet those trees flour- 
ished, and for thirty or forty years bore heavier 
crops of apples than any orchard in this 

Per contra, we might say. .Some years 
since, being in the city of Philadelphia, a 
number of us went out to see Mr. Bright'S 
place. Mr. II. M. Engle and Mr. Purple 
being along, as they no doubt both will re- 
member, Mr. Bright took >is to see a dwarf 
pear orchard that he had jilanted for Dr. 
Houghton. These trees all looked flourishing, 
and Mr. Bright told us he used no tool but his 
fret in jilanting ; that he W'ould scratch a little 
hollow with his boots, set the roots in and 
.scratch some soil over the roots in the same 
way with his feet ; that he wore out two pair 
of boots in planting those trees. The soil, if 
it can be called soil, almost a clean sand, 
and could be easily moved by the feet like an 
ash heaji. The trees were then young, but 
appeared healthy and thriving. 

Thus it appears there's no royal road to 
success for tree planting, no more than in 
securing wealth. And "that there are no 
rules without exceptions." 

Mr. Levi S. Reist's orchards, as he says, I 
saw them and very plainly perceived the 
difference, both as to soil and location. His 
orchard near Millport is certainly on a most 
suitable soil, as well as on a southern exposure, 
moderately elevated and a kind of loose, 
shelly soil ; just the kind of .soil, I should 
think, to be most suitable for all kinds of 
fruit trees ; even the Japan iiersimmon might 
find there a suitable locality and a home. 

Cultivating Apples for Export. 

Our friend goes strong for growing apples 
for export. But oh I dear, if we could only 
grow a sufliciency for home use, we might 
then, and not till then, think of growing them 
for export. The fact is .strange to me that 
they can grow them in plenty, north as well 
as south of us, yet we do not lack in trees. 
Occasionally we get a superaljundance, then, 
again, for years only a few or none. Who 
can tell "the reason why?" 

The prospect at present is that we may be 
blest with a fair crop of all kinds of fruit this 
.season; but we are Bot yet "out of the 
woods," and ''.Tack Frost," or some other 
casualty may yet intervene to mar our pros- 
pects — time will tell. The buds on peach and 
ajiricot trees are at least three-fourths safe 
and sound yet. — J. B. Garber. 



[ April, 

This splendid berry was raised bv the 
Messrs. Hovey. of Boston, and for this climate 
is one of the "finest of all varieties. It bears 

much, and its influence extends over a much 
larjrer area, but thus far not half the counties 
in the State are represented. May we hope 
that the best talent, not only in the agricul- 

thrui^Tanrmost delidouVof ' fruit.'Yre^ i tural, but also in horticultural interests in 

quently measuring, under ordinarj- cultiva- every county in the btate, w,U soon be repre- 

tion, three or four inches in circumference, 

or from an inch to an inch and a qviailer in 

diameter. To produce berries of 

size, take large." thrifty plants and transplant 
them in rich, deep soil, one foot apart, and 
keep all the runners trimmed off. and the 
ground loose. The next season clip oft all 
but two or three of the first blossoms on each 
plant, taking care to have a few plants of an- 
other variety of the same class, with stomi- 
nate flowers' in their vicinity. Strawberry 
plants are commonly designated as male and 
female, and it is of some importance to know 
how to distinguish these from each other, 
since a bed with too large a proportion of the 
male plants will prove very unproductive. 
The distinction can be readily made when in 
bloom, the blossoms of the female having an 
entirely green center, whilst those that exhibit 
a great many yellow stamens represent the 
male or barre'n "plants. Such flowers as have 
only a portion of stamens around the l.>ase of 
the" green conical centre of the flower are 
terme<l staminate. or perfect blossoms. 

More than a quarter of a centuary 
elapsed since the introduction of "Ho- 
vey "s Seedling " to the horticultural 
world, and many new varieties have 
temporarily superseded them, conspic- 
uously among which were "Wilson's 
Albany Seedling," "Trioraph de 
Gand,"' ' "Agriculturist." "Barnes' 
Mammoth." "Monarch of the West," 
"Charles Downing." "President Wil- 
der." and many others, some which 
were no improvement on Horey ; some 
excelling them perhaps in special quali- 
ties, but the larger number have been 
long since abandoned. Perhaps the 
most prolific in the Ions line of succes- 
sion is the Albiny Seedling. We once 
heard an experienced fruit-grower de- 
clare that he could raise as many of 
this berry on the same quantity of 
ground, bushel for bushel, as any other 
man could potatoes. After all the 
newer varieties have had their "run" 
it would not be surprising to see people 
go back to Hovey acrain (although per- 
haps under some other name), and we 
only produce it here because it may be 
legitimately rwrarded as the type of the 
"new departure" made in the cultiva- 
tion of the gtrawberrj" some thirty 
years ago, and which is still in progress. 

sented in this board. Should such a result be 
realized the combined knowledge of its mem- 
bers would contain a store of matter from 
which a report on the fruits of our Stale could 
be more intelligently made than is possible 
with all the present available sources. The 
Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society has in 
progress a catalogue of fruits adapted to our 
State, which will be the most reliable for 
Pennsylvania yet published, but it can not be 
made complete until the State is fully repre- 
sented in that society. The great uumlier of 
valuable varieties of apples in this State 
makes this a difficult task, and especially so 
l-)ecause many varieties are popular only in a 
few districts," while there are a few kinds that 
are successfully grown everywhere. Therefore 
the only .accurate report that can be made will 
be from statistics showing what varieties are 
best adapted to different sections of the State, 
and which information can only be obtained 
by proper testing. The majority of farmers 
are not disposed to incur such inconvenience, 
therefor it is only the more progressive that 
we can rely upon to accomplish much in this 


The apple crop being of more value in our 
State than all other fruit crops combined, 
makes it of vast importance. It is impossi- 
ble to do the subject justice in one short essay. 
The great variation of soil makes it not an 
easy task, when in addition we add the differ- 
ence of both altitude and latitude, which 
makes the variation of climate probably as 
much as that of soil. Meteorological differ- 
ences have also great bearing upon fruit crops. 
The difficulty is not from want of varieties 
(for we have enough to confuse almost any 
one), but from a want of a proper system for 
testing them in the different localities. Proper 
organizations have always l^een and are still 
wanting throughout the State to diffuse the 
knowledge neeessary to enable any one to 
make out a list of varieties, such as would 
give the required information. There are but 
few active horticultural organizations in our 
State. The Pennsylvania Horticultural So- 
ciety is perhaps the" oldest in the country, but 
its influf-nce has never extended far beyond 

The Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society, 
in less than twenty years, has accomplished 

*Be»l bsfon tbe me«tlng of tbr Pennrrlranii Bute 
B9»rd of Ai^rlcalnire, bjr H. M. Baglc, Ju. (3, UTS. 

direction. One grand mistake 'that Pennsyl- 
vanians have made, was the planting of so 
manv northern wnter apples, which have 
prov"en to be only fall apples, especially in the 
eastern section of our State ; at the same 
time some of the kinds most popular in the 
eastern counties are rejected by some fruit- 
growers in the mountain districts. All this 
proves that a more thorough knowledge in 
the matter of selection is of the utmost im- 
portance. Much has been achieved toward 
acquiring this much desired knowledge by the 
progressive pomologists of our State. It is 
therefore with gratification that we look upon 
what has been accomplished, while we look for- 
ward with hope toward still greater achieve- 
ments in jKjmological knowledge. 

A more extensive 'Knowledge of geology, as 
also of meteorology, would be of vast imjxirt- 
ance to the intelligent horticulturist. The 
ceological survey of our State, when com- 
plete, can not help but become very u.scful, 
not onlv to agriculture, but to horticulture as 
well. Were we in pos.session of facts pertain- 
ing to soil, temperature and varieties best 
adapted to different localities, our s\jccess 
then would not l»e complete without a 
knowledge of how to manage our trees from 
the time of planting to the marketing of their 
crops, which embraces planting, pruning, 
thinnine of fruit, proper fertilizers during 

destructive insects, applying fruits to their 
best uses so as to realize the greatest returns, 
with other knowledge necess.Tiry to make fruit 
growing what it should be. It is also of great 
importance, from a commercial standpoint, 
that our State should realize a protit from 
this branch of industry as well as from any 
other, instead of paying to other States annu- 
ally hundreds of thousands of dollars for 
apples and other fruits which might as well 
be grown within her own borders. In a corres- 
pondence with a friend in Bucks county, he 
states that from 1.5^000 to 18,000 bushe"ls of 
apples, crop of ISii, were shipped from a 
single railroad station. From another source 
I learn that SI, 200 was realized from one 
orchard, and that the dealer who purchased 
them doubled his money on them ; also that 
other orchards in that "section did nearly as 
well. All these favorable reports are from the 
same county. Xow it is not to be presumed 
that Bucks county is tetter adapted to apple 
growing than most other counties of our State, 
but that the orchardists have adapted them- 
selves to the business of apple growing. 
Equally favorable reports could, no doubt, he 
collected from other sections of our State, 
even in the off year. 

I can hardly forego at this juncture to refer 
to the hundreds of thousands of bushels of 
peaches that are annually purchased from the 
little State of Delaware, while our 
State has thousands of acres just as 
well adapted to the growing of this crop 
as the former. Only a few years ago 
peaches were shipped from Cumberland 
Valley to Baltimore, while " the crop 
was sliort in Delaware and Eastern 
Maryland. The sections best adapted 
to this crop lie principally south of 
the Susquehanna river, but especially 
in the southern tier counties. There 
is no doubt in the mind of your essayist, 
that should capitalists understanding 
the business embark in this enterprise 
in the sections referred to. the trade 
of Delaware peaches in the middle and 
western sections of this State would 
in a few years be vastly curtailed, if 
not entirely cut off. A suggestion 
just here may not he out of place — 
that the Secretry of this Board, while 
collecting statistics relative to the com- 
parative value of crops, at the same 
time solicit reports, so far as possible, 
of the actual value of the fruit crops 
of our State, which would demon- , 
strate their importance and the neces- 
sity of their fostering care by the State, 
so "as to make them not only of much 
greater commercial value, but also to 
enable our State to throw off its dependence 
upon other States for so large a proportion of 
our fniit supplies. 

Among the apples that have proven valu- 
able in our State are the fellowing : 

Summer— EariyHar%est, Early Strawterry, 
Primate, Summer Queen, All Summer, Red 
Astrachan, of Oldenburg, Sweet 
Bough. Summer Sweet Paradise. 

Autumn— Porter, Maidens Blush, Sum- 
mer Rambo, Fall Pippin, Jefferies, Graven- 

Early Winter— Smokehouse, Rambo, Fal»- 
water, "Pittsburg Pippin. 

Winter— Smith's Cider, York Imperial, I 
Xewtown Pippin, York Stripe. Peck's Pleas- 1 
ant, Ewalt. Rome Beauty, Dominie, Roman- 
ite, Yellow liellflower, AVinter Sweet Paradise, J 
Talman's Sweet, Lady's Sweet. 

Xorthem winter apples that have proven ofl 
value, but in Eastern Pennsylvania are simply T 
fall and earlv winter apples, are the following : 
Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Ilubbard- 
ston. Northern Spy. Esopus Spitzenberg, Rox-. 
burv Russet, Twinty Ounce, King, besides) 
other standard varieties in more northern lati- 
tudes. These popular northern .-iiiples have, 
however, proven equally valuable in the j 
northwestern counties of" our State as good 
keepers. In the mountain districts they are 
also good winter apples, while some of the | 

the different stages of growth, keeping down | most popular kinds m Eastern Pennsjlvama 




ar6 \)e\nn rcjoftwl in tlis lilithnr nitttudrit. 
TIk'I'o :iii- iiiuiiy ciilii>r viiliialiK' vitrli-tii'H that 
niiislit 1)1' I'lTiiiiiiiiruili'il, liiit it it II |{<-iii<riil 
' iiiiitlitki' to |iliiii( tiHi iiiiiiiY kiiiilH ill iiiii< ur- 
cIiiidI. iliilcHn fur till' |Mil'|><>NO lit' Imtiii^. 

'J'ht' iiiiiiiv ('Xr<>lli-iit new viirii'tlr» iif ((rii|ici( 
('ori'«liiui'iw a fiTxIi iiii|H'tiin tnwunl tlic rxlfii- 
hIoii of tliiH ili-xiiiilili' fruit. No kiiiil of IViill 
will iiriKliirca liir)-!' virlil, witli Hiirli I'l-ilainty, 
ll« till- viiU'H ciui Im' lalii down iluriii^ llii< win- 
liTuliil Im< protcrtt'ilaKaliiHt any ilf^ri-i' of i-oltl. 
Tlio iii'iitiiii;; ami IrainiiiK I'aii lirrn ho niiirli 
liiyKlilli'il a.s to (li'trr iiiaiiY Iroiii ulli'iii|itin;; 
iu ciiltiirr, wliii'li, liowcvi'i', Ih JiimI uh Niiii|il<< 
UM that of any othi-r friiil. Tin- Concoiil Htiil 
(■oiitiniira to lir tlic t;ia|H* for tlii< iiiilliiiii, 
wliilit Ivi'H, Martha, loria. Di'lawarc*, ']')<lt<- 
({rapli, with Boiiii' of till' ni'Wfr variilirn, ar«< 
HiirccHNriilly Kiown in the ililU-ronl ittH'tioiin of 

thr StMl,-. ' 

Small li'iiits mIioiiIiI not Ih< iicj^lcrti'il I>y any 
faiiilly that Iiiih a nffiian- roil nf ^roiinil to 
plant, lint i-spn-iaily I hi- Nliawlwrry, aM it Im 
IM> ili-licioux iiM to gratify tin- tanlr of tin* liioHt 
fuxtiilioiiH, wliilr it In ho proiliictivi- ami <-c<r> 
tain of a crop in alniimt any wasoii thai it 
wctnM alinoxt rriininal to ri-ji-rt it on tin- part 
of hi'ails of many fanii!li<ti, whom' jiiniorn iil- 
inoKt famlKli for thr want of itiirli palatalili< 
ami hi'altli'PiiMliirInK I'immI in itH iM'aHoii. Wil- 
noii'm Alliaiiy in Ktill I'xii'imivily ijrown, lint Ih 
fast i^ivini; way toCharlrit l)<iwnili;{ ami otlu-r 
varictiri* of hi'ttir i|iialily. 

for 'I'HM I.ANrA»l'KM VAHUKU, 

HAKU TIMICS OK 1817 ~l8a*. 

All/ l)'(,r Olil h'rirwl : III 'I'lIK LANfAHTKU 
FAKMKit, of till- IMIi iiint., you rt-ft-r to th»< 
vnrioiiH |M-riiHlH of " Ilanl 'I'iiiii-N " throii);li 
wliii-h you havi' piiNMrd, i-xpicially (Iiohi- fol- 
lowiiiK thi- war of IHl'J 1.'), of which you nay 
you nttain lint "a faint itiipn-HNion," on iti> 
coutil of your youth. An I am h few yearn 
your ncnior |M-riiiil iiii-tockc out your ri'collcc- 
tioiiH with lioini- of tnltic, anil thuH "(III in" 
Col. UiMitoii'it liii({i-r i/riifritl picluri! with a 
fow minute <li-tail», which will prove Itti cor- 
r<*clii«i«t, W) far ;t» I'lir former home (Marietta) 
waM contM'riieil. I would not retouch the 
Nuliji'ct were it not that thepri-M-nl momly re- 
HectlonM of Home may Im« ;i little litii;lileni«l 
)>y weiiiK that otherit have been worw off than 
Ihi-y are that hard aK the prcKi-nt tinicM un- 
donlitciHv are, we have men much harder 
timcH. '' Miwry " miiv imt" tun' company," 
but xynipathy Im i;ratel'ul to it cHpi-cially the 
Itynipathv which comi-H from like exiicrienc^-n 
— and the burden may l»e relieved by i-iii;;!!!;;, 
IniiniKon, the old MoliKi " I'Ct tIM all Im^ un- 
IkaiMiy together !" 

My father, an you may rememlM-r. wa«i ac- 
counted a wealthy in:in (at Iht- llim hUuidard,) 
at the <-loHe of the war, in 1h|.', notwilh- 
HtandiiiK Home heavy ex|><-tiMeH and Ionh»-h con- 
ne4-ted with raiHiUK a coiiiiiHliy of voliiiileerK, 
("Marietta (Jiayn.'') and almence fmni bin 
buMinetix while ill camp, in ]HH. liut the de- 
preciation in all kiiidx of pro|)<-rly. and the 
failure of home fornierlv wealthy men for 
whom he wan Hiirely. really left him in Mtich 
condition thai had liii* pioprrtv been hoiiI by 
the »lii»riir at anv time ;iflir 1H17 be wonlil 
have Im-i'Ii b«|>i'lenKly bankrupt, lint aM all 
MU|i|HiHi>d him fully Holvent he HvimI and hIiuv:- 
K'eil on the <-ri-dit of that reputation until, 
afl^-r el^dil or nine yearn ol int^-nm- anxietv, 
he j/iadually emer;;e<l from the continually 
itii|M-ii<lJn« ruin I 'J'hiit will explain the de- 
tailn I now procee*! to fuiiiinili of a father'M 
care and prudence, and a mother'^ wine* 
economy and lioiiiu-wlfely niaiia;'enient. 

I>uri|j|; many of thoiw- anxioUM yearn, ex- 
cept when MtraiiKi-pi Hat at our boaid, our 
cofl'ee wan mainly, if not wholly. ioa>il«-d 
whwit. rye, baili-y, cheHtniitii, ai-orim (wliiU- 
oak), &c. And thin wan not Hweelencd, nor 
(w-hen milk had to be l»in;flil) whlleiiid in 
recomiienx- of which caciillce, no bard for 
children to make, we wire each allowed one 
cent a wt-ek. We hail nieat ;il 'iih iilionl 
tlire*' inealn in eiwb we«-k, and tl llv, 

of the chi-HpcHt kindii, but no wc 1 im 

to Ije whulenouie, uuurUhiug aiid rery palalu- 

lite. KUh were iibundunt In th«<lr hpawhi, for 
iMiya who ilcll>;lited m calclilic^ tlieiii, and the 
iM-nt nliad ill tlie world, Wi'l|{hlnK lioin live to 
leu poumU each, were Hold at It) to 1/^ cetitM a 
piece. Our bread wan lye, or wheat largely 
mixed with rye, corniueul, or |Mitat<M-H, and 
Ueneially ({ulltlenn of butlor cheap inolaMea, 
"Hmeiiica.He," and apnle, (mmu-Ii, or plum 
"butter," (without other nweeleniiitt than 
what the fruit Mipplied,) Ih-Iuk the Hulwtltille.i 
provided plentifully In the fruit yearn, but 
nparely in other yeain. When "company" wan 
expecteil a \vlieat4'n loaf wan bakeil, and the 
table wax well fiiiniiilieil to nave appeariincen, 
for it wa.t feared that if facln iH'canie known 
creditor.^ mi^ht nuniiect the actual but bidden 
bankruptcy, and by wildly punhiii;j; then 
claimn nwecp away every particle of naleable 
properly ami leave un under a lio|M-lenn moiin 
lain of ilebtn. Ileniile.i, tlnme were ilayn when 
impriHoninent for debt vet nhailowrd our civlli- 
/ittion, a dark cloud which my father alwayn 
proudly claimed a larj^e ahare in removing 
frmu the ntatule iKtok. Alno, except when 
we had " company," wi< neldom naw a cake 
on our table. Have the "KuMtnacht" cake un 
• weelened, (and once or twice made out of 
rye lliiur,) and the ('hrintiuan {-akisi, without 
which two the year could not have rolled 
aioiiiiil in our (■erman faiiiilien. Soiiiel linen 
there wan "a birthday cake" innteud of tbe 
traditionary "luinovei" or otlirr pie. Canned 
friiiln were nnkuown, and the few prenetven 
that Weri- made were renerved for exllaoidi 
nary occaHionn, and for llni nick, whether of 
the falnilv or out of it. 

Our clolliin;{ wan on the naiiie economical 
Hcale ; for daily wear, in nummer, the home- 
made tow-linen and linen-Htri|H'4l, with heavy 
hoine-made linen for nhii-tln;{ ; and in winter, 
velvet for pantn, or boine-made canninet for 
the whole niilt. a time a bi-avy cotton 
cloth took the pliice of lilii-li, and Koini-tlmen 
a h<-avy woolen cloth (domi-Htic) nliperHeded 
the canninet or velvet. The velvet lieiii;; un- 
liniMl, |j;ave a line ntart to the blood, and 
caUM-<l a I'aU'hin;; of the breath when drawn 
over the bare nkin in a cold room on a cold 
winlcr'n niornln;; ! Kor tbone were tlliien 
when we knew liothin;^ of underwear in aliupe 
of ilrawirM. 

J doubt not that othern, yet living, could 
more than match thew* ntati-meiilH, with 
^'I'l-ater liaidxbip in food and lainmi-nt ; for 
thorn- were, Indeed, bard timen when niany of 
our lient i-iti/enn were torn from their familien 
and tliriint into the old Kancanter Jail nimply 
for Ih-Iiik too poor to (lay their debin, Iraviii).; 
wivi-n and children de|M-mlent on the kllkdneiM 
and charily of friemlN and nei|{hborn. 

1 will conclude thin nample of iM-rnonal re- 
coIlectioiiN by addlii;{ a few extriu-ln from an 
uiiti-bio;.'rapliical nkeU-li, written for me, at 
my reipient, by my father. It will nliow the 
enoriiioun rim* and fall in the prlcea of real 
enlate, between lHl',jand lH-,i2. 

" J'rom the commeiii-einent of llm war until 
the r'low, every article rone in piice. All the 
bankn bavin;; ntopprd payinjjr n|M'cie for their 
paper, and their numliei in IViuinylvania iii- 
creawd from l.'j to TiT, inxiied their paper with- 
out limit. Thin rained the price of every- 
lliin;;, eniMvially real i-Htate. lloiinen in 
Marietta nold for from <ri<),iiOO t/i S'iO.iJOIJ ; 
va/ant buildiiiK lotn, -tti feet front by ^^<)l) feet 
deep. Hold for from f.VMl to 8'.i,MKi a pie(«'. 
In IKl.'i I caiiKhl the epidelnlc and purcbaMKl 
4H Bcren of land iuljolnluj; the l>oroiii;li, at 
tl,.'i(XI (M-r acie, and laid it out In 175 town 
loin ami dinponi-d of Ihem by lotU-ry, (iU wan 
the practice at that p<-ri'><J,) at $/iIK) per lot, 
excluxive of (eiicen and live renerved lotn. I 
Ijoii/bt a farm |Hl)oiit half way l>i-tweeii Ijin- 
cai-U-r and Marietta] of I'Xi iicrin at t'J.VJ |n-r 
acie, and aino bou^-bt neveral lionwn to ^et 
rid of my money. In IHIK the bankn renumed 
n|M-cii- paymentx, and the di-btn which had 
Ineli conliaclnl when ' rajjn ' wi-re Ibe i-ir- 
culatin/ nil iliiiiii. bad now to |j<- |tald iu allver 
wlii-n one dollar wan woiHi S.'i of pajx-r. The 
farm I had loiUKht at (I'J.'iO |H-r lu'ie I hold at 
t\'Mi, ami In two yearn after it wan M>ld at 
^40 iMit acrv ! Jiouaen in town which iK;ld at 

one time at lin.OflO, were afterwards aold hy 

the nberlll for il.llNI, und .-lume did not nefl 
for ua much an the lime m then' walln had 
coat. HiillililiK loin that had iH-eti nold for 
flom t'J.tNM) to |'.',r>(K) each, were Hold lor t'M 
each. The fact in that theie were but hvA 
men In a |topulalion of alMnit 'Jt,iHH) souU that 
did not break up iK'foie IH'J'J." 

My dear old filciid, tliiMtt* were, Indeivl, 
"/iiiril tiinen " In and around our old home! ^ 
A. It. (Ironh, »»'.««/ii»w/tu(t, JJ. C, A/iir.7. aM, 
1H7H, _ 

For Thb I.AM(UttTga Kamhhb. 

Washcy i'Klda 

Hilly neldn are apt to wanh out dilche« by 
heavy raiiin. I'ick up the loone iitonen on Ihn 
lli-ldn, haul tliem to nmli dllchl^« and Itll them 
up. If theie are not handy, take brunh and 
dirt and make bankn. Throw dirt in on the 
lower end to ntop the water. Then put ImuhIi 
In on the iiptier aide. Ket theiii upii|{lit, or 
alanl them a little down bill that the water 
don't wanli the dirt away. Then |iiit diitoli 
Ibe briinli to hold Ihem in place. Make niicli 
bankn every ten or twelve vurd.-i lhiou((h Ihn 
whole ditch', the Htee|H'r'llii- bill the nearer 
llii'V niiint be to){ether. Hut let tbi-iii nlwaya 
lie the depth of a fill row lower thiin the aur> 
face. The npacea In-lween tliene bankn will 
till Up of thi'iiiaclven, and by and by ^^raaa will 
i;row over them, and lh<- water will not again 
wanh them out ; but never plow Ihem up 
axuin. If I bey are llllid up too bl^b the 
wali<r will noon make a new ditch by the nldn 
of lliu old one. 


htiai|;lilen up all |M>at fencen while the 
ground la yet nioint and aolV If m-glecled 
until the ^Mound in dry and hard it double* 
the lalnir. While the i;round In noft we ciui 
piinli them an ntral;.'ht aa we want them and 
kei'li them HO by iKiuiidlnK in nome dirt, liut 
if delayed until the ground U hard they luiva 
to Im' dug out oil one aide. 

Make the roailn iverywbeie on the farU) 
In-fole the ground Inllrmly aettled, aalt liiakea 
the Im-hI job, and la not no apt to wanh away 
by heavy rainn. Wln-ii left until hay-inaklng, 
llieii the ^.'I'oiiml ia tiMi hard to pick or plow, 
and what in thrown Into the road remain* 
loone, and diawn heavy wlieli we couie Ix) haul 
in bay and |.'iain. lint when it in made early 
ill the npriiig, it nettlen liiliilv fant by the tluin 
the hay-making and harveating cornea. 

Notliin;:; nbouM In- put o(T iinlil Ixi-niorrow 
that ••uijhl to Ih' done and I'Oii lie done to-ilay ; 
for thin In only playing into the bandn of that 
" procranlinallon " which In "the thief of 
time." J. U., WarvH'k, ApHl, IH7H, 


There are many valuable blntn contalmtd Iu 
the following paper read by (^ol. ,1. I,. Ktlcbter 
before the Meikaloimly Agrlculluial S<M'ii-ty, 

at itn lanl meeting, that will Im not only of 
InU-rent, but of ii-al lK-ne(ll : 

Mr. /'mull lit 'iml Hrvllniini • I am lndelit«Ml 
to Senator i'jinenlroul for u i-opy of Ilia 
"Traiinaclionn of the ( allfornia Klate Agri- 
cultural Kocietv," ami am aiiiM/.id at the Im- 
iiieiiM- agiiculliiial rentiiiicen and uiilionndtwj 
fi'ililily and pioHi.erMy of the (iolden fState, 
and the high appret-iation of her citir.eiin of 
agricultural and borticnllural No<-le|ii-a a« a 
nii-aiiH of developing her renoiircen. I have 
^'leaned flom thin re|"/rl many valuable fact* 
to utili/.e for till- lienilll of our noclety. 
Hiatc Aid to AKrlcultural tocktlet. 

The |>-glnlaluie ' ' ' ■ U-n 

».'.,(XI<J to the State ' .j 

t'i.UIJ*) to each ol I ,m.i ■.i...m /.ni'.ua, 

thereby vanlly augiiientiiig their ability to j.'lv<j 

liln-riil "•■ ' » ul.iil. :.i, laigelv in excena 

of til i-n, 'J'be MM ripta 

of lb. , ., ■ f4r, (Ci'i iiiid tb» 

<*xptm«M about llie aame 




A Model County Fair. 

At the great annual stock show of the Bay 
District Agricultural Association, one of the 
largest county societies, were brought together 
the finest and purest-blooded Arabian steeds 
and high-bred English race horses ; horses for 
heavy draught, road, carriage and farm, as 
well as for every other purpose for which that 
noble animal may be used by man. Assem- 
bled there were also the noble Durham, the 
beautiful Devon, the milk-giving Ayrshire, the 
cheese-making Holstein, and the fawn-like 
and butter-producing Alderuey and Jersey 
cows. The sheep were represented by the 
French Merino, Spanish Merino, Silesian, 
Cottswalds, Southdowns, and all the various 
breeds in their crosses that may be found in 
the world, while the swine department was 
complete, so far as the quality of the animal 
and purity of the blood is concerned. The 
receipts of this society were about $27,000, 
and disbursements about the same. 
Some Liberal Premiums. 

As an example of the liberal premiums 
paid in California, I will name a few of the 
principal ones awarded by the Bay District 
Association : 

For the beet Stallion of any age $100 

For the best Mare of any age 76 

AyrBhire Bull ..' 75 

Durham Bull 60 

Ayrshire. Durham and Devon Cowb 40 

Thoroughbi-ed Cattle 50 

Thoroughbred Buck 511 

Best Boar 36 

Spanish Merino Sheep 30 

Best exhibition of Poultry 20 

It is amazing what giant strides have been 
made by California in agriculture in the short 
period of thirty years under the stimulating 
influence of agricultural societies. 

Wheat, Grapes, Wines, &c. 

Marvelous has been the production of grain, 
the State having harvested in 1876, 30,000,000 
bushels of wheat. Under her genial sun the 
grape department will soon outrival Europe. 
The State has now 00,000 acres of vineyards, 
producing 10,000,000 gallons of wine annually, 
besides vinegar, brandy, rasins and fresh 
grapes, and has over $30,000,000 invested in 
this industry. California is, perhaps, the only 
country where wine, at its place of produc- 
tion, is cheaper than milk. In 1869 a gallon of 
ordinary wine brought thirty cents at Los 
Angelos, while a gallon of milk cost fifty cents. 
The wine is luscious and fruity. The commer- 
cial varieties are the Chamjiagnes, Angelica, 
Muscatel, Port, Sherry, Maderia, Tokay, Ca- 
tawba, Hock Sparkling and Claret. The Pa- 
cific coast will be the great wine producing 
country on account of its climatic influence in 
developing and ripening the fruit, and inas- 
much as the fine wines can be sold west of the 
Rocky Mountains at a profit, at $1.75 a gal- 
lon, they will undoubtedly at these low prices 
take the place of imported wines. 

\Wonderful Fruit Production. 

As an evidence of productiveness in the 
fruit department of California, Mr. Broughten, 
of the Santa Clara Valley, who is referred to 
as one of the most successful fruit growers, for 
his twelve-acre apple orchard was offered 
$1,000 for the crop, the buyer proposing to 
take the fruit ofi" the trees. His strawberry 
field of twenty acres yielded him $0,400. The 
fruit crop of the United States is estimated 
by the government statistician at $140,000,000. 
What a small portion of this crop is produced 
by Old Berks ? It seems now, however, that 
this county is awaking from her Rip Van 
Winkle sleep, and will soon rank among the 
fruit producing counties of Pennsvlvania, and 
thereby add largely to her material wealth. 

Suggests Formation of Township Clubs. 

Farmers' clubs under regular organization 
exist in California, meeting once a month for 
the discussion of subjects appertaining to the 
working of the farm and all other interests for 
their welfare. It seems to me that such or- 
ganizations should exist in Berks throughout 
the diflerent townships,auxilliary to our county 
society. Why should not the great State of 
Pennsylvania follow the example of her sister 
State, and set apart money for our societies 

throughout the Commonwealth ? Their effi- 
ciency would be vastly augmented if the Legis- 
lature wisely appropriated sufflcient money to 
these societies to enable them to offer more 
liberal premiums for the exhibition of the pro- 
ductions of the farm and workshop, thereby 
stimulating all industrial classes to greater 
exertion. — Beading Times and Dispatch, March 
%th, 1878. _ 

For The Ijancasteb Farmer. 


( Chelidotiiuni Ma jus. — I^iiu) 

Chelidonium Majus, Lin. Also called Tetterwort, Swal- 
low Weed, and in German, SheUkraut. 

This is an introduced plant, about which 
there are some singular traditions among 
Greek authors ; it is arranged in the Poppy 
family. Papa veracecp.. Found growing along 
fences and in uncultivated grounds, among 
rubbish, near dwellings, formely cultivated. 
It is readily known by its deep orange, yellow 
juice exuding from the leaves aud stem when 
broken ; the four yellow petals and the long 
pods suggest the idea of a cruciferous plant, 
but the two sepals becoming detached and 
carried up by the flower on opening, and 
numerous stamens, &c., at once shows its 
affinity to the poppy family. The leaves are 
pretty, green above, glancous underneath. 

lobed and n()tched,the?petuleshairy,the whole 
plant IS brittle ; the juice acrid and bitter ; it 
IS analogous to gamboge, both in composition 
and properties, according to Dr. Thompson. 
I have actually used it as such in coloring a 
deep yellow on paper as a paint. Although 
not used in regular practice it certainlv lias 
the reputation of enjoying stimulating, aperi- 
ent, diuretic, diobstruent and sudorific quali- 
ties ; efficacious in removing obstructions of 
the liver, in promoting expectoration, and in 
cure of chronic cutaneous affections, such as 
tetter. Outwardly it is used for sore eyes, to 
dry up rheum, opaque specks of the cornea, 
hence the common German name, SheUkraut, 
a disease of the eyes called Schdl. So for ring- 
worms and scurvey breaking out. Were I to 
copy from Huflland's journal of 1813, Hildan 
us, Ettmuller, Geoffroy, and others, all that 
is claimed for this neglected weed, in the 
cure of jaundice, scurvey, &c., but espe- 
cially as an external application in healing 
old and indolent ulcers, removing fungus 
flesh, and giving healthy action to- the 
torpid and indolent granulations, all could 
attest the power of this juice. This is usually 
called the Great Celandine ; the lesser celan- 
dine is now called Bamencuhis ficaria. Six 
species are described of this genus. Lin- 
naeus comprehends the Chehdorium and Glau- 

cium (Prickly Poppy). It would be interesting 
to trace the fluctuations of names and shifting 
in classifying it satisfactorily. Turnford sepa- 
rated them because they diiter in the number 
of their cells. The only one then known to 
him had but one cell, while the glancium had 
two. But it happens that Glancium violaceum, 
which cannot be separated from their G. 
lutemn and pha;nicluni, which have only one 
cell; thus Jussiew, Ventenat, Gfertner and Dr. 
Smith di.scuss its true position and generic 
character, lyro and con, which reveals this 
fact, that in nature genera and species ap- 
proximate each other through some cause of 
hybridizing or climatic and local conditions, 
so that classical arrangement of the vegetable 
kingdom has been attempted on various syste- 
matic plans, but whatever typical or funda- 
mental basis may be laid, some things must be 
admitted that do not accord in all particu- 
lars, whether the artificial or natural system 
is employed. Hence the study of botany has 
its difficulties to overcome before the mind can 
comprehend or recognize the plants described 
without ocular demonstration and close in- 

' — ^ 


This name includes several distinct but 
similar species of minute moths belonging to 
the family Tineidm, which, in their larval ! 
state, are very destructive to woolen goods, 
fur, hair and similar sub.stances. Among them 
may be mentioned the clothes moth {Tinea 
vesiianclla), the carpet moth {Tinea tapetzella), 
the fur moth (2'. pellionella), and the hair 
moth ( Tinea crinella). These tineans have 
slender bodies and lanceolate, deeplj' fringed 
wings that expand six-tentlis or eight-tenths 
ef an inch. The antenupe and palpi are short 
and thread-like, and there is a thick orange or 
brown tuft on the forehead. The colors range 
from liuff to drab and dark gray. The eggs 
are laid in May and June (the moth dying im- 
mediately afterward), and hatch out in fifteen 
days. Tiie young worms at once proceed to 
work, gnawing the substances within their 
reach and covering themselves with the frag- 
ments, which they shape into hollow rolls and 
line with silk. Tliese rolls are by some carried 
on their backs as they move along, and by 
others fastened to the substance they are feed- 
ing upon ; and they are enlarged from time to 
time by additions to the open extremities and 
by portions let into the sides, which are split 
open for this purpose. In such ambush the 
worms carry on their work of destruction 
through the summer ; rest, in seeming torpor, 
during the winter ; and change to chrysalids 
during early in the spring. They transform 
again in twenty days and issue from their 
shelter as winged moths, to fly about in the 
evening till they have paired and are ready to 
lay eggs. Then follows an invasion of dark 
closets, chests and drawers, edges of carpets, 
folds of curtains, and hanging garments, and 
the foundation of a new colony is swiftly laid. 

The early days of June should herald vigor- 
ous and exterminating warfare against these 
subtle pests. Closets, wardrobes, all recep- 
tacles for clothing, should be emptied and 
laid open, their contents thoroughly exposed 
to liglit and air, and well brushed, and shaken 
before being replaced. In old bouses much 
infested with moths, all cracks in floors, 
wainscots, shelves or furniture should be 
brushed over with spirits of turpentine. 
Camphor or tobacco should be placed among 
all garments, furs, plumes, &c., when laid 
aside for the summer. To secure cloth linings 
of carriages from the attacks of moths, sponge 
them on both sides with a solution of corrosive 
sublimate of mercury in alcohol, made just 
strong enough not to leave a white mark on a 
black feather. Moths may be killed by fumi- 
gating the article containing them with to- 
bacco or sulphur, or by putting it, if practi- 
cable, into an oven heated to about 150 deg. 



Our subscribers will please consult the little 
yellow label on the wrapper of their paper to 
see how they stand. 





Salishuhv, N. C, March 25, 1878. 

Editor Lan-castkr Kahmer : I am soiiv to eay 
that thus fur in 1S7.S I have not licen able to send 
jou more subscribers to your most valualile journal. 
All who have taken it here before, say it is a good 
paper and that they do not like to be without it, hut 
that financial matters are so close that tliey are 
compelled to renew only now, at least this is the 
case with me. I have, however, not only been en- 
deavoring to jret former subscribers to renew, hut I 
have also been trying to get new ones. The Kahmkk 
is always a weleonie visitor to our liousehohi ; all 
read it with much pleasure, and derive mueli useful 
Information from its columns. Being " to the manor 
born," I feel interested in its growth and its special 
welfare, althougli far away from you, the greatest 
county in the United States as we verily believe. 
We cannot see wljy the people of your great State, 
and esiiccially of your greater county, do not put 
their shoulders to the wheel with all tlieir "might 
and main." Intellectually, morally and (inaneially 
I sec no valid reason ibr excuse. I expect soon to 
write ag.ain, if the great I nyn permits, and to speak 
of things " past, present and future." — Yours truly, 

We th.ank our correspondent and his friends 
for their kindly sentiments, which are only 
echoes of the same encouraging character 
which we receive from many localities abroad. 
"Why our own citizens do not " put their 
shoulders to the wheel" is, perhaps, because 
"a prophet hath honor, save in his own coun- 
try and among his own kin," just as it has 
always been, and probably always will be, for 
a very long time yet to come. If The Far- 
JiER was scHsa«io»ai— double-headed and 
double-leaded— and was issued in New York, 
Philadelphia, Chicago or Cincinnati, with an 
imposing premium list and showy pictures, 
no doubt twenty oi thirty thousand could 
easily be sold in the country, and perhaps six 
or seven thousand in the county. We do 
not, however, find fault with any one on this 
score, but desire to let all act " in freedom 
according to reason." If they adjudge us 
unworthy we must submit to their verdict. 
We have now three bound volumes lying be- 
fore us, and they constitute a mass of solid 
local reading matter, of which we are not at 
all ashamed, although with double the num- 
ber of our subscribers, we could give them a 
ournal one hundred per cent, better, and the 
chief aim of our ambition is to make it so. — 

For The Lancaster Farmkr. 
I would like to call the attention of the 
farmers of our land to a little gnat that at 
this season of the year is troublesome to the 
horses. By examining the horse's ears you 
will find quite a colony sucking blood from 
the inner surface. This seems to me is the 
most annoying of all the enemies of the horse, 
and I appeal to all horse owners to save him 
from their attack. Hy greasing tlie inside of 
the ear with a rag dipped in sperm oil or lard 
the trouble can be obviated, and I liope 
humanity has not yet died out to such an 
extent in our county as to leave the poor 
horse suffer wlien such easy means are at 
hand to prevent it. 

Trailing Arbutus. 
(Epigfa lirpens.) 

This plant is one of the prettiest, as well as 
most fragrant, of our sju-ing flowering plants, 
and if tliose who do not know it will go in 
March or early April to some wooded hillside, 
where nestled among the fallen leaves, they 
will find a treasure worth the seeking. The 
plant is common in our county, generally 
preferring a sandy .soil, though often found in 
rocky woods. It is a little evergreen shrub, 
trailing on the ground, as its name Epigea 
expresses. The flowers vary in color from 
pure white to a rich rose, and as to fragrance 
they are not e(iualed liy any of our wild 
flowers, ilany have removed it to the gar- 
den, where, with ordinary treatment, it is 
sure to die, and some books state that it can- 
not be cultivated, but this is not so. By 
studying the natural habits of this favorite, 
and by giving it the treatment suited to their 
needs, the plant grow. The trouble with 
all transplanters is they remove it at the 

wrong time, generally in the si)ring, which is 
the time it is putting fortli its eflbrts to pro- 
duce (lowers, and hasn't time to attend to the 
growing business! It sliotdd be taken up in 
autumn with a good ball of earth around the 
roots anil transferred to a bed prepared with 
leaf mold and plenty of sand, and over the 
whole put a thick cf)veringof leaves ; in spring 
remove l)art of the leaves, and your i]laiit will 
grow on as if in its native liaunts. Caie imist 
be had to plant it in a deeply-shaded nook in 
the lawn. 

Anotlier beautiful spring flower might he 
noticed at this time, the Jfrjiaticii trilnha, 
which also is known by the common name of 
Liverwort. It is also an evergreen, often 
pushing its violet flowers tip aside of a linger- 
ing snowbank in early spring. The most im- 
portant charat^teristic is that it lias no carolla, 
tlie sepals of tlie calyx being colored instead. 
It improves by cultivation, as all jilants will. 
Two years ago I transplanted one from the 
woods to the lawn, and this spring it lias u])- 
wards of two dozen blooms. By planting a 
variety of wild plants in a bed in the yard 
they will, witliout further treatment, cxcejit 
occasional manuring, come up every sjiring 
with their early flowers. In some future num- 
ber I shall name a choice selection for the 
lawn. — liuralist, Creswcll, April 8th, 1878. 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 

Best Time to Sow Clorerseed. — We, with the 
editor, think it Strang that this question is 
stil unsetled. Ar farmers not ))rogresive ? 

Philadelphia Poudreite. — Wonder if it is 
beter titan other fertilisers ov the sam sort. 

Notice Extraordinary. — We wud giv a smal 
song for the nutmeg grater, but not haf ov 
won for the "smoker's pet." For coloring 
buter ther is nothing equal to a gud cow 
properly fed. 

Kitchen Garden Calender for Marcli sems to 
be a month behind, but as we ar having 
March weather in April, som ov the directions 
wil aply very wel now. 

Pennsylvania State Board of Agricnlture. — 
The list ov prominent names shud constitute 
it, not simiily a board, but a solid plank in 
the agricultural platform ov our stat. 

A2}ollo. — If ther wermorsuch noble stalions 
in the country, we mite sun ink for an im- 
proved rac of horses, jirovidcd our farmers 
lern to no that it can not be don with any old 
scrub ov a mar. 

Honey Bees and Fruit Once Again. — It sems 
the riters ov bes hav not devoured ech other 
yet. Tha mit swarm by this fin wether, but 
we fear tha hav no queen. 

Commercial Fertilizers. — Tliis bisnes is get- 
ing into beter shap. Farmers ma expect sun 
to no what tha ar bying as manure. 

Bepm-t of Fruit Committee. — The comite has 
not given planters much choic, but the eror 
is generaly on the other sid. Either the 
comite or the printer niised the mark on 
rasbcrries in recommending Branchwine and 
Drobittle. We trust it was the printer. 

Vinegar from Sngarbeets. — When we get a 
suply of vinegar and sugar from bets, the 
aple bisnes will bo curtailed and theanexation 
of Cuba not required. 

Bromi Leghorns ar jirety birds, but 840 for 
one cockerel luks rather .step. We don't 
under.stand points, l)ut he brot nerly 'tOc. a 
point, which fanciers can figur for themselves. 

Tobacco Farming. — The riter ov this articl 
sems to understanid his bisnes, if he practices 
what he preches. 

California Potato Cricket. — We trust he wil 
not get this sid the Rocky motmtains. 

Visiting Committee. — 11. K. has made quit 
a detur among tobaco groers, wonder wether 
he registered at ech plac. 

Manures and Soil Fertilizers^by J. I. Carter. 
— This gentlenun's reputation as an experi- 
menter maks his cssa of grat valu to farmers. 
So far as we hav red it titer is very little to be 
criticised on it. We can tel beter when we 
rech the conclusion. 

Pennsylrania Apples for Export. — We belev 
with the riter, that our stat shud gro aples 

enuf for hom consumpshimi befor we speculat 

on exporting. 

(i rafting. —.1. B. leavs the wel troden path 
and yet clams to be successful in grafting. 
Ther ar many ntlier customs in wich it wud 
l)e saf to leav tlie old ruts. 

More About Horned Oinls. — Wonder wether 
tha ar related to the won that <'merges from 
Lane aster wons a wek. If tha ar tha must be 
a grat anoyance to many. 

Block Hcllibore. — Wonder if its aplication 
wud hav the sam effect nn bipeds whicli get 
reling siiels, if it wer ajilied in the same wa 
that a frond aplied it to .1. S.'s pig. If so, it 
mite du a grat del ov gud. 

Times and Seasons. — J. C. gives som pud 
advis to farmers, but in ca.«es wher he be- 
coms mnustrnk tha wil not al hav fatli. lie 
fers that s<im wil laf, but he sas, beter laf 
than cri. We spos he wil alow us to laf a 
litle at som ov his doctrin. He lays grat stres 
on rising and seting of the num. lie sas ots 
son in the rising wi! not logo as rodily as wen 
son in the siting. We think part wil logo, 
whil som wil not, as the soil ma vary, re- 
gardles of the mun. Supos we so ots in won 
sin and haro it in the olher, it wud bafl it so 
that il wud not no wittier to go up or down. 
Ferhai)s it would refus to gro at al. He refers 
to a ruf wher som ov the shingles turned up, 
evidently from being i)ut on in the rising sin. 
lie eonii)ars them to lired of chikens that hav 
ther fethoi's turned the rong wa, but forgot to 
sa that tha w^er hatched in rong sin ov the 

Fricits — What Varieties to Oroto. — L. S. R. 
has switched of from the frut comite. but we 
don't no tliat he has improved the list. He 
aded another shepnos ov wich our stat had 
had a ful stiply. 

Around the Fftrj/i.-This articl of "'Ruralist" 
is excelent. We liud no flaw, only wo wud 
lik to tech him Fonetic, to wich he sems 
somwat inclind. 

T/te Tobacco Firer. — J. G. whispers sharply 
into the ers ov tobaco groers ho ma hav som 
conshens, but he may as wel ]irech to the 
Gentiles so long as it pas betor than other 
crops. He nmst not forget that even jiius 
men's coushenses ar governed by dolars and 
cents, and so long as the Milenium is in the 
futur we must mak up our minds to inhal at 
tims some ov the obnoxious fumes wich som 
of our freuds chus to i)uf into our faces. 

Firlilizrrs and Manures. — A. B. K. has evi- 
dently given this question a mor thoro con- 
sideration than farmers generally do. It wud 
be a long si rid in the ilirei-lion ov jirogres, if 
tha inider.stud betertlie natur of ther soils and 
manurs, and also tlie quantetes required to 
produc certan crops. Tha wud not grop so 
much in the dark. — ]'on Hombold. 

For The Lancaster Fahmeh. 

Are the plant-food materials, nitrogen, 
)ihosphoric acid and potash the only ones 
really necessary to plant growth V 

The statement usually so made has refer- 
ence only to the ingredients usually purchased 
in fertilizers. 

Besides those mentioned, lime, masrnesia 
and sulphuric acid are necessary in considerable 
quantities; .soda is also considered neces.sary 
by some, but its necessity denied bv others. 
Most of the just mentioned ingredients are 
alw-aysiire.sent in all tilled .soils and are nsnally 
replaced in nearly sutliejent quantity in the 
manures and fertilizers that maj' be ai)plied. 

Where can these materials be found when 
neces.sary ? 

Lime is contained in considerable quanti- 
ties in bones, all ])hospliales and superphates, 
in guano, ashes, plaster and manure. The 
heavy applicat ions of lime are not necessitated 
from its removal by crops, as two bushids of 
quick lime would more than replace the quan- 
tity removed. .lohiiston says, that when a|)- 
plied ill liiriro quanties as ipiick lime it eats 
chemiially by neutralizing acids, decomposing 
noxious compounds, changing the inert vege- 
table matter in the soil, so as to render it use- 




ful to vegetation and producing useful com- 
pounds in tlie soil. It also acts mechanically 
on the soil to its advantage. 

Magnesia is contained in large quantities in 
sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salts,) and has 
been applied as a fertilizer, but more, I think, 
for the sulphuric acid than for the magnesia 
itself. The seeds of plants, wliich compose 
the greatest part of tlie produce sold from 
many farms, contain from two to twenty times 
as much magnesia as lime, and I do not see 
why the former sliould not be replaced, from 
time to time, as well as tlie latter and other 

Sulphuric acid is supplied cheapest in ])las- 
ter (gypsum), there being forty-four pounds 
of acid in every hundred pounds of plaster. 
Where quick action is wanted the sulphate of 
magnesia may be used, being so very soluljle 
it acts sooner than the less soluble plaster. 
The cost in this case is, however, mucli higher, 
the acid costing in the plaster only about one 
cent per pound, while in 60 per cent, of mag- 
nesia the cost would be somewhat over five 
cents per pound. 

Soda is often found in fertilizers and consti- 
tutes 3.5 per cent, of nitrate of soda, now so 
highly recommended for oats. 

Oxide of iron and silica are also necessary 
ingredients of the soil, but it is not supposed 
that the minute quantity taken up in i>lant- 
growth will ever exhaust the quantity con- 
tained in all soils, though there are fertilizers 
now on the market containing silica in solu- 
ble forms. 

What is the reason that in The Farmer, 
for March, in a crop of 50 bushels of corn you 
have larger amounts of ammonia, &c., than 
Prof Carter ? 

Prof. Carter calculates for only 4,000 pounds 
of fodder, (stems and leaves.) while my calcu- 
lation is for over 5,000 pounds. Besides, the 
amounts themselves vary somewhat, so that 
no two chemists exactly agree, and while the 
writer of one article may take a certain 
chemist for authority the other one may take 
the analysis of some other chemist. 

Do you believe in trials to determine what 
ingredients are lacking in the soil V 

Yes, providing there is any profit in using 
chemical and other fertilizers, but not in the 
way generally recommended. I would make 
the trials in the iisual manner on a part of 
the field, but on the part I would apply a 
complete fertilizer or one specially prepared 
for the crop, and thus make one year's addi- 
tional profit. 
Do you believe in special fertilizers ? 
To some extent, on the score of present 
economy. In some plants, as onions and cot- 
ton, the amomits of phosphoric acid and pot- 
ash contained are nearly the same ; in others, 
as beets and tobacco, the potash amounts to 
five times that of phosphoric acid ; the amount 
of nitrogen also varies from 11 to 4 times that 
of phosi)horic acid. The Ville formula gives 
the proportions for a complete fertilizer, as 
ammonia, 7.09 ; phosphoric acid, 5.00 ; pot- 
ash, 7.59; for clover, ammonia, 2.55; phos- 
phoric acid, 5.09 ; potash, 9.1.3 ; for potatoes, 
ammonia, 4. .50 ; phosphoric acid, 5.97 ;, 
13.64. From this we see that Prof. Ville con- 
sidered that potash is needed in nearly twice 
as great a jiroportion in comi)arison with 
phosphoric acid in a ])Otato as in a com])!ete 
fertilizer, and that the amount of ammonia, 
as compared with phosphoric acid, is just re- 
versed. If we now get a fertilizer specially 
prepared for potatoes we can make a heavier 
application for the same money, as 2^ fts. of 
potash can be purchased for every pound of 
ammonia saved. Where large quauties are 
used the saving, by purchasing special fertil- 
izers, will be quite an important item. 

Mr. Henderson, in "Gardening for Pleas- 
ure," ridicules the idea of special manures, 
not that he has a "reason to say that the ven- 
der of these fertilizers was a quack," but he 
thinks that it makes no difference what kind 
is applied only so that a sufficieiit quantiti/ is 
used. It is a well-known fact that market 
gardeners use enormous quantities of concen- 
trated fertilizers, as much aa one ton to the 

acre. Of course such quantities will bring 
large crops and very early, the latter being 
the great desideratum with market gardeners. 
Mr. H. would find that where profits notch so 
close as in regular farming, and where a few 
days, earlier or later, in the maturing of a crop 
does not make any difierence in the money 
value, that some study on the application of 
of manures and fertilizers was necessary. 
His experience, as given in "Gardening for 
Profit," shows that he also uses fertilizers in 
a special sense, for he has found that the same 
fertilizer will not bring as large or as early 
crops after tvi'O years' successive use, and that 
he has to change to some other kind. The 
plain facts are, that he has perhaps used a 
bone preparation which contained only phos- 
phoric acid, or phosphoric acid and nitrogen. 
The heavy crops produced exhaused the pot- 
ash in the soil ; be now, perhaps, used some 
fertilizer with a liberal proportion of potash, 
which was just what his soil needed, and he, 
of course, raised as good crops as at first. 
Had he used a special fertilizer I am under 
the impression that he would have found that 
his soil could have been cropped from year to 
year without any diminution in the crop. 

But will not the soil be exhausted by using 
fertilizers ? A great many farmers think 
phosphate and other stuffs run out their land 
in a few years. 

The use of concentrated (soluble) fertilizers 
will run out any common soil in a short time 
when such fertilizer is used in small quantities. 
Many farmers put on but one-half, or even 
only one-fourth' the amount needed to perfect 
the crop ; the fertilizer being, perhaps, very 
soluble gives the crop a good start, so that it 
is carried through ; but, of course, the soil 
has been impoverished by just as much as the 
fertilizer lacked the amount of ingredients 
taken by the crop out of the soil. This manner 
of apiilying is a very common one, and lias 
tended in a greater degree to bring approbium 
on fertilizers than perhaps anything else, ex- 
cept that of applying one that has only one or 
two of the ingredients needed by the plant as 

Can we not bring up our soils at least cost 
by green manuring ? 

The plowing under of green vegetable mat- 
ter is by some considered as the way to bring 
up worn out farms to pristine fertility. 

Although a very good thing in itself, yet 
there are a number of serious objections against 
plowing under green crops. 

In the first place, the expense is too much 
if it prevents a crop being taken oft' in the 
regular rotation. Clover is considered the best 
for this purpose, but if there is any profit in 
feeding cattle, or making butter, or if the 
clover hay can be sold for more than it would 
cost to replace the amount of plant-food taken 
up, then would it be best to use or sell the hay 
and purchase the fertilizer. 

It is urged that our soils need hunuis, and 
I have no doubt they are benefitted by it, but 
I also believe that with the aid of a good fer- 
tilizer a crop can be raised that will leave 
enough roots in the sod to fully supply the 
humus needed. The trials of Lawes and Gil- 
bert seem to bear this out ; they raise crop 
aftercrop on the same soil, by the help of arti- 
ficial fertilizers, and sell the whole crop, never 
applying stable manure, and the only Immus 
the soil can possibly have is from the stubbles 
and roots. I have no data at hand now, but 
I am under the impression that their crops 
average higlier now than they did at first. 

It is not clear to my mind that humus is 
absolutely necessary, but do not deny but 
what it has a favorable action on plant-growth. 
If we would apply the plant-food ingredients 
contained in the humus, as so much nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid and potash, the eflect might 
be the same. In the experiments on "water 
culture," and "artificial .soils," the humus is 
omitted, at least in the former'case and gen- 
erally in the latter, and yet the plants raised 
are as healthy and prolific as if grown in a 
natural soil. 

Another error is, the supposition that green 
manuring increases the amount of plant-food 

ingredients in the soil. Nitrogen alone is sup- 
posed to be derived partly from the air, and 
this then is the only ingredient of the soil that 
would be increased in amount, the phosphoric 
acid and potash remaining the same. We 
have, however, to take into consideration that 
deep-rooted plants, like red clover, will, with 
long slim roots, appropriate whatever they 
find in the sdbsoil and store the materials in 
the thickened roots above, The crop above 
ground and roots below will, of course, make 
a bulk of decaying vegetable m'atter that will 
carry any crop through. But the subsoil is 
not inexhaustable, and sooner or later it will 
also be in the same condition that the sur- 
face soil is — exhausted of plant-food below 
the minimum amount needed for healthy 
plant growth. 

Do you think then that all farms will at last 
lie run out ¥ Your argument seems to point 
that way. 

I believe that any farm will run out in time, 
no matter how well it is taken care of, if any 
part of the produce, vegetable or animal, is sold 
off and nothiny brought from some foreign 
source, to replace the plant-food that was re- 
quired to grow such produce. It may be slow 
in many cases, but the exhaustion is none tlie 
less certain. 

Where will the enormous quantity of fertil- 
izers come from at last if this theory is ac- 
cepted '? 

Nitrogen and phosphoric acid are supplied 
by Peruvian guano, fish scrap and bones of 
animals ; phosphoric acid is found in a rock 
called appatite ; phosphoric acid is also found 
in large quantities in the extensive deposits 
in South Carolina, known as phosphate rock ; 
impure potash salts are mined at difEerent 
places, the largest being situated in Germany, 
from whence a great part of what is consumed 
by us is brought. 

I have no doubt that many other large de- 
posits will be found in time, yielding the es- 
sential plant-food materials, and should even 
beds now in existence be eventually exhausted, 
I have no doubt nature is preparing fresh beds 
that will be then available. — A. B. K. 


In the article, "Fertilizers, &c.,'' com- 
mencing on page 43 of The Farmer, for 
March, for "19| ttis. ammonia," read "85 lbs. 
ammonia." In the words color average strike 
out the word "color." 


Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society. 

The Lancaster County AsricuUural and Horticul- 
tural Society met in the Athenaeum rooms on Mon- 
day, April 8. Present: Messrs. M. D. Keudig:, 
Manor; Levi W. Groff, West Earl; H. M. Engle, 
Marietta; S. S. Kathvon, city; Henry Kurtz, Mount 
Joy ; Casper Hiller, Conestoga ; W. H. Brosius, 
Drumore ; Johnson Miller, Warwick; Wm. Mc- 
Comsey, city; L. N. Hunsecker, Eden; Joseph F. 
Witmer, Paradise ; Elias Becker, Warwick ; John 
Huber, Warwick ; David G. Swartz, city; Peter S. 
Keist, Litiz; John H. Landis, Manor; J. G. Kesh, 
Willow Street ; A. B. Grofl', W<?st Earl ; J. B. Weis- 
garber, city; Simon A. Hershey, Salunga; I. L. 
Landis, Manheim ; Major Spera, Ephrata ; Jacob- 
BoUinger, Levi S. Reist, Manheim ; Jacob B. Gar- 
ber, e; H. Hoover, Manheim; W. W. Griest, city; 
F. R. Ditrendertfer, city ; J. M. Johnston, city; C. 
Carpenter, city. 

In the absence of the President, M. D. Kendig 
called the meeting to order. 

The reading of the minutes of the previous meet- 
ing was dispensed with. 

Mr. Henkt Kurtz stated that arrangements 
have been made to secure quarters in the building of 
the Young Men's Christian Association. Mr. S. P. 
F,by, who had the matter in charge, was not present, 
but had authorized him to make this statement. 
Crop Reports. 

Mr. KtTRTZ said that in the winter it was thought 
that the wheat crop would be injured to a great 
extent by the Hessian fly, but this fear has happily 
|)roven unfounded, as the wheat looks unusually 
well. In fact it never gave better promise than at 
present. Grass crop also favorable. 

Mr. Hiller said the weather is and has been very 
unfavorable for fruit. 

Mr. Engle also reported on the fruit crop. At 
one time during the cold snap they were in despair. 




as so many buds were killed by the frost, but the 
prospects at present are very c:ooil. The apples have 
not been injured at all, and t!ie fruit crop In e:cneral 
Is good. The grain crop never promised better than 
at present, as on a trip as far up as Franklin county 
he did not see one poor field. The clover and grass 
crop are good. 

Mr. Miller reported that the grain and grass 
crops run well, and wheat is favorable. They will 
also have a laree crop of hay. There are very few 
poor grain fields, and what can be found result from 
no other cause than poor farming. Some potatoes 
have been planted. The fruit crop is good. Tem- 
perature during the cold snap, two weeks ago, 17 
above zero. 

Mr. Brosius reported that the grain was In ex- 
cellent condition with the exception of that sowed 

Mr. Groff said that in his section they were 
frightened during the cold spell aliout their fruit, 
but It all survived, and apricots and peaches are es- 
pecially fine. In regard to wheat, the prospects are 
good. A great many visitors had examined his 
wheat fields, planted and cultivated under the new 
plan, and he would like a committee of the society 
to examine it. He extended a cordial invitation to 
all to visit him. 

Mr. HosTETTER'g report was similar to those 
preceding it. Some of the wheat is in good condi- 
tion and some is not. Some that was sowed on the 
29th of September is In good condition, as is also that 
cowed on November 19. Grass is very promising. 

Mr. Engle wanted Mr.Hiller's reasons I'or saying 
that the weather has been unfavorable for fruit. 

Mr. Hiller said he based his opinion on his pre- 
vious observations. Last year when everybody was 
predicting full crops, he said that there would not be 
much fruit, and there was not. The weather is too 
cool. Peach pollen will not ripen at the present 
temperature, and if it keeps this cool for a week 
longer we will have no peaches. 

Commercial Fertilizers. 

Mr. Casper Hiller, to whom had been referred 
the question as to the profit derived from the use of 
commercial fertilizers, read the following essay : 

At the March meeting of this society this question 
was referred to me, "Have we any evidence that 
Commercial Fertilizers pay In this county?" In the 
northern and middle sections of Lancaster county the 
thorough experiments with them have been too few 
to determine their full value. The question should 
have been referred to one section of our enterprising 
farmers in the southern of the county, where they 
have been and are extensively used. 

In my own experience, of twelve or more years 
ago, I had some good successes and some bad fail- 
ures. The b^st success I then had was with Peruvian 
guano. Seven dollars' worth on an acre produced 
over twenty bushels of wheat, on land so poor that 
it would not have produced five bushels without the 
guano, and besides I got a good stand of grass. The 
greatest failure was with two tons of a Philadelphia 
superphosphate, that cost about one hundred dollars 
— applied five hundred weight to the acre, and never 
saw any effects of it. 

Many of these so-called superphosphates weredug 
out of a bank of earth of the right color, and the 
proper "stink" was easily and cheaply mixed in. 
These so-called commercial fertilizers brought the 
whole list into disrepute, and our farmers ceased to 
use them. But during the last lew years, in our to- 
bacco growing mania (and having in mind the im- 
poverished fields of Maryland and Virginia, made so 
by growing tobacco) we were compelled to husband 
our manure resources to the fullest extent, and to 
experiment with various artificial fertilizers. From 
my own experiments and from what I could gather 
by corresponding with persons in different parts of 
the county, I would say that commercial fertilizers, 
as now made, are far more reliable than those for- 
merly made. Chemical science tells us that ammo- 
nia, bone phosphate, potash, phosphoric acid, etc., 
must be present in certain proportions in our soil, or 
we will fail in producing good crops. 

Prof. Ville, of Paris, Prof. Stockbridge, of the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College, and other emi- 
nent chemists, have given lormulas for the manufac- 
ture of fertilizers, adapted to ditt'ercnt soils and difl'er- 
ent crops, and our enterprising manufacturers have 
adopted those formulas and guarantee them to con- 
tain so much percent, of phosphoric acid, etc. Legis- 
latures have passed bills to see that the guarantee 
means what it says. 

I give a few cases of the use of these fertilizers as 
reported to me by our friend J. C. Linvllle. 

Isaac Eby, in 1876, applied nitro-phosphates on corn- 
stalk ground for wheat. Yield, '-'8 bushels per acre, 
a large and paying increase. C. Lapp applied a 
special phosphate for tobacco. He says it paid. C. 
Kauffman used nitro-phosphate on wheat ground 
last fall. The difference in favor of the phosphate 
ground can be seen at a distance of half a mile. He 
also mentions some bad failures of his own, and also 
of Charles Brintou. Whether these fertilizers were 
of the "earth bank" kind I am not able to say ; one 
of the kinds named is, however, the same as my own 
great failure. 

James Collins, of Quarryrille, reports the "Star" 

fertilizer good for wheat and grass, and says It pays. 

I give a few of my own experiments of last season: 
Poudrette, applied at rate of $15 per acre, producing 
a crop of tobacco equal to a heavy dressing of stable 
manure that would have cost at least $:!0. A dress- 
ing of nilro-phosphate on potatoes, cost ?12 per acre, 
was a failure, perhaps owing to other causes than 
the manure. Ten dollars' worth per acre on iiotatoes 
of acidulated South Carolina Hock (Bauirh's) was 
quite satisfactory. The nitro-phosphate, which was 
so signal a failure on potatoes, is fully as proniisini; 
as the plot which received the heavy dressing of 
stable manure. An adjoining plot, on which no ma- 
nure was put, is quite poor looking. 

Mr. W. P. Bolton, writing from Little Britain, 
says : 

There seems no longer to be any doubt of the 
practabillty of applying chemical manures to fertil- 
ize the soil In this part of the county, except It be on 
the farms near the Sus(|uehanna, where it does not 
seem to t)e established, that they make sufBelent in- 
crease in crops to pay for their cost. On the heavier 
soil, extending over the whole gneissie district In- 
cluded in the county, the l)est farmers agree that 
phosphates pay. Our farmers have been applying It 
to wheat for a number of ;ears, more recently to 
corn, and it is now used by many for oats, showing 
more marked results on the last crop, than either of 
the former. The usual rate per acre is 400 or 500 
pounds for wheat and corn, and 100 or L'OO pounds 
for oats. There are some now who are applying 700 
or 800 pounds per aeic, and think it profitable to do 
so. It is no unusual thine to hear farmers say that 
an application of 400 or 500 pounds is equal to an 
ordinary coating of barnyard manure. The kinds 
mostly used in this vicinity are superphosphates, 
ammoniated phosphates and dissolved South Caro- 
lina rock. 

In this immediate neigbhorhood (Liberty Square) 
most of the farmers make a compound phosphate 
themselves by mixing dissolved bones, plaster, soda 
and potash ; the whole to be dried with earth or 
sand. The cost is about ?-.'0 per ton. This, it is 
claimed by many, is equal to the best commercial 
fertilizer, costing from $:J6 to 840 per ton. As to the 
method of applying them, it seems to be generally 
conceded that Carolina rock and ground bones should 
be plowed down, while the compounded articles, 
containing the alkaline salts, should be drilled and 
dropped with the seed. 

From my own experience and observations I am 
convinced that the best resultp may be obtained by 
applying chemical fertilizers along with barnyard 
manure. If a farmer has, for instance, 20 acres to 
be planted, has barnyard manure enough to cover 10 
acres, andjintends putting phosphate, at the rate of 
400 pounds per acre, on the other 10 acres, it will 
pay him well for the extra laborto spread the manure 
over the whole 20 acres, and then apply 200 pounds 
per acre of fertilizer with the seed or by working it 
into plowed ground before the seed is planted. 

This manure question is an important one to all 
tillers of the soil. We in this county of Lancaster, 
should not rest satisfied if we raise less than :;o 
bushels of wheat and 100 bushels of corn per acre. 
Stable manure and lime judiciously and plentifully 
a()plied would bring the answer. But when we take 
into consideration the amount of capital, and interest, 
and labor, and grass, and hay, and corn, and corn- 
fodder that goes into the manure pile, we must admit 
that it is a costly article. Cipher it out and see if you 
can make it less than $'!0 per acre. But with all this 
cost those that make the most manure appear to be 
the most prosperous. However, there is a limit on 
every farm beyond which it cannot be made, and 
that limit is generally short of the required quantity. 

John I. Carter, in his paper read before this so- 
ciety, gives us an experiment in which acid South 
Carolina rock gave more corn, cornfodder, oats, 
wheat, bay and straw, in a rotation, than a liberal 
dressing of stable manure did, in a similar rotation, 
on an adjoining plot. It is clearly our interest to find 
out, by experiment, what kind of (if any) commer- 
cial fertilizer Is equal or superior to stable manure. 
If we can arrive at a satisfactory conclusion then we 
can spread ourselves out in high farming. We need 
no longer half feed our fields, for what the manure 
pile lacks, can be supplied by the artilicial fertilizer. 

From my own experience and from information 
given by others, I would answer, that commercial 
fertilizers pay in this county. Incoming to this con- 
elusion I do not base my opinion altogether on the 
increase of the first crops, but also include a margin 
for the jjcrmanent improvement of the soil. 

Mr. Kurtz had tried commercial fertilizers, but 
he hiid not much confidence in them where the ma- 
nure pile was good. If you take a tract of twenty 
acres, cover ten of It with manure and ten with fer- 
tilizer, the manure part will come out ahead . He had 
tried guano, costing $00 per ton, and it was not as 
good as hen manure. 

Mr. Brosits had a reason for the difference of 
opinion in regard to fertilizers. If you apply 400 
pounds of fertilizers to rich limestone land it will not 
have the same effect that it would have on so much 
poorer land. 

Mr. Enolb was fully alive to the Importance of 
the question. If he expressed his views as the result 

of his former experience he would also declare fer- 
tilizers a hunibuer, but his land was In such a high 
.state of cultivation that it did not matter much what 
was put on it. lUit we are now pushing our lands 
more strongly, and there are very few fields In the 
county that would not be afVeeted for the better by 
some fertilizer. All fertilizers that have the neces- 
sary ingredients will answer a good purjiose If prop- 
erly applied. Of course, if we had plenty of manure, 
we would want nothing better, but we are always a 
little short and want something (o fill its place. 
There is no question but that commercial ferllllzcrs, 
not adulterated, will pay. 

.Mr. Miller thought that we ought to be able to 
make enough manure without buying fertilizers. He 
had a plan which. If successful, would be worth car- 
rying out. He proposed to plant clover wherever 
jiossible. He had planted it In his oatsfield, and 
would plow it down, saving the manure for other 
tlelds. By pulling out manure two or three times a 
year he thought It could be made to last longer. 

A number of members advocated the clover plan, 
which led .Mr. Hunseeker to say that no doubt clover 
was good, but it don't follow that fertilizers are 

Mr. Groff hadn't missed a season for the past 
twenty years in sowing clover in bis eornfleld, and 
the wheat planted next year did admirably. 

Mr. Hiller thought this talk aliout raising clover 
for manure was well enough for men who had rich 
farms, but how can they do this on some of the 
farms in the lower end of the county where if they 
would sow a bushel of clover they would never see a 
stalk of it. The best thing for an impoverished farm 
is fertilizers. There are farms that can be bought 
for 815 per acre that can be brought to yield from 30 
to 40 bushels of corn per acre. In the face of such 
evidence we must conclude that commercial fertili- 
zers pay. We must make experiments if we wish to 
know what particular kind to use, for we may be 
using one whose predominant element is phosphoric 
acid, when our soil needs potash. 

Mr. Gbofp said that when he talked about clover 
he did not mean to denounce fertilizers, and Mr. 
Hiller told of the success that attended some of bis 
experiments with plaster. 

.SIr. Peter Keist thought experiments were of 
great benefit, and this society could make some if It 
bad the assistance of Uncle Sam as had the Experi- 
mental Farm, and it should receive assistance. 

The discussion on the question was closed, and on 
motion, a committee of live, Johnson Miller, Joseph 
F. Witmer, Wm. Brosius, John C. Linvllle, Casper 
Hiller, were appointed to make experiments with the 
different fertilizers, and report to the society. 

Beautifying Rural Homes. 

Mr. Kendk;, the President pro. tern., read a most 
interesting essay on " Beautifying Rural Homes." 

Little did I think when I promised to prepare a 
short paper on this subject that the field is so broad 
and the task so delicate. It is one in which the 
greater portion, if not all, of us are more or less in- 
terested, for we no doubt all aspire to become the 
happy possessors of a beautiful home, to bask in the 
sunshine of its genial inlluenee. 

Looking around us, over this comparatively old 
and long-cultivated section of country, once heavily 
covered with timber, we see abundant evidence of 
improvement of every description. The lofty forest 
trees have been swejit away, and the pioneer's rude 
hut of logs is no more to be seen ; but fields of 
bounteous crops, and comfortable dwellings, sur- 
rounded by refinement and luxury cover the land. 
Perhaps more especially within the last ten or fifteen 
years, the evidence af the growing prosperity and 
happiness of our rural citizens has been apparent in 
the great improvement made in farm buildings, as 
also to a certain degree in the taste displayed In the 
ornamentation of the (grounds surrotmding the resi- 
dence. Conceding, then, that there has been con- 
siderable progress made in rural adornments, there 
remains yet much to be done, especially in making 
our door yards or lawns more attractive. There is, 
perbajis, no employment or recreation which affords 
the mind creater or more lasting pleasure than that 
of beautifying our homes by a judicious planting of 
the surrounding grounds, and the taste once 
awakened or acquired, knows no bounds narrower 
than the estate. 

In order to make our homes beautiful and attrac- 
tive in the highest sense, it is not only necessary that 
we have a fine mansion with a ganlen or yard filled 
with eboiee trees and shrubs surrounding it, but 
that the whole estate or farm be inanasred under the 
best regulated system of husbandry, with fields regu- 
larly divided by good and durable fences, tilled with 
luxuriant crops of even and rich tjrowth, everywhere 
free from weeds of every kinil, as a background or 
setting for our picture of our beautiful home. The 
borders, especially those along the roadside, should 
be planted with native trees, while here and there a 
small group scattered over the estate will have a 
very pleasing elfeel. If the house is some distance 
from the public road, the lane or approach should 
also be planted on citlier side, thus forming a beauti- 
ful avenue of egress and ingress to the place. 

We now come to the front yard. This should be of 




Bufflcient area to contain space enough for the vege- 
table garden, the finer fruits, and the lawn or pleas- 
ure ground, all inclosed by a neat and substantial 
fence well whitewashed or painted. There is no oc- 
casion for subdividing this ground by division fences, 
as is so generally done, but for which I think there 
can be no apology. An upright grape trellis or a 
green hedge, for concealment on the side of the vege- 
table garden, towards the bouse, is at the most all 
that is necessary. Too many fences, especially when 
in close proximity to the house, always give a place 
a mean and contracted appearance. The finer fruits, 
such as pears, plums, apricots, filberts, persimmons, 
etc., may be planted along the side and back part of 
the ground ; while the more immediate surroundings 
and the front should be devoted to ornamental plant- 
ing or the pleasure ground. Here our first care will 
be to secure a good thick set of grass, as the ground- 
work of all rural beauty and adornment. Taking our 
front yards, as we generally find them, with a soil 
of a rich character, naturally productive of a good 
turf, all that may be necessary is to give the surface 
a good, thorough cleaning, filling up all the little 
holes and inequalities with fine earth or pieces of 
sod, making the surface as smooth and even as pos- 
sible, and frequent clippings will give you the much- 
admired "velvety lawn." A liberal top-dressing of 
tobacco stalks in the fall and removed in the spring 
will help the sod surprisingly, giving it that rich, 
dark green appearance so pleasing to the eye. I 
would advise but few walks, but those well made, 
with sharp cut o<itlines. Dig a trench, eight or ten 
inches deep, of the desired width, fill up with small 
stones to within a few inches from the surface, not 
forgetting to set up flat stones or brick along the 
side to keep the grass from straggling over (which 
always gives a place a slovenly appearance), and 
dress off with gravel, and you will have a walk that 
■will always give satisfaction and last a lifetime with 
very little repair. Flower-beds, like walks, should 
be few in number, with outlines distinctly marked 
and of medium size. The mixed arrangement of 
plants is very beautiful from its variety and constant 
succession of bloom, although fashion decrees to 
plant in masses. With a few well-made beds, planted 
with a batch of pansies and spring bulbs, some ever- 
blooming roses, and a few exotics, the showy petu- 
nias, a good admixture of geraniums, and a few 
other annuals, we will have a continuous display of 
flowers, ever-changing, giving us enjoyment and 
interest throughout the whole season. 

Good taste and judgment should be exercised In 
the selection and disposition of trees for the lawn. 
None but the finest — those having the most desirable 
characteristics, and are in good keeping with the 
place, should be chosen. If the place is small, as 
most country places are, large sized trees should be 
entirely discarded. Among those of small and medi- 
um size, and well adapted, are the flowering ash, 
horse-chestnut, cork maple, Judas tree, the magno- 
lias, salisburia, all very beautiful, and each one 
possessing a characteristic of its own. These should 
be disposed of according to nature's plan — in groups, 
masses and single specimens. Straight or geometri- 
cal lines in planting give a stiff and formal appear- 
ance. Shrubs should be liberally introduced, no less 
on account of their size than the beauty and abun- 
dance of their flowers. These may be grouped with 
good effect throughout the grounds ; the rarer and 
finer ones being disposed about the dwelling. Open 
seats of any simple construction are among the most 
useful and convenient decorations for the pleasure 
grounds. Situated in different portions of the yard, 
beneath a leafy canopy, and at some distance from 
the house, they always offer an inviting and agree- 
able place for rest or repose. 

Where a suitable place can be found for its display, 
rockwork, with its accompanying drapery of plants 
and foliage, has a very beautiful and picturesque 
effect, and will cost but little. A jet of water issuing 
from it will brighten the eharm very much. 

This may be had without incurring much expense 
If there is a natural source of water, or cistern on 
the place, somewhat higher than the jet is to rise. 
All that is necessary is to carry the pipes from the 
source (under the ground to keep from freezing) to 
the jet. In the absence of these cources of supply, 
a miniature fountain may be constructed at very lit- 
tle cost by placing a barrel, or other vessel, with 
water at the required elevation as a reservoir, in a 
secluded place among the bushes for concealment, 
from which to draw our supply. This will feed a 
small jet four or five hours, when it will have to be 
replenished. Of course this is only intended to play 
at intervals, as may be convenient or desiderable. 

In all our embellishments, by a great variety of 
objects of interest, we must always seek to harmon- 
ize them as a whole, in order to give that unity of 
taste and expression which we so much admire in 
any work of art. 

Now, my utilitarian brethren may say these im- 
provements, producing such interesting and beauti- 
ful results, will not only cost a great deal of labor 
but also a large expenditure of money. True ; but 
are we not more than compensated in the comfort 
and pleasure derived, as also in the increased market 
value of the place? Besides, profit should not be 
the only consideration, at least not to those of us 

who desire to unite with our pursuit something to 
gratify our taste, and to give a higher charm to our 

In conclusion, I would say that whatever improve- 
ments in adorning our homes are undertaken, 
whether of the simplest kind or of a more stately 
character, should be well done and carefully attend- 
ed to afterwards. Neatness and order should char- 
acterize every part, without which no place can in 
reality be called a beautiful home. 

A number of members made remarks at the con- 
clusion of the reading. Mr. Engle said it pleased 
him very much, and if all our farmers would copy 
after its suggestions, in five or ten years their homes 
would present a very different aspect. 

Mb. Bollinger asked if tobacco stalks were good 
for a lawn dressing, and was answered that they 
were the best fertilizer for that purpose. 

Mb. Brosius thought it was not necessary to have 
a grand home to make beautiful. Some of our most 
humble homes are the most attractive by reason of 
their beauty. 

Mb. Swabtz pronounced it a fine essay, hut the 
essayist had omitted one thing necessary to secure 
the beauty and comfort of a home — the location. In 
traveling through the country we find so many fine 
buildings built along streams, and in low, unhealthy 
places. Now it would be far better to choose an 
eminence on which to build, so as to escape malaria, 

Messrs. Engle, Reist, and other~members indorsed 
Mr. Swartz's views, and a vote of thanks was given 
to the essayist. 

One Hundred Bushels of Corn to an Acre. 

Mk. Bollingeb, to whom had been referred the 
question, " How can a man raise a hundred bushels 
of corn to the acre ?" answered as follows : 

In the first place, let us see how a man can't raise 
a hundred bushels of corn per acre. He can't do it 
by sitting around the tavern or at the corner grocery 
talking politics ; he can't do it by being away from 
home four or six days of each week ; neither can he 
do it by being at home and sitting on the stool of 
idleness reading newspapers, not even if he reads The 
Lancasteb Farmer, or any other agricultural 
paper. It has been asserted on this floor that every 
farmer should be a scientist, a chemist, and should 
know how to treat his land the same as a doctor does 
his patient ; that it is time we get out of the old ruts 
our fathers used to wagon in. Now let us picture to 
our imagination one of those book farmers (or up- 
starts, if you please ;) see him sitting on his great 
arm chair smoking his cigarette, with the piccadilly 
collar fresh starched, his shirt bosom ruffled up to 
his chin. And a breastpin as highly galvanized as 
the financial condition of his father-in-law will war- 
rant. He is now thinking of preparing his ground 
for corn ; he thinks he can get no better authority 
than Horace Greeley on " What I know about Farm- 
ing." He says from six to twelve cords of manure 
and two hundred bushels of lime per acre is not too 
much. He tells his hired man so, but his hiied 
man, being a practical farmer, tells him that quantity 
will not near cover all the ground he intends putting 
in corn. Well, he then agrees on six cords and one 
hundred bushels of lime. Next, as to tha plowing : 
" Greeley says ' Plow deep and you will find somej 
thing more valuable than gold, turn the sod well 
under at an angle of about 45 degrees." The book 
farmer is sure of a good crop of corn, because he is 
following the directions of one of the best authorities 
of the age. After he has finished hauling manure 
and plowing, he receives the March number of The 
Lancaster Fabmeb; there he sees Mr. Carter's 
essay, and reads that he had no better results where 
he applied manure than where none was applied 
with advice to plow shallo/v. What! Who is this 
Carter? Well, he has control of the State Experi- 
mental Farm in Chester county, and what he says 
ought to be good authority. He values manure at 
six dollars per cord, and lime at fifteen dollars per 
hundred. The farmer's hair begins to stand on end ; 
he says six cords of manure costs ?:!6, one hundred 
bushels of lime cost ^1.5, making fifty-one dollars. 
Fifty bushels of corn is considered an average crop. 
His corn would now cost him one dollar per bushel, 
without counting cost for seed or labor. By this 
time Mr. Kennedy has the floor; he says "feeding 
corn into cattle don't pay ; a man fed 2U head, giving 
40 bushels of corn to each animal, and he got one 
hundred dollars more than first cost, or 12H cents 
per bushel for hie corn, throwing rough feed and 
labor in the bargain." Mr. Kurtz says " feeding 
corn into cattle does pay," and he goes on to prove 
it. Mr. Hoover thinks by going over the county he 
can point out all the farms that cattle are fed on. 
Mr. Hiller believes in commercial fertilizers By this 
time all want the floor, and the curtain drops. 

Next I see my book farmer on the street a bank- 
rupt, asking the suffrages of the voters to elect' him 
to some lucrative county office, or to the Legislature, 
to make laws for the people ; and let me just say, 
that in too many such cases men are successful. 

Now, let me tell you, in a few words, how I think 
one hundred bushels of corn can be raised on an 
acre : First, by a judicious and liberal application 
of lime and manure ; by a thorough cultivation of 

the soil ; by selecting good seed of a good variety 
and having it equally distributed in rows or hills, I 
care not which. My plan is to give a light coat 'of 
manure and about 12.5 bushels of lime per acre • 
plow most in the fall ; cultivate thoroughlv before 
planting; plant in rows from 12 to 1.5 inches apart. 
I have not had less than 60, and as high as 93 bush- 
els of shelled corn per acre, as hauled from the field. 
My opinion is, that all the rough feed and grain, ex- 
cept wheat, should be fed into stock and converted 
into manure for the farm, if we want to make farm- 
ing pay. Why is it that Lancaster county stands 
first as an agricultural county? My answer is, because 
there are more steers fed here than in any other 
county in the State. Why do we hear the cry on 
every hand that farming don't pay ? Is it because the 
earth refuses to return her increase ? I answer, no ! 
Is it because our products are worthless ? No ! We 
raise as much grain and get better prices for the 
same than our fathers did, and they made money 
and got rich. If we have nothing left at the end of 
the year the fault lies with us ; we live too extrava- 
gantly. I have, perltap.s, wearied your patience, for 
which I crave your indulgence. 

MR.HiLLEBsaidhe lived inConestoga,the poorest 
part of the county, aud they raised 80 bushels of 
corn to the acrj. All that is wanted is plenty of 
stable manure and lime. But the trouble is that you 
can't buy manure at any price. If it could be bought 
it would cost about $40 to manure one acre, and it 
would be profitable to do it ; not for the corn, but for 
the succeeding crops. Did not see why one hundred 
bushels could not be raised to the acre. 

Mr. Groff agreed with Mr. Hiller. If we do our 
duty it is easy to raise the required one hundred 
bushels. We should try to raise a quart of corn 
from every 3i< feet of ground which would make 111 
bushels to the acre. 

Mr. Levi S. Reist thought Lancaster was not a 
corn-growing county, and he did not believe there 
was a single farm that could produce one hundred 
bushels to the acre. 

The question was further discussed by Messrs. 
Brosius, Miller and Witmer. 

" Shall we continue to grow the apple, and to 
what extent?" was continued until next meeting. 
New Business. 

Mr. Levi W. GroS's invitation to the society to 
visit his farm was considered, and, on motion, a 
committee appointed to do so, as follows : M. D. 
Kendig, H. M. Engle, Jos. F. Witmer, Jacob Bol- 
linger, Peter S. Reist, Wm. McComsey. 

A bill for chairs amounting to 8^-30 was presented 
and ordered to be paid. 

Business for Next Meeting. 

" What is the best time to cut grass for hay ?" 
H. M. Engle. 

" Root crops," by Calvin Cooper. 

American Silk Worm Moth. 

Henry Kurtz presented a moth on which Prof. 
Rathvon delivered the following opinion : 

The moth is the Samia eecropia, or great "Ameri- 
can Silkworm Moth ." The larva feeds on the foliage 
of the apple, pear, plum, and some others, but 
mainly on these three ; it, however, never becomes 
very numerous. Towards autumn the larva spins a 
very large, light-brown, oblong silky cocoon, usually 
on a twig, or the stem of tall weeds in secluded 
places. If we have any native silk-spinning moth 
that might be utilized, it is this species. Europeans 
have been experimenting with it, but so far with only 
indifl'erent success. Adjourned. 


The Tobacco Growers' Association of Lancaster 
county met on Monday afternoon, March 17th, at 2 
o'clock, in the Athen;eum rooms. The following 
members were present : Messrs. M. D. Kendig, 
Manor ; Webster L. Hershey, EastHempfield ; Wash- 
ington L. Hershey, Rapho; J. Ilartman Hershey, 
Rohrerstown ; J. Hoffman Hershey, West Hemp- 
field ; Sylvester Kcnnedj', Salisbury ; J. M. John- 
ston, city ; W. D. Hoar, Salisbury ; Henry Shiffner, 
Upper Leacoek; I. L. Landis, Manheim ; Henry 
Mayer, East Hempfleld ; A. H. Yeager, East Lam- 
peter ; F. R. Diffendcrffer, city; John Brady, Mil- 
lersville ; J. M. Frantz, Lancaster township ; Simon 
Hershey, West Hempfield ; Christian Shank, Salis- 
bury ; J. G. Rush, Willow Street ; C. Carpenter, city. 

The reading of the minutes was, on motion, dis- 
pensed with. 

Mk. Kennedy announced that the Visiting Com- 
mittee would be ready to report at three o'clock. 

Reports on Crops. 

Mr. Kennedy s.aid thiit a few buyers had visited 
his section, all of whom had offered low prices for 
the tobacco, which the farmers concluded to take 
rather than keep their crop on hand. 

Mr. Landis said that in his section very little to- 
bacco was selling, and what was sold brought very 
low prices. A neighbor told him of a lot that sold 
as low as 2 and 4. The highest price paid was 13 

Mr. J. HoprMAN Hershey, of Salunga, said there 




was nothins etirrinp; in tliat section. One lot of to- 
liacco ivae sold at tti, !> anil ;i. 

Mit. Mayer reported toMapco sold at low figures, 
and Webster L. Hersliey reported new erop seed 
beds had been sown. A number of buyers had 
visited tbeni but the prices they offered were too 
low. At I'etersburff lots were sold from liO down to 
10, 8 and :i, and even less. 

Mr. Wasii.L. Hkrshey reported a s.ale of live 
acres of tobacco at 15, H and .'>. Three or four buyers 
had been inspeetintj tobacco but only one of them 
bought, and ho paid 7 cents in bulk. Auotlwr buyer 
bought at 10 and :i, 8 and li, and :i, and some was 
brought to [^ancaster which sold at ti and if. Mr. 
Dully had 60 acres of tobacco for which he had re- 
fused 21-', 8 and .5 ; 'JO and .5 ; 18 and .") ; and 1.") and .'). 

Mr. Yeackr reported onc-thinl of their crop sold 
at prices ranirinp: from 19 down to Hi and 3. 

Mr. Johnston stated that the business was pretty 
brisk in the city, and prices ranged IVom 1.5 and .5 to 
8 and ii. 

Mr. Kennedy said he lived near a station, and 
saw farmers going to the City with samples every 
day. They found that they had to have money, and 
would sell at any |)rice. There is so much of this 
business in Lancaster that the buyers do not find it 
necessary to run around the country. 

Mr. Landis reported a lot sold in this city to 
Rohrer as low as 2 and 4. A lot was sold at Oregon 
at 3 and 3. 

Referred Questions. 

" What variety of tobacco should be cultivated ?" 
had been referred to Mr. Landis, who answered that 
he could not answer the question very well, not hav- 
ing had enough experience. The Kentucky seed leaf, 
the Connecticut broad and narrow leaf, the Chest- 
nut leaf, the Pennsylvania seed leaf and other varie- 
ties each have their advocates, and he did not know 
which was best. 

In answer to a question by Mr. Kennedy, Mr. 
Teager described the chestnut leaf as having the 
leaves very close together, and very narrow ; would 
color dark. 

Mr. SniFFNER said the trouble was that farmers 
did not know how to distinguish the varieties of leaf. 
One man described Chestnut leaf as being wide, and 
another narrow ; one man said Pennsylvania leaf was 
brood and another narrow ; how are we to tell which 
is right ? The same thing happened with Florida 
leaf. Broad leaf Connecticut is the only leaf on 
which we can rely. He described the properties of a 
good leaf; when opened it must be elastic and 
stretch ; there must be no hardness ; it must have a 
silky back, with at the same time a good body; it 
ought to be broad and tapered. It will never get 
elastic if it is not grown right, and if well grown it 
can be hung any place and when taken down will be 
better than a poorly grown plant well hung. Slow 
growth makes leaves thick and leathery, and rapid 
growth makes them silky. He recommended ashes 
and gypsum to make tobacco grow rapidly. 

Webster L. Hershey told of a variety of tobacco 
that did not produce any suckers. 

" What is the best method of raising plants ?" had 
been referred to John Brady, who was not then 
present, but came in afterwards and said his plan 
was to plow deep in the fall, put on manure heavily, 
in the spring to rake it oil', put in the seed, cover it 
with hog bristles, cover with laths, and" he always 
raised the best early plants. 

Mr. Kennedy said a number of things were 
requisite. First was a warm situation, on the south 
or east side of the wall ; next that the ground is not 
allowed to bake too hard ; sow early. 

Mr. J. Hartman Hershey had hie fence very 
tight, 60 that the wind could be kept out of the yard, 
which had a southern exposure. He took three or 
four spoonfuls of seed, and mi.ved them with a half 
bushel coal sievings which he sowed over the whole 
bed two or three times. Then he presses the ground 
down with a spade. After this he puts bristles on 
and kept the ground moist. 

"Is early plowing good for the culture of tobacco ?" 
was referred to Harry M. Mayer, who answered in 
the affirmative. 

Mr. Wash. L. Hershey plowed both in spring 
and fall. 

Mr. Landis thought that working and pulverizing 
of the soil was highly beneficial. He had heard of a 
good crop being raised on laud from which an early 
crop of hay had been taken. 

Mr. J. Hoffman Hershey advised early plowing, 
as early as possible in the spring if not in the fall. 

Mr. Kendio also gave the same advice. If you 
wait till it gets late to plow, the ground gets rough. 
Plowing should be done as soon as the ground is dry 
enough to crumble. Mr. Yeager also gave the same 

Mr. J. Hartman Hershey asked If he plowed 
now if it would be advisable to plow again about a 
week or two before he planted. 

Mr. Shiffner advised him not to plow again if 
he plowed now. 

The Visiting Committee. 

J. M. Frantz, chairman of the Visiting Commit- 
tee, reported partially, and on motion the committee 
was continued to make a fuller report. 

Business for Next Meeting. 
" When is it proper to plant tobacco ?" To Harry 
M. Mayer. 

" Should the diminution of the area now planted in 
tobacco be encouraged ?" tJeneral dlBcusslon. 

" Will it pay to pack and store tobacco at present 
low prices C To Washington L. Hershey. 



A stated meeting of the Linna^an Society was held 
on Saturday, March liOth, the President, J. S. Stahr, 
in the chair. Seven members present. After at- 
tending to preliminary matters, the donations to the 
museum were found to consist of the mounted skele- 
ton of a turkey (Afclcagris gallopavn) per Mr. Geo. 
Flick. Oi. motion, a vote of thanks was given him. 
Branches of peach trees, one showing the excavations 
of a beetle like that of Scolytus or tomieus, per Mr. 
U. Smeych ; the other infested with the Lecaneum 
persicum or peach tree scale insect, per Mr. Gun- 
dakcr. Flowers of the Kuphorhia poinsetii, raised 
by Mr. Kathvon, the Nectaries overflowing with 
honey so as to drip profusely ; taste agreeably sweet. 
A large-sized oyster shell, densely incrusted with the 
tubular stony cases of the Serpula, per Mrs. Haines, 
of this city. Some Micaceous sand; the numerous 
glistening scales were deemed of mineral value by 
the finder, per "Charley." Two blown canary eggs, 
per S. M. Sener. 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 
of Philadelphia, vol. xvii.. No. 100, .May to December, 
1877 ; pamphlet containing list of surviving members 
of said society ; annual report, explorations and sur- 
veys in the Department of the Missouri, by E. H. 
liuffner, 1st Lieut, of Engineers, U. S. A., sent per 
Henry Landis, M. D., the corresponding secretary of 
the "Historical Society," of Reading, Pa., with a 
printed card asking reciprocal exchange. On motion, 
a vote of thanks was unanimously given to the so- 
ciety through their secretary, and the request agreed 
to. Mrs. Gibbons laid on the table No. 9 of the 
./oKrart;, edited by Dr. Jos. Gibbons. The Lancaster 
Farmer, for March, 1878 ; January and February 
Nos. of Field and Forest ; four old newspapers, a list 
of Botanists, United States pamphlet, an old coin, 
and eight envelopes containing about seventy-flve 
clippings from papers of Biographical or Historical 
value, per Prof. S. S. Rathvon. No papers were 
read ; sundry verbal remarks were made on the 
honey dropping Euphorbea; query as to its use for 
bees ; also on the insects on the peach, by S. S. Kath- 
von ; J. Stauffer made some remarks about these 
parasitic AnelHdians found on sundry shells and other 
substances in the sea, with their tortuous stony-cases 
open at the free end, tapering to a point of attach- 
ment to the shell, in dense clusters, known as the 
genus Serpnla. Those are small ; some of the family 
attain a length of three feet in the exotic oceans. 

Reference was made to a meeting of members at 
the residence of J. Stauffer, on Friday evening, 
March 22, to consider the propriety of a change of 
rooms since the removal of the Athenaeum to the 
rooms of the Y. M. C. A. No action was taken 
then. A motion was now made and carried that the 
former committee appointed to confer with a similar 
committee of the Y. M. C. A. in regard to the third 
floor of their building on South Queen street, have 
plenerary power to make an arrangement mutually 
satisfactory, if that can be accomplished. Commit- 
tee on behalf of the Linnaean, S. S. Rathvon, Charles 
A. Heinitsh and Rev. J. S. Stahr. Four subscrip- 
tions were signed and given to circulate, granting a 
certificate of stock and other privileges to all who 
subscribe ?.5, in order to raise funds to furnish proper 
cases for the rooms. ?40 dollars were subscribed by 
members present. Mrs. P. E. Gibbons being about 
to leave on her mission to the Paris Exhibition, asked 
for and received a certificate of membership of this 
society, signed by the President, Rev. J. S. Stahr, 
and countersigned by the Recording Secretary, J. 

Under scientific miscellany various topics were 
discussed and suggestions offered. Adjourned to 
meet on the last Saturday in April. 


Pennsylvania Wheat Prospects. 

The later crop returns to the Prfts and the De- 
partment of Agriculture at Washington, for Penn- 
sylvania, show in the average of winter wheat an 
increase of 3 per cent., or lO:!, as compared with last 
year, the results of that period being accepted at 
100. Winter rye stands 101, or an increase of 1 per 
cent, in acreage. The county in which the greatest 
increase of acreage of winter wheat is reported is 
Elk, which stands 1.50 or 5(1 per cent, above the acre- 
age of last year. Sullivan stands next at 125, and 
Fayette, Tioga, Erie and Clearfield at 120 ; Wayne 
at 115; Adams, Cameron, Cambria and York at 110; 
Chester at 105; Cumberland and Berks at 100. The 
greatest falling off in acreage of winter wheat Is 
shown in Monroe, which stands at 40 or 60 per cent.; 
next is Lehigh, 75; Montour, S5, and Columbia, 90. 
The remaining cereal producing counties of the 
State range from 100 to 105. The aggregate pro- 
duction of last year's crop was 18,000,000 bushels. 

Value of Special Manures. 

At the present time, when there Is so much effort 
to legislate on special manure matters. It Is well to 
consider fairly both sides of the question, that no In- 
justice may be done. It is not the intrinsic cost of 
the materials sold that gives them their value, but 
the nature of the soil Itself. A bushel of lime may 
not be worth twenty-flve cents, but It might be worth 
a dollar In Its effects on some erop, and the man who 
discovers this fact deserves some share In the extra 
seventy-flve cents over and above the first cost of 
the lime. But the tendency Is to take the market 
figures of the ingredients as the full measure of 
value, and to legislate accordingly. 

There is no doubt there Is mucli fraud in fertilizers. 
Some profess to give an article of great value that Is 
oidy brick dust and elay. If there is any way to pro- 
tect cultivators from these scandalous impositions It 
should by all means be done. 

In regard to the difference between the practical 
value and the commercial value of these manures, we 
are glad to see that the chemist of the State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of North Carolina, holds the 
same views with us. In a recent letter Dr. Ledoux 
says : 

The nqriadtural value of a fertilizer Is measured 
by the benefit received from Its use, and depends 
upon its fertilizing efl'cct, or crop-produeing power. 
As a broad general rule it Is true that Peruvian 
guano, superphosphates, fish scraps, dried blood, 
potash salts, plaster, fie., have a high agricultural 
value which is related to their trade value, and to a' 
large degree detertnines the latter value. But the 
rule has many exceptions, and in particular Instances 
the trade value cannot always be expected to fix or 
even indicate the agricultural value. Fertilizing 
effect depends largely upon soil, crop and weather, 
and as these vary from place to place, and from 
year to year, it cannot be foretold or estimated ex- 
cept by the result of past experience, and then only 
in general or probable manner. 

Right Kind of Farm. 

Nearly every adult in the united countries Is more 
or less ac(juainted with that large properly situated 
about six miles out of the town, on the I'erth road 
and known as the Flint farm. It has for a number of 
years been owned by .Mr. Samuel .McCrea of this town, 
who has continued to rent it out from year to year, 
deriving from its rental quite a handsome amount. 
For the past four years it has been managed tiy .Mr. 
Frank McCrea, formerly from Mcrricksville, who 
has put it in the best possible condition, and has 
reaped from it some of the best crops ever raised in 
this section. This spring Mr. McCrea bought the 
farm out and out, paying for it the handsome sum of 
$25,000. Our reporter yesterday obtained from Mr. 
McCrea the following statistics in reference to this 
year's business on the farm, together with the quan- 
tity of land tilled. He has reaped and housed 125 
tons of hay, 1,800 bushels of oats, 900 bushels of 
barley, 100 bushels of sjiring wheat, 900 bushels po- 
tatoes, 1,800 bushels of turnips and 100 bushels of 
peas. Fifty-four cows are kept on the place, the 
milk being sent to the factory, and during the best 
part of the season aggregating 0.50 pounds at each 
milking. Four hired men with seven horses do the 
work, and they are now engaged in putting In shape 
50 acres of ground, which will this fall be sowed In 
rye. The farm comprises .500 acres, half of which 
(250 acres) Is in a g(X)d state of cultivation, and has 
upon it some of the best farm buildings in Canada. — 
JiockviUe {Onl.) Jiecord. 

The Oats Crop. 
Notwithstanding that so many consider the oats 
crop to be not so profitable as wheat, rye or corn. Its 
cultivation is on the Increase, and will continue so In 
the future, for as a rotation It possesses many advan- 
tages. Just now we do not hear much as to what 
there is new in oats. Latterly, since the exposure of 
the Ramsdell <.fe Co. swindle and the depreciation of 
the famous Norway there is little change. Our own 
opinion— whatever It may be worth — has all along 
been that the best variety of oats for a general crop 
Is that which has for a series of years been cultivated 
in any locality with uniform success. By selecting 
plump, bright, fully-matured seed, sowing It early 
and giving it fair cultivation, the result will Invari- 
ably give satisfaction If the season Is propitious. 
Buying new, untried, high-priced seed, we take addi- 
tional care in extending to the proihictlon of the crop 
far more attention than that usually bestowed ; and 
this Is one of the principal reasons In most cases, 
why these much-lauded varieties sometimes give 
very large yields for the first year or two. It has, 
too, become a well-established fact that imported 
i seed, whatever may be its reputation abroad, retains 
Its reputation only for two or three years here, when 
It is no better than our own old varieties. 

Hauling Manure. 
In drawing manure, I use no wagon box ; with two 
stout plank* for the bottom, and two wide boards for 




the Bide pieces, the rigging is complete. Arriving in 
the field, take off a Bide-board, and with a potato 
hook, pull off enough manure for a heap, starting 
the team, another heap is made from the other side, 
and then one from each end, making always five and 
sometimes six heaps from the load. I rake off in 
heaps, because the manure is unloaded so much 
more rapidly than by pitching. If I had to pitch it 
over a wagon box, as is usually done, I should 
spread as I unloaded. It is in this raoid unloading 
that much of the saving is made. If the distance to 
draw is short, or the manure inconvenient to get at, 
I sometimes find it better to have two men to load. 
It is a material waste to allow horses to be idle while 
the manure is being spread. — Cor. Rural New Yorker. 

The Benefit of Lime. 

Although lime is found to be most beneficial the 
second and third years after its application, its effects 
are known to last much longer. The larger the 
crops, however, the sooner the lime (as well as other 
fertilizing matter contained in the land) becomes 
exhausted, and therefore the greater the advantage 
of its frequent application in smaller quantities, 
than a single application on a larger scale. It must 
he borne in mind, however, that the application of 
lime on land destitute of vegetable matter will do no 
good. There must be vegetable matter of some kind 
in the land for the lime to act upon before its bene- 
ficial effects can be seen. Or, as the poet expresses it; 
Lime aloue witliout manure 
Will make both laud and farmer poor, 
Bu' lime applied with good manure 
Makes wealth of land and farmer sure. 

Coal Ashes. 

Coal ashes as a fertilizer are said to be very bene- 
ficial for tomatoes and potatoes, and to a less extent 
peas and beans. Moreover, they improve tlie me- 
chanical condition of the soil, and are therefore es- 
pecially beneficial to clayey and rieid land generally. 
They should be worked in deeply and uniformerly in 
the proportion of, say, one part of ashes to two of 
mold. As it takes a long time to decompose them, 
their fertilizing properties are slow in action, but 
continuous. To obtain the best advantage from their 
use, some other kind of manure should be applied in 
conjunction with them. As there are seldom enough 
for field culture, the garden is the best place in which 
to use them, and inasmuch as they are generally 
considered more inconvenient refuse, all the advantage 
iecured from their use will be a clear gain. — Rural 
New Yorker. 

Bleaching Broom Corn. 

Broom corn is bleached after it has been properly 
dried, but before the brooms are made. It is only 
necessary to bleach the wrappers. In a small way 
this can be done in a hogshead or a dry goods box, 
capable of holding, say, enough for forty brooms. 
Punch a few holes in the bottom, place it over a de- 
pression in the earth containing an iron basin, in 
which is half a pound of sulphur for each bleaching. 
This can be readily melted by the application of a 
hot iron or otherwise. The corn should be wet before 
bleaching and spread out or hung up bo as to expose 
a large surface, and the receptacle should be covered 
with a piece of old carpet to confine the fumes of the 
burning sulphur. — Rural New Yorker. 


Selecting Seed Corn. 

I have been improving my corn by selecting the 
first ears that get ripe, and this is my seventh year 
since I began this practice, always planting the 
largest and best developed ears. For the last seven 
years I have rejected the tips and butts of the ears, 
shelling off all grains that are not well developed. 
To-day I have as good, sound, well-developed ears 
as any man can raise, and filled to the very tip — so 
much so that there is no room for another grain. 
I have also made ray corn much earlier by gathering 
the first ears that get ripe. The reason why I reject the 
tip grains is this — they are not so well developed and 
will not come up so strong and make so rank a growth. 


Wheat in Australia. 

The Adelaide Obserrer tells us that the Australians 
think they can successfully compete with America 
in the grain markets of the world, if they can only 
keep ahead of America in the invention of labor- 
saving machinery. In the Austrian House of Depu- 
ties a member brought in a bill to award a " bonus " 
of $.0,000 for the invention of the best machine for 
reaping, cleaning and bagging wheat on the ground. 
Here is a chance for the Yankee — first, to make a 
clean 520,000, and still get his usual sales and profit 
in Liverpool besides. 


More grass and less grain, more condensing of 
food on the farm should be the motto now. The plan 
of putting more of our idle acres into grass and of 
raising more live stock of a better quality will be a 
Btep in the right direction. 

Coal Ashes and Curculio. 

I have for several years saved my plums from the 
ravages of the curculio by the use of coal ashes. 
They become bo completely disgusted with it that 
they leave for other parts. Just so soon as blossoms 
fall I commence with my ashes. I take a bucketful 
of the ashes under my arm, and with the other hand 
I dash the ashes all over and through the trees, 
covering the plums completely with ashes, and go 
round every few days and give them anotlier dose. 
If the rain washes it off, I renew the dose and keep 
at it until my plums are ripe, when I am well paid 
for my trouble. I had, this year, eight bushels on 
seven small trees, which Isold for thirty-two dollars. 
I have several trees of the Rheine Claude variety 
upon which I did not use the ashes, because the 
plums were so scattering. I thought it would not 
pay, but there was one limb of one of those trees 
that was close to those I put the ashes on ; it got its 
share of ashes, and that limb ripened up all of its 
plums, but not a plum was there left on the other 
part of the tree or on any of the other trees of that 
variety. This was conclusive evidence to me that it 
was the ashes that saved my plums. When I first 
commenced the ashes, my brother told me that I 
would not succeed, that he made sure of saving his 
plums by placing a sheet underhis trees and shaking 
the little Turks off his trees, and catching them on 
the sheet and killing them. But when plums were 
ripe I had plenty and he had none. — Ohio Farmer. 

SoAPSUD water is an excellent liquid manure for 
some garden crops, especially for celery, which if 
applied every other day, during its growing season, 
the itocks will be crisp and of a mammoth ei2e. 


Sow seeds in a hot-bed or in cold-frame. As soon 
as the plants are about three inches high, transplant 
to a nicely-prepared bed in the border, setting them 
four or five inches apart. When some eight inches 
high , and fine stocky plants, set them in the trenches. 
Earth up a little during the summer, keeping the 
leaf stalks close together, so the soil cannot get be- 
tween them. Finish earthing up in autumn, and 
never hoe or earth up in moist weather, nor when 
plants are moistened with dew. 

To preserve celery for winter, dig trenches a foot 
in width, and a foot higher than the tops of the 
plants. Stand the celery in there erect, just as they 
grew, roots and all, and not crowded. Cover the 
trench with boards, and then leaves or straw. 

Turner's Incomparable Dwarf White, one of the 
very best varieties, growing stout, crisp and exceed- 
ingly fine nutty flavor. 

Sandringham Dwarf White, a new variety, gaining 
much popularity in Europe; produced by the gar- 
dener to the Prince of Wales ; solid, crisp, and of 
fine flavor. 

Boston Market, of low growth, somewhat branch- 
ing, white, crisp, and a favorite of the market gar- 
deners in the vicinity of Boston. 

Sealey's Leviathan, white, very large and solid, 
unsurpassed in flavor. 

Laing's Mammoth Red, fine flavor, large ; excel- 
lent keeper. 



Peas should be put in as early as the soil can be 
got ready. Sow in drills not less than four inches 
deep, about a pint to forty feet. The drills must not 
be nearer than two feet, except for the lowest sorts. 
Those growing three feet high or more should not be 
nearer than three or four feet, and should have brush 
for their support. The large, fine wrinkled varieties 
are not as hardy as the small sorts, and if planted 
very early should have a dry soil, or they are liable 
to rot. It is best to sow the earliest peas just as soon 
as possible. They are hardy, and frost will not harm 
them. In about two or three weeks after make 
another sowing, a few more early, a good lot of sec- 
ond early and some for late crop. The second sowing 
of early comes in very handy. 

Vick's Extra Early, one of the best of the very 
early peas, of good quality, very early, productive 
and true. 

Carter's First Crop, earliest and quite productive ; 
height, 30 inche, and giving a large crop for so 
early a pea. 

Kentish Invicta, round, blue pea, and the earliest 
blue variety grown, as early as First Crop, excellent 
for ftimily or market ; two feet in height. 

Blue Peter, habit like Tom Thumb, but more 
robust, almost as dwarf, and immensely productive. 
It has proved the most promising of the new peas for 
the American grower. 

Pruning Dwarf Pears. 

A lady correspondent asks : " Will some one tell 
me how and when to prune dwarf pear trees ; if they 
muBt be washed at this time of year, and what to 
put round them to make them grow ; "We reply that 
they can be pruned at any time from now up to the 
first of March. If any of the wood is needed for 
grafting it can be stuck two or three inches in the 
ground, where it will be found to be in good condi- 
tion when the grafting season comes round. Prun- 
ing now and until spring reduces the extent of the 
tree and foliage and gives form ; but prUQiog or 

shortening-in in June will produce fruit-spurs for the 
following year. Mow to prune cannot always be ad- 
vised. Where the growth of this year has been ram- 
pant, cut back to within two or three inches of the 
old wood, and thin out some of the young wood. 
Your own judgment must direct you as to this, trees 
being so different in habit and growth. As to washing 
the trees, it ought to be done at once, with whale-oil 
soap and water — a pound of soap to a bucket of 
water — and scraped also if the)^ need it. A rich soil 
is all sufficient to make your trees grow. If not rich, 
give a good top-dressing of manure now, and care- 
fully fork-in in the spring. — Oertnantown Telegraph. 


Beans like a dry and rather light soil, though they 
will do well in any garden soil if not set out too early 
in the spring. Dwarfs are earliest and most hardy, 
as a general rule. 

Dwarf or Snap Beans. 

Early Rachel, the earliest, and very hardy ; desir- 
able as a string bean. 

Long Yellow Six-Weeks, one of the earliest ; an 
excellent and productive string bean. 

Wax or Butler, a popular variety wherever known; 
the pods a waxy yellow, solid, very tender and al- 
most transparent, stringless, seeds black when ripe. 

White Kidney or Royal Dwarf, one of the very 
best for shelling, either green or dry. 

Refugee, hardy abundant bearer, fiesh thick and 
tender ; one of the very best for pickling, on account 
of its thick flesh ; not very early, will produce pods 
fit for eating in about eight weeks. 

Broad Windsor, the celebrated Broad Bean of 
England, growing on a strong stalk, about two feet 
in height. Beans eatenshelled. Not very well adapted 
to our climate. 

Potato Planting. 

An Item in a French journal, sent us by Mr. 
Chrystie, relates to potato plantiner, and we translate 
it, with slight condensation, as follows : 

" It appears, as we read in the Universe, that to 
the present day we have never learned how to 
plant potatoes. We cut them in two and put them 
into deep trenches and fill in the earth over them. 
Now, the potato, being originally from Peru, needs 
warmth and air. To bury it in a cold, damp grave 
of this kind, says M. Calloigne, is to arrest its flight. 
Put it simply on a soil deeply plowed or spaded — say 
in '.iO-inch squares if the potato is cut, or in .30-inch 
squares if uncut — and cover it lightly with the hoe. 
It will soon pierce this slight covering, which both 
shelters and fertilizes it, and can then be hilled up as 
necessary. By following this method, by preventing 
sprouting until planting time, and then plunging it 
into lime-wash to destroy moibid principles, we may 
prevent the development of the disease, and raise a 
crop similar, if not superior, to those seen before 
the invasion of the rot, say eight or nine tons per 
acre . ' ' — Country Gentleman. 

Beautifying the Grass Plot. 

I should like to make a suggestion for the benefit 
of persons who purpose soon to plant their spring 
flower-beds. If a few seeds of the portulacca — as- 
sorted colors — be sprinkled about in the grass plot, 
you have no idea how the flowers will refresh the eye 
during the summer. I found this out by accident 
last year. Some seeds had blown away and dis- 
tributed themselves haphazard amid the grass; and 
all through the hot season, when bright contrasts 
are so grateful to the eye of sweltering and apethetic 
humanity, I was refreshed and delighted with the 
little dots of vivid yellow, red, white and purple 
peeping up between the spires of my green, plush- 
like lawn. 

■ ^ • 

Running Beans. 

Large Lima, the most buttery and delicious bean 
grown. Plant in a warm, sandy soil, if possible, not 
too early. 

London Horticultural, or Speckled Cranberry, a 
round speckled bean, tender for snap beans, and ex- 
cellent for shelling. 

Giant Wax, thick fleshy, creamy yellow, waxy- 
looking pods, very tender and excellent as a snap 
bean ; productive, keeping in bearing a very long 
time ; seeds red, and rather tender. 

Scarlet Runner. This is the favorite snap bean of 
Europe, and nothing else will sell as soon as this 
appears in market. It is often planted in rows and 
allowed to run on the ground. 


Young asparagus shoots are fit for use In the 
spring, when a few inches high. Sow the seed in 
drills, about one inch deep, and rows about a foot 
apart. Keep the soil mellow and free from weeds 
during the summer, and in the fall or succeeding 
spring the plants may be set out in beds, about a 
foot apart each way, leaving the crown of the root 
about four inches below the surface. Before winter, 
cover the bed with a dressing of manure. Pur- 
chasing roots instead of seed wUl save a year in tliiM< 





Preserving Fence Posts. 

The JonnutI of Forestry pives some e.xcellent in- 
etriictions on this subject. It is important that the 
poets be very thoroushly seasoned before external 
paints are applied, otlierwise tlie moisture will be 
confined and increase the decay. It is tlicrcl'ore ini- 
portant to season the posts as rapidly as practicable 
after they arc cut, in an exposed windy place. Coat- 
ine them then with coal tar is especially recom- 
mended. The acid in the tar is to t)e destroyed with 
fresh quicklinu', and the lar thoroughly boiled to 
evaporate all the water. Apply it to the posts while 
hot. The recommendalion of that journal to char 
the posts we cannot endorse, as the charred part will 
be made weaker, and will not exclude water from 
the inside. A thick coat of well-applied gas-tar 
would be far better. But bakini; the wood so as to 
turn it sliirhtly brown, would not render it weaker, 
and would {rive it some of the durable properties of 
charcoal ; and if the coal tar is then applied, the 
preparation will be nearly perfect. It must be re- 
membered that coal tar does not do well on wood 
above ground, exposed to the sun and weather. A 
copious application of crude petroleum is the thing 
for such exposed surfaces. 

Which is Richest, Morning's or Evening's 

This sulijcct has now been put to the test of chemi- 
cal analysis, and the result is that the evening's milk 
is found to be the richer. Professor Boedeker analyzed 
the milk of a healthy cow at ditfcrent periods of the 
day. The Professor found that the solids of the 
evening's milk (1:5 per cent.) exceeded those of the 
morning's milk (10 per cent.), while the water con- 
tained in the fluid was diminished from 89 per cent. 
to S6 percent. The fatty matter gradually increases 
as the day progresses. In the morning it amounts to 
■ "% P^f cent., at noon .3'^ per cent., and in the eve- 
ning 5:^^ per cent. The practical importance of this 
discovery is at once apparent ; it develops the fact 
that while 10 oz. of morning's milk will yield but \i 
01. of butter, about double the quantity can be ob- 
tained from the evening's milk. The casein is also 
increased in the evening'.-^ milk from l^Vo to *i% per 
cent., but the albumen is diminished from ■t4-100ths 
per cent, to Kl-lUOths per cent. Sugar is least abun- 
dant at midnight {i'^ per cent.) and most plentiful 
at noon (4Ji per cent.) The percentage of the salt 
undergoes almost no change at any time of the day. — 
Canada Globe. 

Profitable Butter Making. 

Charles C. Knight, of Northampton, Berks county, 
writes to the Doyleslown Jiitelligencer the following 
results of the production of his dairy for the year 
1877 : " I did not keep any account of calves. We 
raised one, and the others I kept until they were five 
and six weeks old, and then sold them to the 
butchers. Mine is a dairy of twelve cows, one being 
two years old, with her first calf. The record of 
butter made per month is as follows : January, .58 
pounds; February, 90 pounds; March, 2i;0 pounds; 
■April, '222 pounds ; May, 280 pounds ; June, o.W 
pounds; July, '26.5 pounds; August, S50 pounds; 
September, '..95 pounds ; October, 287 pounds ; No- 
vember, ^23 pounds ; December, 158 pounds. There 
is no account of butter kept at home lor the use of a 
large family, making a total for the year of 2,817 
pounds sold, and averaging about 235 pounds per 
cow, making a total income of $1,230. .50; average 
per cow, $102.. 50 for the butter. IThe cows are mixed 
Alderney and Durham. Friend Woodward states 
that if he could have sold his calves lor §.50, then his 
cows would be a long way ahead, but now 1 think 
he is not so far ahead, though I will admit that my 
cows had good care." 

Rats and Harness. 

It is stated on good authority that a teaspoon of 
Cayenne pepper mixed in a quart of oil and rubbing 
the harness with the oil, will etlectually protect it 
against the gnawing of rats. It is also said that an 
ounce of aloes to one gallon of oil will attord the 
same protection. Our remedy heretofore has been, 
and we have never known it to fail, to hang the har- 
ness up so that no rats cau molest it. But as some 
people are careless in this respect the reil pejiper and 
the aloes and oil remedy had better be adopteil. A 
friend at our elbow says carbonic acid is a sure 


How a Water-Pipe May be Cleaned. 

A correspondent of Forreitt ajid Streajn telle of a 
novel method employed to cleanse a two-inch water- 
pipe which had become choked up with mud. A 
string was passed through a hole punched in the 
tail of a email eel which was straightway put into 
the pipe. An occasional jerk reminded the eel that 
it was incumbent on him to advance, which he did, 
arriving at the lower end of the pipe » ith the string. 
A bunch of rags was lied to the string, and thus the 
pipe wa» cleauted. 

Household Receipts. 

SrRAMni.En Eggs. — Six eggs, one colTee cup of 
milk, one teaspoonful of butter, one teaspoonful ol' 
Hour, and salt. Beat the eggs very light, rub the 
butter and Hour together, add this to the milk alter 
it has been placed on the stove and become a little 
warm, salt to taste, add the eggs and cook until the 
whites are cooked, then serve while hot, or with 
toast . 

Blanc-Manoe. — Set on one quart of rich cream 
with five ounces of fine white sugar and a few drops 
of extract of vanilla or any other llavoring preferred. 
Whip it to a stilf froth. After soaking one ounce of 
isinglass or gelatine in one pint of cold water, for a 
half hour, let it simmer on embers until perfectly 
dissolved, stirring from time to time to prevent the 
gelatine (rom sticking to the bottom of the sicwpaii 
and burning. When lukewarm pour the cream sUnvly 
in, beating it all the time, until etilf enough to drop 
from a spoon, then put in molds previously dipped 
in cold water. 

CuANiiKRiiY wiNi!, taken internally and applied 
externally, is announced as a cure for scr-oftila. To 
make the wine take the ripe berries, mash them in a 
mortar to a fine pulp, put it in a stone jar, and add 
one quart of water to two quajts of berries ; stir it 
well ; set away and let it stand a week ; then strain 
it through cotton, and you have a bcautil'ul wine, 
which, with a little sugar, makes a wholesome 
drink, at once cooling and palatable. It does not 

Appi.K Cake. — Two cups of etewed dried apples 
boiled in two cups of molasses. Drain oil the mo- 
lasses (for the cake) from tlie apples; add two eggs, 
two teaspoons of soda, four cups of flour, one cup ol 
butter, one cup of eour milk. Spice of all kinds. 
Then add the apple (which was drained as above). 
The app'es should be soaked the night before stew- 
ng for the cake. 

Choice Cookies. — Two eggs, two cupfuls white 
sugar, one cupful butter, one-third cupful sweet 
milk, two teaspoonfuls cream tartar, one teaspoonful 
soda, one-half nutmeg. 

Cream Ckackehs. — One pint of cream, six eggs, 
a little salt, flour enough to form a stiff dough . Beat 
the eggs very light, mix all the ingredients together, 
and pound the dough half an hour. Koll out thin, 
cut into any fancy shape, and bake in a moderate oven. 

The Japanese method of cooking rice is to pouron 
just enough water to i)revent the rice from burning 
at the bottom of the pot, which has a close-fitting 
cover, and with a moderate fire, the rice is steamed 
rather than boiled until it is nearly done; then the 
cover is taken off, the surplus steam and moisture 
allowed to escape, and the rice turns out a mass of 
snow-white kernels, each separate from the other, 
and as much superior to the soggy mass we usually 
get in the United States as a fine mealy potato is 
superior to the water-soaked article. 

To Cleanse Woodwork Around Doors. — 
Take a pail of hot water, throw in two tablespoons- 
ful of pulverized borax ; use a good coarse house- 
cloth — an old coarse towel does splendidly — and 
wash the painting; do not use a brush ; when wash- 
ing: places that are extra yellow or stained, soap the 
cloth, then sprinkle it with dry powdered borax, and 
rub the places well, using plenty of rinsing water; 
by washing the woodwork in this way you will not 
remove the paint, and the borax will soften and 
make the hand white, a fact well worth knowing. 
The uses of borax in domestic economy are numer- 
ous ; and one of the most valuable in its employment 
to aid the detergent properties of soap. 

To Purify a Sink. — In hot weather it is impossi- 
ble to prevent sinks from beeoming foul, unless some 
chemical is u.sed. One pound of copperas dissolved 
in four gallons of water, poured over a sink three or 
four times, will completely destroy the offensive 
odor. As a disinfecting agent, to scatter around the 
premises affected with an unpleasant odor, nothing 
is better than a mixture of four parts of fine char 
coal, by weight. All sorts of glass vessels and other 
utensils may be eU'ectually purified from ollensive 
smells by rinsing them with charcoal powder, after 
the grosser impurities have been scoured off with 
sand and soaj). 

How to Keep Bacon Hams. — Place them in some 
dry place until the outside becomes thoroughly dry ; 
then put them into a stout paper sack, tie them up 
tight, and bury them in ashes, the deeper the better. 
The meat will keep sweet for an indefinite time. 
Some bury their bacon in oats, grain, salt, bran, etc., 
but ashes are far the best. 

For curing, a good authority, recommends 
the following receipt : One cup of molasses ; one cup 
of fine salt ; about a teaspoonful of saltpetre 
pounded fine ; cloves, allspice, cinnamon to suit 
taste. Mix well together; place the ham in a 
wooden bowl or other dish and rub the mixture over 
the surface, repeating the process once a day for a 
month. Then smoke it for a lew hours only. 

Salt for Bedbugs. — To get rid of bedbugs, wash 
the room and the furniture of the room they fre- 
quent with salt water, filling the cracks with salt, 
and you may look in vain for them. Salt seems 
inimical to bedbugs, and they will not trail through 
it. I think it prelerable to all ointments, and the 
buyer requires uo cerlillcate ae to its genuinenvst. 


Lancaster County Beef. 

About four or five weeks since we transferred troja 
the Lancaster Kxaiui'ier, to our agricullural column, 
an article on the above subject, which lias excited a 
good deal of Intereet among our farmers, as they arc 
now giving more attention, as is done In Lancaster 
county, to the feeding of cattle, than heretofore. 
One of these farmers is so much Interested on the 
subject as to ilesire adilitional Information, and haa 
re(juested us to ask the editor of the Kramiiier, who 
contributed the first article, the following questions, 
answers to which will, doubtless, be as useful to the 
readers of that paper as our own : 

How is corn led — whether chopped cob and all, 
or shelled ? 

Is oats or millstuff mixed with the corn or not! 

How often a day are the cattle fed) The great 
troulile is to get them to eat a suflficlcnt quantity 
without surfeit. 

Is anything fed to stimulate the appetite I 

At what age arc cattle the best feeders? — Hagert- 
toit'n Mail. 

Not only has the article above referred to attracted 
attention abroad, but to many of our own citizens 
the magnitude of the value and number of beeves 
fed in this county was a new revelation. The feed- 
ing of the present season exceeds that of any previ- 
ous year by several thousand head. We shall answer 
the questions asked by the Mail, as beet we may, In 
the hope that the information will be of Intereet not 
only to our friends in Maryland, but ae well to our 
readers nearer home. 

Corn is not fed, cob and all, by any of our farmera 
most extensively engaged in jireparing prime cattle 
for Philadelphia and New York markets. 

Chopped shelled corn mixed with oats ormilletufT, 
in the proportion of one bushel of the latter to three 
of the former, and thoroughly wet up with warm 
water, is given. To make a variety of food for the 
cattle the dry corn, unmixed, Is occasionally fed, 
which plan is found useful in stimulating the appe- 
tite and obviates the necessity for any artificial 

The general practice Is to feed three times a day, 
at regular intervals — say at R A. M., 12 M. and 6 
P. M. When cattle are first tied up lour quarts are 
given at each feeding, with hay and corn fodder 
(luring tlie night and between meals. The quantity Is 
increased from four quarts to eight during the six or 
eight months required for fattening. The greatest 
care is taken not to give an overdose of feed, as It 
will frequently cive cattle a backset from which they 
will not recover for a week or ten days. Water is 
usually given but once a day now, the moisture In 
the chopped feed being taken into consideration. 
Many of those who feed the largest number have in- 
troduced water into their barne, and after they have 
tied their cattle up in the fall never turn them out til! 
they are sold. Before stabling it is very desirable to 
pasture for a few weeks, giving the cattle once or 
twice a day a few quarts of Ijran and chojiped corn, 
and salt to lick. This rests them after a long drive 
or ride in the cars, and gives them a good start for 
the strong feeding that awaits fhem. 

The best age for fattening is from four to five 
years, though some three-year olds turnout very well. 

Fattening a Calf. 
Mr. Editor : My principal object in this article is 
to show the farmers and others that they can raise or 
even vean their calves without giving them the new 
milk fresh from the cow. The best food to fatten a 
calf witlioiU whole milk is oil-meal, molasses and 
ekim-milk for the first two weeks, after which a 
little oat or barley meal may be used. A calf can 
be made to weigh on • hundred and twenty to one 
hundred and forty poun^ls at four weeks old, never 
having had any new milk after the cow's milk was 
good. The oil-meal should be scalded and aUowed 
to form a thick mucilage ijcfore being mixed with 
the skimmed milk. Tlie molasses may be added 
directly to the milk, and the whcde nniy be given 
blood-warm. The proper quantity for a young calf 
Is a tablcspoonful of oil-meal, the same of molasses, 
divided iito three parts for one day's feed, added to 
the milk. After the first week it may be gradually 
increased, and at the commencement of the third 
week a spoonful of oil-meal and molasses may be 
given to each feed ; a quart of boiling water being 
turned on to the meal over night, and also In the 
morning to form a mucilage, and a spoonful of oat 
or barley meal may be added, but this should be 
cooked. At present prices, the whole feed will not 
cost more than one dollar for five weeks, and an 
early calf of the weight mentioned will bring from 
ten to twelve dollars. I raised one late in the season 
two years ago, by the above method, that cost lees 
than one dollar for feed, aside from the skimmed 
milk, that brought nearly ten dollars. Should they 
have scours, give them a tea made by boiling corn- 
cobs In water and add to the milk. 

I saw this article sonic years ago in some paper 

and cut it out and pasted it in a book, and having 

I tried it I send it to the ficrmaiilown J'clegrnph, and 

I may Ite readers be benefited as well. — Mr$, W, H. 0,, 

I Yalet County, jV, Y, 



[April, 1878. 

Wind Sucking. 

Wiud sucking, stump sucking and crib biting are 
all one and the same habit, and, in some instances, 
are the manifestations of a disease ; in others, the 
habit may have been acquired from old and con- 
firmed crib biters. Some veterinarians attribute 'it 
to a distortion of the teeth, which have become worn 
away on their interior edge so as to show more or 
less of the yellow instead of the enamel. Professor 
Law says: " These worn teeth are associated with 
the serious vice of wiud sucking (swallowing) and 
eructicatiou, which leads to tympany, digestive dis- 
order and rapid loss of condition. The horse seizes 
the manger or other solid object with his teeth, 
arches and shortens the neck, and makes a grunting 
noise. The wind sucking may exist without crib 
biting. It may be learned by standing idle near a 
crib biter, and always goes on to disease and loss of 
condition." The same authority prescribes the fol- 
lowing treatment : " Smear the front of the manger 
with aloes or other bitters ; cover all exposed wood- 
work with sheet-iron ; muzzles may also be put on 
after the horse has done feeding." Other equally 
good authorities recommend putting a lump of salt 
and one ol white chalk or magnesia in a box before 
the horse, and keeping these constantly within 
reacli. As we have said, the habit may be learned, 
but, in most instances, it may be considered as a 
kind of dyspepsia, and the burning acidity of the 
stomach prompts the horse to get relief by sucking 
in cool air. The salt and magnesia or chalk afl'ord a 
similar momentary relief, and frequently lean to a 
permanent cure. 


Thoroughbred Sheep. 

A farmer who has only kept the common sheep of 
the country can scarcely be convinced of the loss he 
sustains from year to year. He will tell you that 
they do not average much above two and a half 
pounds of wool per head ; whereas the Merino and 
Cotswold, either separately or by crossing, will pro- 
duce an average of from seven to nine pounds of 
much superior wool, and selling for a much higher 
price. They are more beautiful animals than the 
common, it costs no more to keep them, their car- 
casses for the market are even more valuable, and 
they are as prolific or more so than the common kind. 
Hence they are three times the profit of the ordinary 
sheep, and in almost every respect to be preferred ; 
yet we see the general farmer continue from year to 
year to rear the animals which are of so little profit. 
It is true that the first cost of the thoroughbreds is 
much greater, but it is not recommended that a be- 
ginning be made on a large scale. Three of each of 
the Merinos and Cotswold would be enough to start 
with, as in a few 3 ears they would multiply to a con- 
siderable flock, and allow of sales that would soon 
cover the original expense. 

Will not farmers generally consider this sugges- 
tion? We ask tliem, on the ground that every farmer 
does or ought to keep a few sheep upon his premises, 
as they are the best enrichers of the land that have 
yet been discovered. 

Lice on Cattle. 

Some two weeks ago an old negro on the planta- 
tion told me to tie a cotton string about the size of a 
very small plough line around each one's neck, and 
to tar it well before putting it on ; but the remedy 
seemed so silly and nonsensical that I treated it with 
disdain. He, liowever, to convince me, caught a 
very lousy calf and placed the tarred string about 
his neck, and with an exultant shake of the head 
bid me await further developments. To-day he 
brings up the calf and bids me look for myself and 
see his triumph. To my surprise nearly every louse 
had disappeared. He says the lice travel toward the 
head, get to the tarred string, mount it, and then, 
.confused or stifled, ignominiously give up the battle 
and tumble to the ground. — Cvnntry Oentleman. 

Abortion in Cows. 

The milkmen near Boston have found a satisfac- 
tory remedy in the use of lime. They give it to the 
cows by sprinkling a spoonful at a time over their 
food, two or three times a week ; or sometimes they 
sprinkle lime among the hay as it is stowed away in 
the barn. A neighbor of mine who keeps about 
twenty cows, and who was formerly much troubled by 
abortion among his herd, informs me that for the 
last three years, since he has made use of lime, he 
has not had a case, and that very many of his ac- 
quaintance have had similar experience with their 
herds. Whether the well-known lack of lime in our 
Massachusetts soil has anything to do with this is an 
interesting question for the man of science. — Massa- 
chusetts Plonijhrnmi. 

Iowa had 1,3.5-1,608 sheep in 1867, valued at 
$2,000,0000. In 1877 it had only 318,439 sheep, as- 
sessed at §34.5, 8:i7. This is progressing backward in 
wool-raising. In 18C7 Iowa had 77,612 head of swine, 
valued at Si,4S3,000. In 1877 they had increased to 
1,654,708, more than double the number, valued at 
$3,89y,301. Evidently the Hawkeyes prefer hogs to 


Church's Musical Visitor for March. — 
Among the features of special interest in Church's 
Musical Visitor for March, the new " Lifeof Chopin" 
claims the attention of musical people, and the arti- 
cles on *' Expressive Piano Playing," and " Fredriech 
Wieck, the great Music Teacher," are no less inter- 
esting. This number also gives full particulars con- 
cerning the approaching great Cincinnati May Musi- 
cal Festival, and a good description of the new organ, 
which will be dedicated on that occasion. The edi- 
torials, correspondence and short notes are unusually 
entertaining, and the music pages give a very liberal 
supply of late music, both easy and difficult. Among 
the latter the " Sketch of Festival Ode," will interest 
musicians. It is from the work by Otto Singer, 
which has been written for the opening of the new 
Cincinnati Music Hall, and of which the critics have 
been lavish with praise. The ballad entitled "Re- 
gret," by J. A. Butterfield, is also remarkably fine. 
This number also contains " When the Grass Grows 
Over Me," song and chorus, by D. C. Addison; 
" Golden Leaflet Schottische ;" "The Last Leaf," by 
Jas. McGranahan, and "Ripple, Little Brooklet," 
quartet, by C. C. Case. This is a large quantity of 
good music to be in a single number of a magazine 
costing only 1.5 cents, or ?1.50 for a whole year. If 
bought at any music store, the same music would 
cost fully §2.00. Every subscriber to the Visitor 
also receives a valuable premium, free. Send stamp 
to the publishers, John Church & Co., Cincinnati, 
0., for particulars. 

The Co-operative Employment Bureau of the 
Bowery Branch, T. M. C. A., 134 Bowery, New 
York, have opened a register of farms, offered for 
rent or sale, in Eastern, Middle and Southern States. 
No fee or commission will be charged for entry on 
the register, the object of which is to place within 
reach of those desiring farms, the means of informa- 
tion which shall enable them to make judicious 
selections without the inconvenience or expense of 
consulting land agents. The register will be opened 
to all wishing to rent or purchase farms. It is 
hoped by this effort, that many intelligent emigrants 
of means may have their attention called to cheap 
and desirable farms in these States, and thus be led 
to purchase where they may have society, schools 
and churches. No fee or commission will be charged 
for examining the register. Information of farms 
for sale or rent, should state number of acres, tillage, 
woodland and orchard, with description of soil and 
improvements, springs, wells and buildings, and 
terms of sale ; also state any incumbrance. Name 
and post-office address should be very plainly writ- 
ten. Male help of any kind may be had by applica- 
tion at the same office. Address Rev. John Dooly, 
No. 134 Bowery, New York. 

Tobacco in Virginia and North Carolina. — 
Some observations in .connection with the several 
types of tobacco now produced in these two States — 
including Dr. Volker's examination of our fine yel- 
low tobacco — and on the introduction of a new type, 
namely, cigar tobacco. Presented by the Southern 
Fertilizing Company, Richmond, Va. An octavo 
pamphlet of 40 pages. Office, 1321 Cary street. 
This pamphlet contains a full and interesting discus- 
sion of the tobacco plant as an article of trade and 
commerce, as well as its culture, in which a high 
compliment is paid to the tobacco of Lancaster county. 
Mr. A. C. Libhart's essay on Tobacco culture, which 
was published by this company last year, is re- 
issued in this pamphlet, which is a highly compli- 
mentary endorsement of its rare excellence. The 
work contains a map of the Jurassic and Triassic 
Rocks of Virginia. 

Takino "time by the forelock." Here we already 
have the Premium List, with the "Rules and Regu- 
lations of the Ninth Annual Fair of the Montana 
Agricultural, Mineral and Mechanical Association," 
to commence at Helena, Montana, on Monday, Sep- 
tember 23rd, 1878, and to continue six days. A 12mo. 
pamphlet of about 50 pages, about 20 of which are 
devoted to the general list of premiums, 10 to special 
premiums, and 20 to advertisements. The general 
premiums are very reliable, and are equally dis- 
tributed ; for instance, the highest premium for a 
horse is $25, and the best bushel of wheat $15. But 
the most noted feature is the special list, by artizans, 
producers and manufacturers outside of and inde- 
pendent of the Society, some of which are $40 and 
$50, one hundred per cent, higher than the highest 
offered by the Society. This seems to be an encourag- 
ing movement. 

The Artificial Flower Guide, conducted by J. 
Loewenstein. A semi-annual magazine, devoted to 
information on the uses of artificial flowers for the 
toilet, decorative and all other purposes. Price, 20 
cents. Published by the Parisian Flower Company, 
No. 28 East Fourteenth street. New York ; No. 9 Rue 
de Clery, Paris. A square 12mo. of fifty pages, in 
paper covers and most elaborately illustrated and 
embellished with thirty-five splendidly executed en- 
gravings. Embracing bridal appointments and veils, 
floral garnitures for balls and evening costumes ; 
vases, stands, hanging groups, brackets, terra-cotta 
ornaments, &c., &c., together with full instructions 
io the art, the meaning, the sentiment and the philoso. 

phy of artificial flowers and their relations to our 
social and conventional customs — ornamental and 

High Farming Without Manure. — Six lectures 
on agriculture, delivered at the Experimental Farm 
at Vincennes, by M. George Ville, Professor of 
Vegetable Physiology at the Museum of Natural 
History, Paris, France. Published under the direc- 
tion of the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion 
of Agriculture. Boston: A. Williams & Co., 283 
Washington street, corner of School street. This is 
a handsome 12mo. of 108 pp. , in paper covers, and 
between those covers is condensed a vast amount of 
analytical and statistical information on subjects 
relating to the farm and farming, embracing the 
fundamental principles of plant development, and 
the means of facilitating that development, through 
the aid of science ; acknowledging agriculture as a 
scientific problem, and manipulating it on that basis. 
Something for progressive farmers. 

Report of the services of the Centennial meet- 
ings of the "Church of God," held by authority of 
the General Eldership, in the Bethel of the Church 
of God, corner of Germantown avenue and Berks 
street, Philadelphia, Pa., July 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th, 
1S76. J. F. Weishempel, ji.. No. 360 West Baltimore 
street, under the Eutaw House, Baltimore, Md. A 
pamphlet, of 8 pages octavo, of interest and use. 
Sometimes poor "human mortals," in attempting 
"to take the kingdom of heaven by force," inadver- 
tently ignore the " kingdom of earth," and through 
a mistaken zeal or a false aspiration, that which 
ought to have been done to-day is, for selfish ends, 
deferred until to-morrow. Through an unfortunate 
discussion, in which everybody was right and nobody 
wrong, the printing of this pamphlet was greatly 
delayed, but "better late than never." 

Something Good and True. — We call the special 
attention of the readers of The Farmer to the card 
of Mr. C. H. Anderson, in the advertising columns 
of this number of our journal, not only as someth- 
ing new, but also something "good and true." The 
intrinsic merits of the "Iron Stone," as a water and 
drain pipe, are sufficient of themselves to recom- 
mend this miiterial to the confidence of the public. 
Mr. Anderson is so respectably endorsed by those 
who have used the " Ardenbeim Iron Stone Pipes," 
and is socially so highly connected in this county, 
that we believe our farmers may repose the utmost 
confidence in him, especially as through the superi- 
ority of his wares he has been enabled to build up a 
flourishing business-. 

Pamphlets and Catalogues. — Recipes for the 
use of "Kingsford's Oswego Corn Starch," or pre- 
pared corn, manufactured by Kingsford & Son, 
Oswego, New York. Also, instructions in carving 
and other useful recipes. 12mo. 64 pp. Contains 
many gems in culinary preparations, which seem 
only an aggravation in the absence of the where- 
withal to provide them. 

The most satisfactory catalogues that have reached 
our table are the price lists of green-house and bed- 
ding plants, fruit and ornamental trees and plants, 
small fruits, bulbs, &c. (by mail). Grown and for 
sale by Edward J. Evans & Co., nurserymen, seeds- 
men and florists, York, Pa. Names in bold type, 
alphabetically and scientifically arranged, with 
specific prices attached. Large stock — great variety. 
The First Annual Report of the Connecti- 
cut Agricultural Experiment Station. — From 
the report of the Secretary of the Board of Agricnl- 
ture. A royal octavo of 108 pages. In which the 
subject of manures and fertilizers is most ably and 
elaborately discussed, showing that the State has 
emerged from the era of "horn gun-flints" and 
"wooden cucumber seeds," and is developing the 
practical and useful. Nothing has yet emanated 
from any similar organization in Pennsylvania of the 
same practical character. 

Our readers will please notice the change of loca- 
tion in the advertisement of the Mendelssohn Piano 
Co., of New York. They have opened new and 
splendid warerooms for their matchless Pianos at 
No. 21 East Fiftepnth street, between Broadway and 
Fifth ave, near Union Square, opposite Tiffany's, the 
great diamond and jewelry house, in tlie heart of the 
Piano and Music business, and amongst the most 
fashionable trade of the metropolis. 

Benson, Burpee & Co.'s Illustrated and De- 
scriptive Catalogue of Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, for 1x78, embracing select lists of 
the choicest and most valuable varieties in caltiva- 
tion, both home grown and cultivated ; all of the 
highest quality — fresh and reliable. Also, a choice 
selection of small fruits, plants, trees and bulbs ; 
agricultural implements and thoroughbred live stock. 
No. 233 Church street, PbUadelpbia', Pa. 

Annual Catalogue for 1878, containing a list of 
garden, field and flower seeds, together with prices 
and cultural directions. Published annually by 
Price & Knickerbocker, successors to V. R. Douw & 
Co., importers, growers and wholesale dealers in 
seeds, agricultural and horticultural implements, 
vanes, vases and garden requisites, 80 pages, 8v. In 
ornamental paper covers, elaborately illustrated. 
No. 80 State street, Albany, New York. 




"CarrotB, MangoklR and Siifiar Beot^. Wbiit kindH to 
raise, how to raiRe, and how to feed." Hy nmil, ;to cents. 
Alao, my tliree workH, on "OabbiiKPH, and How to Grow 
Thera," ''StiuaBhes, and How to Grow Them," •' Onlon§, 
aud How to Grow Them." Full of ju'»t such minute details 
as farmers want. Each, 30 conts, by mail. My large illus- 
trated Seed Catalogue/rce to all. 


I0-3-2ni1 Mnrl>I<-lie»<l, Maxx. 

Ardenheim Iron Stone. 

I'be Ardenlielm Iron Nton« Pipes are pronounced 

by practical men in this line of business, the 
beet in the United States. 



Send to C H. ANDERSON, Proprietor, Riint- 
inKdon, Pa., for testimonials, aud see for yoarselves 
vhat those say of them who have used them. 


Af" X _ dJ^A per day at home. Samples worth $5 free. 


AddrcBS Stinson & Co., Portland, Maine. 

^^ ^^ ■ C^ Great chance to make money. If you 
I ■ ■ 1 1 I ■ cau'e get gold you can get greenbacks. 
!■ Ill I la^^*^ need a person in every town to take 
%^ %0 If^ mM I subscr Jtttlone for the largest, cheapest 
and kest lUustrated family publication in the world. Any 
one can become a successful agent. The most elegant 
works of art given free to subscribers The price is so low 
that almost everybody subscribes. One agent reports mak- 
ing over $150 in a week. A lady agent reports taking over 
407 subscribers in 10 days. All who eufjage make money 
fast. You can devote all your time to the bufinesH, or only 
jour spare time. You need not be away from home over 
night. You can do it as well as others. Full particulars, 
directions aud terms free. Elegant and expensive outfit 
free. If you want profitable work send us your address at 
once. It costs nothing to try the business. No one who 
«ngage8 fails to make great pay. Address " The People's 
Journal," Portland, Maine. 


j^ HMHBHH is u<3t easily earned in these times,but it can be 
ll#l /I /I/ made in three months by any one of either 
^Ik / / / sex, in any part of the country who is willing 
#|j f I I ^° work steadily at the employment that we 
^•^ furnish. $r>6 per week iu jour own town. You 

need not be away from home over night. You can give your 
whole time to the work, or only your spare moments. It 
costs nothiuB^O try the business. Terms aud $5 Outfit free. 
Address at oficc, H. Hallett & Co., Portland, Maine. 

Flower Seeds. Bulbs. 

Do not send from home for your Flower and Vegetable 
Seeds, Japan Lilies, Tuberoses, Gladiolus, Cannas, Caladi- 
tims, Dahlias, and other Summer Flowering Bulbs and 
Boots, but go to 


At BeinltHh'8 Dra^ fitorr, 16 F.nst tUng St., 

vho his received a lar^e supply from the best :ind most 
reliable growers iB the country. 

Subscriptions taken for the 

10-3 2m 



toAgrentfla Send stamp for terms, 
b. C.FoBTKU Jt Co.,ClnclnDatl,0. 


Vick'a Catalogue, — 300 Illustrations, only 2 cents, 

Vick's Illuatrated Monthly Magazine,— 32 pages, fine 
Illustrations, aud Colored Plate in each number. Price, 
$1,26 a year ; Five copies for $5.00. 

Vick'a Flower and Vegetable Garden, 50 cents in 
paper covers ; with elegant cloth covers $1.00. 

All my publications are printed in English and German, 
Address, JAMES VICK, Rochester, N. Y. 


Apple Treee, 15c. each: Ntandard Pear, 40c. 

each ; Dwarf Pear 30c. each. Strawberries, Rasp- 
btrriett, and Graps Vines by the doz., 100, 1,000, or 10,000. 
All goods packed and delivered at depot without extra 
charge. Price-lut free. Address 8. C. DeCOU, Mo«Bia- 
TOWN. Burlington Co., N. J. [lO-3-lm. 

p AT ^ Any worker can innkefri a day at home. ToBtly 


I Outfit free, Addrcsa TnuE &, Co., Augusta, Mo. 



Prices Cii really Rediiceil for 187»i. 

This is one of the greatest labor saving machines InveHt- 
ed, it is substantial, made from the best material, is dura- 
ble and light, weighing but Ifl pounds. Knives to cut any 
widtli, from 6 to 15 inches. It has given perfect satisfaction 
wherever used. 

Beecroft's Hand Weeder 

(see cut at)Ove). ' 

This ifl an indispensable implement In a garden whore a 
hoe caimot be used. 
Price List and descriptive Catalogue sent free. 

10-3-lm Manufacturer, Portland, Me* 







Solo Agent for the Arundel Tinted 


Repairing strictly attended to, 

North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Fa. 

9-4-1 y 


a week in your own town. Terms and $5 outfit free. 
Address H, Hallett & Co., Portland, Maine. 

Kansas lands. 

We own and control the Railway lands of TREGO 
COUNTY, KANSAS, about equally divided by the Kau- 
Bas Pacific Railway, which we are Belling at an average of 
$3.25 per acre on "easy ternie of payment. Alternate Bee- 
tlons 01 Government lauds can be taken as homesteads by 
actual settlerp. 

These lands lie in the GREAT LIMESTONE BELT of 
Central Kansas, the best winter wheat producing district 
of the United States, yielding from 20 to 35 bushels 
per Aere. 

The average yearly rainfall in this county is nearly 33 
iiielies per annum, one-third greater than in the 
much-extolled Arkansas Valley, which has a yearly rain- 
fall of less than '23 inches per annum in the same longitude. 

Stoek Railing: and Wool-Clrowing: are very 
Keniunerati\'e. The winters are short aud mild. Stock 
will live all the year on grass ! 

Living Streams and Springs are numerous. Pure water 
is found in wells from '20 to 60 feet deep. The Health- 
iest t'liniate iu the World ! No fever and ague there. 
Members of our firm reside at WA-KEENEY, and will show 
lands at all times. A pamphlet, giving full Information iu 
regard to soil, climate, water sujiply, kc, will be sent free 
on request. Address, 

104> f»<>arborn Nt., Chicago, 
10-4-lm] or Wa-Keeney. I'reiro to., KnnsaN. 


per 1,000 and upwards, for Seedlings of Shade 
and Tmiber Trees. A surplus of young trans- 
VINES, ETC. Send for Price List. Address, 



Grape and Seedling Nursery, 
WINONA, Columbiana County, Ohio. 


A VoKCtftblf* Preparation, invented In the 17tb 
century by Dr. AVlUiam (irace. Surgeon in King James' 
army. Through its agency he cured thousands of the most 
serious sores and wounds, and was regarded by all who 
knew him as a public benefactor. 25c. a box, by mail 30c. 
For a*lo by druggists generally. 


Addre«i SITE W. fOWLI t SOSS, loita, Ktn. 


Danvers Oulnn Hfed, ratJif^^ /rt>m the rhoirrat onions of 
each crop far fi/ly year^ in Huceefhiun .' The difference la 
the crop will 1»- ten times greater than the cott of the aevd. 
My He«d Catalogue free to all. 



n a r l> 1 4> li 4- M«l . n HHA . 

2Cnn nnn '•■''■""•'"'"•v. «"«;.;»rrr//, Waeh- 

i/uti, ItufttM, I'fiirh 'lrrfM,ftv ]0<» Nfr'.I.F.t'TKIl VA- 
ItlK'riKK. (ir*'at Afw viean Ntruwherrieti. I.argeak 
and bcHt. IJfrrii-s 2 oz. each. 9 in. around. Itv mull lO for 
81: loo tor 85; I.OOO for 840. Hitii*,tt Albany, 
fhas, J>otftiinff, Mumirch of the IVrnt, Kentucky, 
finen i'mli/ir, 82 pir I.OOO ; t'nptt. Jtirh, i uinbm^ 
land Triufiiph, Sterling, Jtteuntfa, 85 per l.OOO. 
ALIj pure. Catalogue free. Cut this out. 

l{V-2-3ml Moorestfiwn, Nr-w Ji-rsey. 

Use The Buffalo Honest Fertilizer! 

)\jl\U IJUI iJll I \\\JiJ 
And Pare Clround Bone. 

The purity of these goods is guaranteed, and their ■tknd- 
ard proved by regular analysis -ut I'rof. (JJ. A. Liubig, ftntf 
other eminent Cht-mlsts. 

No lloek PhoHphate, Mineral Guano, Salt Cake, Rpont or 
Sludge Acid, Land I'laster and other inferior mateHals enter 
into the maun fact ure of my I hosphate, which !■ nolcly mA^t 
of Hones, Afeat, lllood, Ptire AcitX and I'utaMh Salts. 

My works are always open for insj-ectlon to every oonoum. 
er of Fertilizers, 

Highest jireniium and medal of Honor awarded to mj 
Fertilizers by the Centennial Commission. Philadelphia, *T6. 

Send for new Spring Circular coutaiuitig full dirertionfl 
and testimonials. L. L. CKOCKKR, 

10-3-2m 252 Washington St., Uuffalo, N. T. 


Johnson's Anodyne Liniment will positively prevent thia 

terrible disease, and will positively cure nine cases in ten. 

Information that will save many lives sent freo by mall. 

Don't delay a moment. Prevention is belter than cur«. 

I. S. JOIENMON A CO., BnnK:or, Maine. 


1760. ESTABLISEED 1760. 


26 and 28 West King-st. 







Agents for th. 

" Ohio " Reaper and Mower, 
Whann'8 Phosphate, 
Fairbank's Scales, 
Dupont's Po'wder, 
Harrisburgr Nails, <fec., &o, 

W. hire tli« l.rgeat itock of general Hardware In Ol* 
State, and onr prices ar« aa low and terzna aa libaral ac otm 
be (ooad ekewUere. »-l-*. 



[April, 1878. 

My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and Flower Seed 
for 1878, rich in engravings, will be sent FKEE, to all who 
■PPly. C'ustomera of last aeaeon n fed not write for it. I 
•ffer one of the largest cnllfctioTB of vegetable seed ever 
•ent out by any seed house in America, a large portion of 
TThich were grown on my six seed fjirniP. Printed directioJVi 
/or eu/tivation on each package. AH seeds ^varranted to be 
fresh and trru to namr ; so far, that should it prove other- 
■wi«o / will refill the order gratis. New Vegetables a 
■pecialty. As the original introducer of the Hubbard 
Bqnash, Phinney'a Melon, Marblehead Cabbages, Mexican 
C&rn, I oflfer several new vegetables this season, and invite 
the patronage of a// w/tfi are anxious to have their seed di- 
rfcity/rctn the grower , fresh, true, and oj thf very best strain. 
»-li-4ml JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 


Henrj Eurtz'« Centennifkl and Hftrt ford Tobacco 
Seeds can be obtained by addressing the proprietor at 
Vomnt Joy, Pa., or the editor of The Tabmer, No. 101 
Worth Queen itre«t. Lancaster, Pa. Price, $1.00 per 
pAckasrc. The leaf of these Tobaccos were awarded a 
f remlvm at the Centennial Exposition in 1S76, 




Avtbor of " Listen to the Mocking Bird," " I'll sail the eeas 
CT«r," " "Wliat is Home without a Mother,'' etc., etc. 
*' Out of work, without a penny, 
Pleading hel before thy door, 
Without friends among the many — 
Look with pity on the poor." 
• , * One of the most touching and beautiful ballads ever 
written, will give the author a more extended popularity 
than anything she has ever written. Price 35 cents — or, 
illustrated title page 40 cents. 

For sale at all music stores, or will be sent postpaid on 
rtceipt of price by the i>ubliBher8, 

&-9 723 Chestnnt Street, Philadelphia. 



Mauufacturers and dealers in all kinds of rough and 

The best Sawed SHIlVGmA iu the country. Also Sash, 
Doors, Blinds, Mouldings, &c. 


and PATENT BLINDS, which are far superior to any 
other. Also best COAI. constantly on band. 


Sftrtheast Corner of Prince and Walnnt-sts., 



1823. SEND FOR 1878. 



The Best Religious and Secular Family News- 
paper. $3.15 a Year, post-paid. 
Established 1823. 



■»^*^T=t 1878, 

Contains full lists with descriptions, illustrations 

md i>rices of 




Benson, BuRPEE&Co 



(all the standard varieties and many choice novelties), Summer 
lud Autumn Bulbs. Plants, Small Fruits, Trees, Agricultural 
fmplemeute, and Bkoded Live Stock and Fancy Poultry. 
>(>nd your ndclress on a PoNtal Card and re- 
ceive a eopy by retnrn mall. 10 packages Choioo 
Flower Seeds for 25 cents. 

Our Novelties. 

We call special attention to our CAriFORNIA BROOM! 

CORN, an evergreen variety which does not require bend- 

ijig down. 

the beat market 


BAY VIEW HYBRID Jit t:LON afid the new Tomato— Red Cblcf. 
t3?~Send for Catalogue to 

BEITSOIT, BiraPEE & 00-, Seed Wareliouae , 223 011111011 St., PhiladelpMa. { 

|fiil3i:ripflia |Biiilfette. 

The Philadelphia Poudrette is an active, energetic, natu- 
ral manure, is soluble {like barn-yard manure) without the 
use of acids. It contains the soluble salta of plants, which 
have served as food. These elements are indiapensable to 
the development of cultivated crops, and in supplying 
these excrements to the soil, we return to it the constitu- 
ents which the crops have removed from it, and renew its 
capability of nourishing new crops. It la an invaluable 
manure for Tobaero and other plants requiring an early, 
healthy start, and rapid growth, maturing them from ten to 
fifteen dave earlier. The increasing demand and uniform ^ 
satiafactiou it has given on all crops duriug the past three 
years prove it a reliable fertilizer. A profitable and high de- 
gree of culture requires a liberal supply of manure. 
Circulars with testimonial can be had at the office of The 
IjaneaHter Farmer, and at 101 North Queen St. 



Price, $25 Per Ton, 

HIRAM E. LUTZ, Manufacturer. 




(Subject tojRepnblican Rules. Primary £leotion, 
Saturday, May 25, 1878,) 



mailed PREKto 

»11 applicanlj). Itcon-' ^^ ^ 

Uln. colored pl.le. 500 enpravInM -^ 

ftbout 150, »nd full descriptlonsT^ 

prlCM .Qd dlreetloDi for planting over 1200 ^~~~^ 

JlpieUe. of VejeUblo .nd Plower Seed,,,, EoM. IW. 

Uraliutile to .11. aendforlu iddr.M .■"•«•, »«i. 

D. M. TEBBT & CO., Detroit, Hidu 



Thoroughbred Short-Horn Cattle; 

Bred and For Sale by the undersigned. 


and at prices to suit the times. Herd open to iiapection by 
strangers at all times (Sundays excepted.) I will be pleased 
to show my herd to visitora, and any information in regard 
to the cattle will cheerfully be given, by letter, as desired. 

A. M. BANK, 
I .lO-S-ly] Blrd-in-Haud, Lsnoater oo., Pa. 


_ 'VciQr> fTo suV.scrilicrii in 
d 1 CctI :( the county. 


To nubacriljern out of 
tbe couuly. 

} $1.00 

Prof. S. S. EATEVON, E^tor. 


LINN5;US HATHVON, Publisher. 


ClnbbinK, - 65 

About Potatoes, ------- 65 

An Aged Apple, ------ 65 

Attraction Extraordinary, ----- 65 

About May, ------ - 65 

The Cat-Bird, ------- 6fi 

Somethine About Eels, ----- 66 

Queries and Answers, ----- 67 

Correspondence, ------ 67 

Late Planted Peachblows, - - - . 6K 

Revu of April Number, ----- 68 

The Mennonite lirass-Burner, - - - - 60 

PropoKating by Natural Selection, - - - 70 

Around the" Farm— No. 8, - - - - - 70 

Eureka Tree and Post Hole Digger, - - 71 

Garden Vegetables, ------ 71 

Letter from Iowa, ------ 71 

How Can Poultry be .Made Profitable to the 

Farmer? ------ 71 

The Improving of Varieties of Farm Crop<, - 7.3 

The Dairy Situation, ----- 74 

The State Millers' Association, - - - - 75 

Its Wholeaome iDfluence and Power — Incalculable 

Value iu Protection — Features of the AsHocia- 

tlou— The Officers. 


Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricul- 
- tural and Horticultural Society, - - - 75 
Best Time to Cut Graes for Hay — The Place of Meet- 
lug— The Visit to Groff's Farm— The Bee-Keep- 
ers- Business for Next Meeting. 

Tobacco Growers' Association, - - - - 76 
Report of Visitiug Committee — Reports on Crops — 
For Geueral Di8CUf*siou — Deferred Questions — 
New Busiuess. 

Bee-Keepers' Association, - - - - 77 
Reports — Questious Discussed. 

Linnsean Society, ------ 78 

Donations to the Museum — To the Library — Papers 
Read — Scientific Miscellany— New Busiuess — Con- 
tributions for Stock at $5 a Share. 
Corn Growing, ------ 78 

How to Plow, -------78 

Pop Corn as a Leading Crop, - - - 78 


The Culture of Cantaloupes, - - - 78 

Excessive Stimulation of Strawberries, - - 78 

Care of Young Fruit Trees, - - - . 78 

How to Make Trees Fruit Early, - - . 78 


Things Useful to Know, ----- 79 

Household Hints, ------ 79 

Potato Salad, ------- 79 

Flat Irons, ------- 79 

Renovating Black Silk, ----- 79 

How to Banish Rats, - - - - - 79 


Percentage of Cream and Butter, - - - 79 

To Relieve Choked Cattle, ----- 79 

Hints for Horse Owners, - - ' - - Jp 

Exterminating Lice, ------ 79 

Heaves, -------- 79 


Hens That Eat Eggs, " ' • " " P 
Leghorn Fowls, -------79 

Cooked Meat for Fowls, 79 

Charcoal for Poultry, ------ 79 

A 8502 Rooster, ------ 79 

Tarred Paper for Poultry Houses, - - - 79 

Literary and Personal, ----- 80 






Comer Sorth Queen and Orange Sts., 


Good all wool Business Suits from $I2 to $20 
Fine Cloth or Worsted Dress Suits, 15 to 20 
Fine Cassimere Pants, - - 4 to 10 

Fine Vests, - - - - -3 to 6 


and satisfaction guaranteed. 


And Furnishing Goods 

of all kinds, very cheap, Cottonades ae low as f2..'>0 a euit. 
Clothe, Cassimeres, Worst ings, Suitings, Coatiugs aud 
VeatingB in a full liue, and made promptly to order. 







Good Live Agents Wanted Everywhere, 
Novelty Dealers and the Trade sup- 
plied at reduced rates. 

Addreea all orders to tbe sole manufacturers, 


Brid^eitorl, Conuecticnt. 


The merits of this invention are at once appreciated by 
every Smoker; as by usiiiR this article (\vbich is as light 
aud jtortable us a cigar i all smokers can use the best tobacco 
at less tiaau one-teuth the expense of a poor cigar, dispeus- 
ing entirely with the cumbrouB aud unsightly pipes. 


Remove the mouth piece and piston, fill the tube half ful 
of smokiut; tobacco, insert the piston and mouth iiiece,aud 
light as you would an ordinary cignr. Samjilo by mail, 3© 

By Mall $1.50 Per Doz. By Espress $12.00 Per Gross. 

Clean the Interior Parts with a damp Rag 
when they become foul. 


ihUKAKK, huie liiiij elit-aj) ile>ii<i>ei' ur thv 

Currant \\ orni, und all Iimt-cU thai Prey 
■ on Vegi-iatlori. \\:i:n»nied tu kill Kivh 
^ liuos where 1 ar!s(.rcen kills ()NK,>eilt 
Is sAKKi; TO ri>K, and la nut Injurious to 
,^ plants. CosieonlyiV. t(.7ic.iMTarre. J-m 
box sent free by mall forS^c. Send for circular wiib 
hundreds of testlnKinlals. 

Our Cabba^;**. Worm Dmtroyer 

Is NOT AT ALL I'lHSdMUSi. lnU SUTI- dcaill In IIiC WDrm 
Sarnpli? for trial Bent free on r celpt of 15 lerila. 
i'osTAOH Stami's Acc'EPTEi). PtBcouiit lo thc Trudc. 


ke.\r>;f.v cuemu al wokks. 1. 1;. dev. Agcm 
'. o. Box 3139. Oiticc, w t'ortlandt St.. New i oric 


pictures of actreHsea and piuf;.'r8 sent for lu oenti. 
National Monthtv, Washington, D, ('. 

A FARMER, a Farmer's Son or DannMer. 

Taking Orders for five of Nellie' Haiipoon Hi)BhB Uat 
Forks and Fixtures will (in addition to the profits), re- 
eeive fbBe a complete ri^- of NelUs' Fork and Tatent Con- 
veyor, for depositing Hay or Straw in mow or on ataok. 
Also manufactures Nnt Shell flay Carrier, Pulleys and 
Grapples, Agt'l Steels, Nellis' Cast Tool Steel Oaatlnga, * 
(Plow-Bhares from this steel can be welded, worked into 
chisels or edged tools.) Ornamental Fencings for public 
grounds, cemeteries, or farms. Paiaphlets free. 
10-5-lm A. J. NELLIS h CO., Pittsburg, Pa. 




A Domestic Jewel that will last a life-time. 


Does away with the Inconveniences- 
connected with other Graters. 

ItB coiistnictiou commends itnctr to tbo public, aod all 
the leading Kitcheu FuruiBhiug Houees Rpeak of it iu the 

liigbeBt terms. 


Most Simple, Most Dur,^ble, and Most_Re- 

liable invention ever offered to the 



Dir<>clion!4 — Take tbe grater in tbe left hand, palui 
towards you, with your third finger through thi- hiindle 
place tbo thumb on the apring-Iever, remove the fe«der and 
insert the nut. 

Price to Agents $1.75 Per Dozen 

Good lA\e A|cciit)« Wunlod Everywhere. 

All orders should be addressed to 

c. B. XHOiyii>soi\r, 

Muiiufucturer's Sole A^'ent. 

Also Dealer & Maiif r. of Patent No?elties, &c. 





1 Trains leave the Dei 



)ot iu this city, 

2:40 a. m. 

4:50 a. m. 

9.35 a. m. 

7:20 p. m. 
11:20 a. m. 
11:30 a. m. 
11:20 a. m. 

2:10 p. m. 

2:15 p. m. 

6:00 p. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

7:25 p. m. 

9:25 p.m. 
11:30 p. m. 

12:30 a. m. 

4:10 a. m. 

7:35 a. m. 

9.28 p. m. 

1:20 p. m. 

2:00 p. m. 

3:05 p.m. 

5:18 p. m. 

5:50 p. m. 


as follows : 



4:05 a. m. 

7:50 a. m. 

10:40 a. m. 

Col. Accommodation 

Mail train via Sit. Joy 

Col. 8:00 p. m 
1:00 p. m. 
1:25 p. m. 

1:30 p. lu. 

Fast Line" 

Frederick Accommodation. 

3:25 p. m. 

Col. 2:45 p. m. 

8:10 p. m. 

Columbia Accommodation.. 

Harrisburg Express 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express* 


Col. 8:00 p. m. 
8:40 p. m. 
10:50 p. m. 
12:45 a. m. 

3:00 a. m. 

Philadeljibia Expresat 

Harrisburg Express 

Columbia Accommodation.. 

7:00 a. m. 
10:00 a. m. 
12:30 p. m. 

5:00 p. m. 

Johnstowu Express 

Day Express* 

Harrisburg Accom 

6:00 p. m. 
7:20 p. m. 
9:00 p. m. 

The Hanover Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., and wlU run 
through to Hauover. 

The Fredej-ick Accommodation, west, connects at Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. m.. and rims to Frederick. 

The Pacific Express, east, on Suuday, when flagged, will 
Btop at Middletown, Elizabethtowu, Mount Joy and Landis- 

*Tlie only trains which run daily. 

IRuus daily, excei^t Monday. 

Rates «f AclTertising: in tbe Fanner. 

1 mo.... 

2 ni».... 

3 mo 

4 n>o 

6 m« 

8 mo 

1 year. 

1 in. 

2 00 


$ 2.00 


3 in. 

$ 3.00 







4 in. 

$ 4.90 
8. OS 
10. 00 
IS. 00 

J 6.00 $ 8.00 
12.00 16.00 

IS, 00 

72 00 

ffV^''~SKeci:'l and but^iuess notices 15 cents j-er line 


The Century CI art. 

A 100-year Almauac, whereby you cau ascertaiu what day 
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1900, or in what day any event haa taken place, from 1799 
. to 1900, and 1000 other occurreuces. The greatest in- * 
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'•^ great Egyptian Puzzle. Sport for all. Either article S 
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your town at once. You can make $20 per week. Send for 

KOOXS BRO'S, Sovflty fi a!pr ; 

mo and 102 Washiugtoc St., CHICAC40. 




Plain and Fine Harness, 





Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, G-loves, &c., 
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Half Dozen for 






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P U L M O N A 

is beyond comjiarisou the best remedy for the cure of CON- 

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Address OSCAR G.MOSES, Sole Proprietor, 18 Cortlandt 
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Sewing Machine 

1- — Makes 2l perfect lock stich, alike on. both sides, on ali 
kimh 0/ goods. 

a.— Runs Light, Smooth, Noiseless and Rapid, 

3. — DuKABLK —Runs /or years without Repair. 

4. — iVili do all iiarieties 0/ Work and Fancy Stitching in 
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5. — \% Most Easily managed hy the operator. Length of 
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threaded without passing thread through holes. 

G. — Dhsign Simple, Ingenious, Elegant. Forming the 
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7. — CoNSTnucTioN mo;,t careful ATid Finished. It is manu- 
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the celebrated KEMIXGTO:V 4 RMORY. Hioii, W. 
Y. Attention is called to .our greatly reduced prices. 

8. — I'he No. 2 Remington Machine for Manufacturing and 
Family use has been recently improved . and is offered to the 
public with the assurance that it will give entire satisfaction. 



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paths marked out by that 
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■^".1 (5 per cent.) commisssiou 
Cheese. E G G K. P O U B>- i 
T K Y, Lard, Talliow. Feath- 
ers. Potatoes, A P FliES, ( 

Flour, Feed, Fur, Hide-, Wool^ 

, ^ Peanuis, Bi'oom Corn, Dried Fruit, 

Hay, llups. &!;., he. 'l^aberal casli advaiieeN made 
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VERY i OWEST PRKE "S^^l.'o. 

B, (free aboard cars) at your nearest shipjnng point. Also, 
if possible, send sample by mail; if too bulky, by freight. 



Commission & Shipping IVIerchants, 

321 and 346 >'ortli Water Street, 


We are now selling 

Uew Pianos for S125 

Each, and all styles, including Grand. Sqnnre and Up- 
rig-ht, all new and strictly CirHl-elasM, at the lowest 
net caNh wholestale factory prices, direct to the 

No Agents; no commisiions ; no discounts. Pianos for 
5200, containing 


New Patent Luplez Overstrung Scale, 

which is without question the greatest improvement ever put 
into a Square Piano, producing the most astonishing poiuer, 
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AuEWTbera! terms 

Monthly. Washington, 

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" Unquestionably tliie S>pst snHtained work 
ot t^ieUsndin theWorli!.'^ 


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Grape and Seedling Nursery, 
I0-2-4m] WINONA, Columbiana County, Ohio, 


The Lancaster Farmer. 

Prof. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 

LANCASTEPx, PA., MAY, 1878. 

Vol. X, No. 5. 

We ofter The Faumek, clubbed witli other 
first-class iniblications, at the following prices : 

r/irciioloi/icitl Journal ami F.iUMEU - ?'.! 00, $.'..50 

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National Liiv Slock Journal Ai\A.Vk\n\v.v. H.OO, 2.50 

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Friendi Journal ami F.\ii.mer - - . ."..50, S.OO 

The first column indicates the rcgidar 
prices of the two journals respectively, and 
the second column the club rates, if the two 
are ordered together. 

" Circumstances alter cases, " as a general 
rule, nevertheless, there are occasionally 
"hard cases" which no circumstances can 
alter. But it is not with that we have 
to do in these remarks. The contribution of 
A. B. G., in another place in this number of 
The Faiimer, on early and late planting of 
potatoes, recalls one or two very peculiar ex- 
periences we had thirty-five or forty years ago. 
On one occasion we planted a lot in potatoes 
in the month of May — neither too early nor 
too late — and we realised the best crop and 
the largest tubers of anj' one in the town 
where we lived, in season, and the fol- 
lowing are the circumstances that altered the 
case. The seed consisted of "small pot.atoes," 
planted whole. The se.ason was a remarkably 
dry one, and adil to this the fact, that from 
certain causes, that were beyond our control, 
we were unable to give thena much cultiva- 
tion. We hired some boys to hoe and weed 
them, but they did the work very imperfectly, 
for in a short time the whole enclosure be- 
came overgrown with rank weeds, and, singu- 
lar enough, the weeds seemed to be the only 
vegetation in the lot that showed any special 
thrift, and the potato toivs became entirely 
hidden by them. The drougth was so very 
severe, just at the period too when potatoes 
need moisture, that, of course, we expected 
np potatoes. In the fall a neighbor proposed 
to dig them out "on the halves," to which we 
readily assented. The result surprised us, it 
also agreeably surpri.sed our neighbor, and 
everybody else who saw it. It is true the crop 
was only an ordinary one, but it was extra- 
ordinary when compared with the crops of 
others, for there was no "[latch" of the same 
area in the town, or perhaps in the township, 
that produced such a yield, either in quantity 
or quality. The qualifying circumstances 
were these : The weeds overshadowed tlie 
ground and prevented the evaporation of the 
moisture, and that altered the case ; but, of 
course, it would never do to let rank weeds 
grow, per se, in order to secure a crop of pota- 
toes. On another occasion the season was an 
exceeding wet one, and we put the same lot 
in potatoes, from fine large seed, which had 
been brought down the Susquehanna, on an 
ark, from "York State." The stone-coal 
ashes from three sliups, on the lot, were dis- 
tributed pretty thickly over the lower end, 
■where the ground was also low ; indeed, in 
some places the seed were covered entirely 
with ashes. The yield in the fall was large 
on the whole enclosure, but the jiotatoes 
there, and also elsewhere, rotted in the ground. 
But on that part of the lot which received the 
coal ashes, there was not only an abundant 
yield, but a fine and healthy one. Xone 
of the potatoes rotted, either in the ground, 
or after they had been taken out of it. In 
that part of the lot which received no ashes 
the potatoes were embedded in solid earth, 

and they left their impre.ssions in it as clear 
and distinct as if they had been enveloped in 
a plaster of Paris mould, and the one-third, 
or one-half of every tuber was black with the 
"rot." The modifying circumstances which 
altered this ease, we appreliend, were 
The healthy development of the tuber of the 
potato re<iuires a medium (pianlity of mois- 
ture at a certain period of its growth. It also 
requires air, but little or no light. The 
ash soil permitted the excess of moisture 
either to pass off by evaporation or to pass 
downward, and thus prevented unhealthy 
saturation, and it also admitted air. 
conditions were neutralized by the super- 
abundant moisture at other places, and also 
the want of air. Although this case may 
illustrate the value of coal ashes in mellowing 
the soil in a very wet season, yet it does not 
indicate their absolute necessity under other 
more favorable circumstances. 

At best, these exi)eriences are merely em- 
pyrical, and inculcate no general principles in 
the cultivation of the potato ; nevertheless, 
they may shadow forth, or faintly hint what 
might be, or what ought to be done under 
similar contingencies. The potato crop is 
often destroyed, or the quality of the tuber is 
marred by too much or too little moisture and 
heat at a particular period of development. 
In the same season it often occurs that those 
planted early make a good crop, both in 
quantity and quality, whilst those planted 
late may be a total failure. The reverse of 
this is also as frequently the case. It has 
also occurred that very early and very late 
planting have matured good crops, whilst the 
intermediate plantings have failed, and the 
converse of this has also occurred. But still, 
these results are Ijy no means arliitrary, but 
are the effects of existing causes, which we 
have failed to recognize or comprehend. Of 
course, we can exercise no control over either 
a wet or a dry season — we cannot stop the 
rain when we have enough of it ; neither can 
we compel it to rain when we greatly need it. 
We might overcome some of the evil efl'ects of 
the former by drainage or absorbents, and of 
the hitter by irrigation, if we just knew be- 
forehand that these contingencies would super- 
vene, but our knowledge of meteorology is 
yet too limited to reach any safe conclusions 
upon tlie subject, except, perhaps, in a few of 
the most simple cases. 


To-day, May Gth, Mr. L. S. Heist placed in 
oin- hands an apide of the crop of 187(5, which, 
from all external appearance, might remain 
in a sound condition a year or two longer. It 
seemed to be a sort of "Busset," and was as 
solid and unspecked as when it was first 
gathered from the tree, and retained in a re- 
markable degree its apple flavor. 

Mr. B. obtained it from Mr. .Joseph Eby, 
of Hothsville, Warwick twp., in this county, 
who states that thirty years .ago Mr. Frederick 
Swope, of Leacock twp., had grafts sent to 
him of a "hasting winter apple," but the 
name it was known by then has become lost, 
and it is now offered for a re-name. 

We would respectfully refer the subject to 
the Agricultural and Horticultural .Society ; 
and as Mr. Swope seems to have been the first 
propogator of it in the county, so far as we 
have any positive information, we would sug- 
gest "6'(('o;)o".s- ia,--(i'»f/." There are many va- 
rieties of the api)le — and good varieties too — 
"laying around," in different parts of 
the county, without a name ; except, perhaps, 
some local name not known outside the fami- 
lies of those who pos.sess them. And, when 
these are oll'ered "for a name" at the meet- 
ings of the local society, very often they are 
not even noticed iu the proceedings. Now 

tliis, to us, seems to be all wrong. In a pro- 
gressive as.sociation that which is unknown by 
a distinctive title ought to be as important an 
obj(>ct of its solicitude as that which is already 
known. Such societies should have a conijie- 
teut, responsible and aggressive committee on 
nomenclature, and new or unknown fruits 
submitted to them should be recognized, and 
named at once, iit least provisionally, " with- 
out fear, favor or afl'ection." 


The Art Exhibition and Liunaan .Museum, 
now open at the Hall of the Y. M. C. A., No. 
22 South (^uecn street, in Lancaster city, is 
the finest exhibition of the kind that has ever 
been presented to the public of our county, 
and we would advise all our readers to go 
and see it on their visits to the city. The 
three stories of the building are entirely occu- 
Iiied by rare work of nature and art, and no 
one can examine them and go away without 
being in some way informed or benefited, for 
it presents a feast to the mind of man that inci- 
dentally must benefit his body As this 
exhiliition in its jircsent collective form will 
oidy be kejit open for one week yet, go and see 
it immediately. 

The I>inua'an Museum on the .'?d story will, 
however, bo permanently open to the public, 
under such rules as may hereafter be announ- 



The first of May, 1878, (May-day,) goes on 
record as niarvelously fine ; fully realizing the 
most i)oetic idea of our youthful days. A 
beautiful first of May had, of late years, so 
far resolved itself into a myth that the august 
fathers, who direct our school system, had 
long since entirely ignored it and changed 
"May-day" to the first of .luiie, which the 
present year seems likely to throw into the 
lap of harvest — hay-harvest at least. 

Mai) is not derived from Maia, the mother 
of *Mercury — according to the usual, or com- 
mon idea — because the word existed long be- 
fore either Mercury or Maia had been intro- 
duced. It is from the Latin Maius, i. e. Mii'jus, 
which is from the root 3I(uj, the same as the 
Sanskrit Mith, to grow, and means the grow- 
ing or shooting month. The Roman youths — 
according to Polydore Vergil — used to go into 
the fields and spend the Calends of Jilay in 
dancing and singing, in honor of Flora, god- 
dess of fruits and tlowers ; and from this cus- 
tom the English, and our May-day, was de- 
rived, but we have seen our " youths and 
maidens" shivering around a stove on that 

Kitchen-Garden Calender. 

In the Middle States, during the past month , 
some of the hardier vegetables have been 
sown, and by the middle of the present one 
all will have been put in ; hence the labor will 
now mainly consist of tlu' various operations 
of transplanting, thinning, weeding, hoeing, 
iVic. Tlie following alphabetical directions 
will serve as a reminder to the uni)racticed 
gardener, who is also referred to the directions 
lor April. 

Beans, Bush, jilant for succession ; Lima, 
Carolina, and other pole-beans may now be 
planted. Ilrdu, long, sow. Cabbaye, i)lant ; 
sow seed if not done last month. Cupskum 
(pepper), i)lant. Carrot, long orange, sow. 
Caulijiotcrr, in frames, remove gla.sses. Celery, 
weed ; crops which have failed when first 
sown repeat .sowings. Cuntntber, early frame, 
plant. Lettuce, Large Cabbage, and India and 
Dutch-Butter, sow in drills to stand ; thin out 
if too thick. Melons, plant ; of the Water, 

'Rev. S. Cobtum Brewer, 




Icing or Ice-rind is tlie best. Parsncps, thin 
out, if ready. 

AVeeds, destroy as tliey appear, and hoe and 
otherwise cultivate the advancing crops ; it is 
needless to particularize each duty. Where 
the interest and taste lead to gardening, 
directions for every opcralrion are necessary to 
but few. It is not, however, discreditable to 
the character of many farmers who till their 
own land, and should reap the reward of well- 
cultivated gardens, that none but the simplest 
vegetables may be found upon their tables, 
and in too many instances that scanty supply 
is the result of women's labor. 

We have in former issues recommended a 
"Farmers' Kitchen-Garden," where nearly 
all the preparation of the land may be done by 
horse-power, and thus most ample supplies of 
vegetables be obtained in all seasons without 
hand labor or occupation of time, which may 
not be readily spared from farm duties, and 
the women of the household be relieved from 
toiling to supply household wants. — LandretlVs 
Rural Beyister. 

General Suggestions. 

There are two classes of acute observers — 
those who see clearly through the profoundest 
mysteries, and those who see mysteries in the 
clearest and simplest things. Perhaps the 
latter class is the most numerous. The in- 
valid, whose diet consists of the richest and 
most unwholesome viands, has been heard to 
wonder at the strange ])rovidence which has 
allotted to him painful days and sleepless 
nights. The man who is not diligent in his 
business meditates on the unfathomable de- 
cree which has assigned him to a life of 
poverty and disappointment. The proud 
mother, who has exposed her delicate little 
ones to the changeful weather with insuflicient 
clothing, that white skin and dimples might 
be admired, wonders at the incomprehensible 
bereavement over which she mourns. But 
these differences or conditions are due mainly 
to a lack of some practical information on 
subjects of the highest vital importance. 
Most of the " mysteries" people puzzle them- 
selves about would be dissolved by the study 
of the plain principles of physiology and 
phrenology. Children should be instructed in 
the principles of anatomy, physiology and 
hygiene, so that they will "be enabled early in 
life to avoid the many agencies and occasions 
of sickness and disease. It is every parent's 
duty to see that children are set in the right 
way for taking care of themselves in body as 
well as in mind. 

Some of us are not in favor of eating oysters 
and other shell-lish which are deemed by 
epicures as now out of season. Suap-beans or 
"German wax" make a better stew, accord- 
ing to our notion, than any of the mollusks or 
Crustacea. One who knows, says tliat tliey 
are grand with green corn (succotash) .string 
beans, or as a relish, with potatoes. They 
are good with oatmeal cake, excellent with 
rye and Indian bread. 

Set out plenty of tomato plants ; there is no 
danger of having too many of them. — Phren. 
Health Al. 

All of which is very good advice, and to the 
point, although we think that the ailments 
and afflictions alluded to do not occur so much 
from a lack of knowledge as from obedience to 
the principles inculcated by sound wisdom 
and discretion. 


One of our most birds, and one which 
BhouUl rauli in our affections along with the blue- 
bird and robin, is the cat-bird. But unfortunately be 
is the subject of very general prejudice, not merely 
on account of his undeniable propensity to steal 
cherries, but also because many persons dislike the 
cat-like notes which be utters on certain occasions. 
But if he is to be condemned to persecution on ac- 
count of these failings, we must also consider that 
he is worse than the robin and mocking-bird only 
from his greater abundance ; and when we enlist our 
thoughts in his favor and consider his confident 
familiarity with us, his graceful form, playful man- 
ners, and interesting song, we may readily forgive 
all his shortcomings. Though distinguished by his 
song, which, notwithstanding its frequent interrup- 
HOBS by imitations, is eminently original in style, it 

is, however, his manners which commend him to our 
notice. There is scarcely an orchard in the land, 
from the Atlantic coast to the western base of the 
Rocky Mountains, and from the Gulf of Mexico to 
the Britsh Provinces, which is not enlivened by the 
presence of one or more pairs of cat-birds ; and very 
incomplete an American orchard would seem with- 
out them. At all hours of the day his cheerful song 
may be heard from among the green boughs of an 
apple tree ; and when the heat of the midday sun 
tells him that a bath would be refreshing, be comes 
and splashes in the wash-basin at the back-door in 
the most perfect civilized style. And then when we 
return his familiarity, and, uninvited, intrude upon 
his own household, wc cannot but admire the courage 
with which he remonstrates and defemls his home. 
And then, too, his trim, graceful form, plain but 
neat dress, and bright, easy manner still further 
tend to win our esteem. 

The song of the cat-bird is one which, though 
vigorous and pleasing, we cannot ourselves admire, 
though we admit our liability to error of judgments 
as of other things, and may through bad taste do 
him injustice. But in our assumed ofBce of critic it 
is our duty to speak truthfully and plainly, and dis- 
claiming any iutentiou of disparaging the qualities 
or cultivation of his voice, we will proceed in the 
performance of our task. His song has sufiBcient 
vigor, for he is untiring in his efforts to please us ; 
and it has strength enough, for he is ever ambitious 
to make his voice conspicuous in the morning chorus ; 
and we occasionally catch snatches of soft and sweet 
notes, or he even now and then manages to execute 
some very brilliant passage. But should the latter 
be the case, he seems himself astonished, though 
evidently well pleased, for he pauses as if awaiting 
for and expecting applause. In his performance 
there is too muchdeliberiition, and the general effect 
is that he is merely practicing, during which he at 
times gets tired of his own voice, and substitutes 
other sounds which he has heard. These he imitates 
with tolerable success, but we must say that the 
squeal of a young pig, the squeaking of a hing, or 
the squall of a cat— sounds which he affects more 
than the notes of songsters— are a harsh interruption 
to a song which might otherwise be pleasing. — 
llarper's Magazine for May. 

It is not very easy to determine whether the 
foregoing is an appreciation or a depreciation 
of the character and qualities of the cat-bird. 
But, perhaps, after all, it is about as much as 
any one can say, pro and con, in regard to the 
economies and social status of his cat-voiced 
birdship ; only we think that, both positively 
and negatively, the testimony might have 
been more pronounced. We have heard cat- 
birds mimicing the notes of other birds — es- 
pecially towards an early summer evening, or 
after a shower of rain — whose notes were only 
a little inferior tothoseof the "mocking-bird." 
If these mimicing efforts are admirable in a 
mocking-bird, they are surely none the less so 
in a cat-bird. But, leaving out his beneficial 
and neutral qualities, the cat-bird is a positive 
nuisance to those who cultivate the Delaware 
and Clinton grapes. Insectivorous they cer- 
tainly are in the sjsring and diu'ing the brood- 
ing season, but somehow those broods, so 
carefully reared on worms, grubs and insects, 
are inoculated with a strong penchant for 
fruit in the after part of summer and early 
autumn, as we are able to unmistakably 
testify ; and we make the record merely as a 
historical fad, and without intending any- 
thing prejudicial to the bird. 

Our residence is only five blocks from the 
very centre of Lancaster city, and the street 
is built up solidly for several blocks beyond 
us ; and yet as long as we had Clinton grapes 
on our premises, from the moment they began 
to ripen until the crop was entirely exhausted, 
our vines were daily visited by scores of cat- 
birds, and so fastidious in their gastronomica! 
tastes, too, that they were satisfied with no- 
thing short of the very best berries on the 
vines, and in this way they marred the beauty 
and the quality of every cluster. It was no- 
thing to the that there were'plenty of 
other grapes in close proximity ; but no, they 
muat have the Clintons and Delawares, espe- 
cially the former. They could not be friglit- 
ened far away, neither, by "beating the 
bush," nor the discharge of firearms; ^hey 
would retire about six inches or more beyond 
the limits of the enclosure, only to return as 
soon as our back was turned. On one occa- 
sion we were compelled to remove all the 
grapes, even before all were fully ripe, for we 
had fourteen cat-bird visitors daily. They 

perched themselves on trees in the neighbor- 
hood and watclied the process. Afterwards 
they returned to the vines, but when they 
found them minus the grapes, such a sarcastic 
and catlike wail of contempt no cat-birds ever 
uttered beft)re, and then they left with undis- 
guised disgust and never more returned— the 
vines being subsequently exterminated. 



Very few eels are ever caught that, when 
opened, contain any eggs — even by old and 
experienced fishermen — and hence it is often 
asked : How do eels propagate ? And, indeed, 
many people do not believe that they ever de- 
velop eggs, but that they are propagated in 
some manner unknown to science, and with- 
out the intervention of eggs. We confess that 
we never saw what we considered the well- 
defined eggs of an eel until to-day (April 12), 
although we had often been assured by com- 
petent authority that they do produce eggs. 
But we supposed that if ever we found them 
we would find them very minute— something 
like the spawn of an oyster. 

To-day, however, Mr. John Wohr, of 526 
South Queen St., Lancaster, brought us an eel, 
about afoot long, which he caught in the Little 
Conestoga yesterday, and which contained 
quite a number of eggs (fully 100), as large 
and as i-ound as the eggs of the common shad. 
These eggs are enveloped in a tubidar matrix, 
adhering to the back-bone, and extending 
from the liver nearly to the vent. These eggs 
are not enveloped in a thin, transparent ovari- 
an membrane, through which they can be 
seen, as in other fishes, and also in fowls, but 
in a tubular receptacle, with thick, opaque, 
whitish muscular walls ; and hence we have 
designated it the matrix, or an organ repre- 
senting it. Further examination may develop 
further fticts on the subject. Mr. W. had re- 
moved the skin of the fish, and in disembowl- 
ing it he made an accidental incision in the 
matrix, and to his own astonishment exposed 
the eggs, some of which he had broken open 
in the operation. Some of these eggs are 
translucent, and others are of tliat dark green- 
ish color pecular to the eel, seemingly ap- 
proaching incubation. Although this dis- 
covery confirms an important fact, still it does 
not determine whether the eel is really ovi- 
parous, viviparous or ovovivijiarous ; that is, 
whether the eggs are excluded, as in other 
fishes, and hatch out afterwards, or whether 
the young are excluded from the eggs within 
the matrix, and brought forth alive. Their 
appearance seems to imply the latter. 

Eels, it is well known, are generally migra- 
tory in their habits, but differing from other 
migratory fishes as to their seasons ; that is, 
the young ascend the streams in the spring, 
and'the adults descend the streams in the 
fall, exactly the reverse of the habit of the 
shad. This recalls an observation we made 
in our boyhood, many years ago, and long 
before we had read "Yarrel (or an/ other 
author) or knew that such authorities were 
in existence. On one occasion we ob.served 
millions of young eels, varying in size from 
two to three inches in length, ascending the 
Susquehaiuia river; and it is well known that 
millions of those fishes were caught in that 
stretim, in fish-traps, as they descended it in 
the fall ; and this was especially the case be- 
fore the erection of the various dams, but it is 
more or less the case even down to the present 
time. The event itself is iudelibly impressed 
upon our memory, but we cannot fix the date, 
any father than that it was in the spring, 
about the time boys usually "go fishing," and 
therefore may have been some time during 
the mouth of 'May, or early in June. We ob- 
served tliem from tlie outer margin of a log 
raft (the inner margin of wliich was "high and 
dry," lying on the sandy beach), where the 
water was about six inches deep and very 
clear. As far out into the stream as our vision 
could extend there was a vast multitude of 
young eels, coming up over a ledge of rock on 
the bottom of the stream, like an army of 
.soldiers scaling the ramparts of a fort, and 
they continued to come from about ten o'clock 




in the morning until tlm^e or four o'clook in 
llic evening, but how much earlier or later, or 
for how many days, is more tlian we can say. 
Strange to say, not even the oldest inhabitant 
in tlie town in whieh we lived, had ever wit- 
nessed the phenonienen (some disbelieved our 
report), nor have we ever met a person from 
that time down to the present who had "ever 
seen tlie like ;" and, liad we not captured 
about halt a dozen of the "little jokers" in a 
net improvised out of our pocket liandcrchief, 
and read Yarrel's description of the ascent of 
young eels up the river Thames, we might 
probably have doubted it ourself. Varrel says 
that multitudes of these young eels are cap- 
tured in the Thames every spring and sold as 
luxuries to the rich epicures of the great 

The fact that eels migrate semi-annually up 
and down the Susquelianna and other rivers, 
does not militate against anotlier fact, that 
there are varieties or distinct species which 
are local in our iionds, dams and interior 
streams, and the present subje(^t seems to 
imply that they breed in the streams and 
other localities in which they are found. These 
observations illustrate how very slow and 
difficult is the development of all the facts of 
natural history, and yet we often lind our- 
•selvcs jumping at conclusions, based entirely 
upon theory, and without a single fact to sus- 
tain them. We well remeniljer, when we 
were a boy, how abrui)tly we were "snubbed" 
because we stated that the vinegar we brought 
home was full of "worms." We could not 
l»l,ace it in the exact position in which we saw 
the worms, and it was many years after be- 
fore we were able, by the aid of the micro- 
scope, to demonstrate that our youthful as- 
sertion was founded on truth. 


Hi;mpfiei,I), Api-il 10, 1S78. 
Mr. S. S. Ratiivon — Dear tiir : Enclosed you will 
find on part of a tobacco leaf a brood, wbich I would 
like to know what it is. If you can, please let me 
know. — Yours respectfully, Ucnry .V, U'itmcr, Iknip- 
Jidd P. 0., Lancaiitcr couuty, J\i. 

The above came to hand just after our 
April number had gone to ])ress, or it would 
have been answered in that number. It is 
impossible to answer the queries of our corres- 
pondents liy special letter, unless it is on a 
matter relating to tlieni and us alone. The 
answer of this inquiry is a mattiT of puVilic 
interest, especially to tobacco growers, and as 
we are "set" for the instruction of the peo- 
■ pie, we speak to them through the columns of 
Tns Farjier. 

We can assure II. M. W. that he need en- 
tertain no anxiety about tlie "brood " whieh 
he found on a leaf of his tobacco, for they are 
friends and not enemies. Observant totx'icco 
growers will have noticed during the "worm- 
ing" season an occasional worm covered witli 
small white, brown or yellow follicles, about 
the size and shape of an ordinary grain of 
rice, and from .511 to ItlO in number. These 
have been spun with tine silk into a regularly 
f(u-nied cocoon by the larva; of a small clear- 
winged fly, known under the name of 
Miciogaster amtjreyata, Ijelonging to the jiara- 
sitic family of " Ichneumon tlies. " The little 
fly deposits its eggs in or on the bodies of said 
worms, and as soon as the little parasites are 
batched trom these little eggs, they innnedi- 
'ately burrow into the bodies oi' these "worms," 
and feed on the fatty substance of their 
bodies. As soon as the little larvie have 
reached maturity thej' come out of the bodies 
of tlieir host and si>in the little white or bull 
cocoons lirst alluded to. Within the follow- 
ing week or ten days the young flies come 
forth and go thnuigli the .same process ; and 
thus they go on in the "even tenor of their 
way," producing a number of broods, until 
their further progress is ended by the cold 
weather of fall. Now, in order to jierpetuate 
themselves, and bridge over the long, cold 
winter, the last broods do not spin their co- 
coons on tlie bodies of the tobacco worm, but 
on some other substance, where they hibernate 
until the following summer. 

These little parasites, however, also infest 
other caterpillars than of the tobacco 
worm, hut tlie latter especially become the 
victims of their infestations ; and here we 
would rejieat the advice we have freipu'utly 
given on former occasions, namely, that wluiu 
a tobacco worm, a grape, or tomato, or any 
other kind of worm is found with the cocoons 
of this parasite U|)on it, it should not be dis- 
turbed, for there is no danger that it will ever 
be developed into a moth. This course will 
allow the parasites to develop, and thus in- 
crease their numbers. If there is a worm on 
the tobacco plant these little Hies will be sure 
to lind it, even if it should elude the notice of 
the tobacco cultivator. It is a matter of life 
or death to them, and not one of merely dol- 
lars and cents, and although we are likely 
enough to be vigilant wliere the latter is in- 
volved, yet in a matter involving tlie former, 
we may infer any subject would be still more 
vigilant ; especially when guided by that in- 
stinct which often far surpasses the highest 
manifestations of human reason. 

CnKiSTiANA, .5lh Mo. (ith, 1878. 

Prof. S. S. Rathvon — Esteftned Friend: Please, 
tbrouj^h llie medium of your excellent paper, give 
tbe uamc and character of the iuclosed specimens. — 
Yours, etc-., G. U. ir. 

The specimens came safely to hand, and 
consisted of three small chi|is of the liark of a 
tree or shridi, upon which had been deposited 
about two hundred eggs of a Ilemipetroiis in- 
sect, apparently belonging to the family 
Reduviid-i; — a family wbich contains some 
of our most eflicient insect friends. We only 
found time to-day to examine the contents of 
the box which inclosed the eggs, and when 
we opened it we found that about one hun- 
dred of the young insects had emerged from 
them. We "cannot always determine the 
species of insects from eggs alone, nor yet 
from immature specimens, especially when 
they are only a day or two old ; indeed, from 
such undeveloped data we cannot always de- 
termine the ycnus, and sometimes not even 
the famihj. Judging from the appearance, 
however, we should icfer them to the genus 
Jlc'hirius, and they probably arc the li. raptor, 
an insect which has been known to destroy 
the larvcC of the "Colorado potato beetle." 
We do not think, therefore, tliat you need 
entertain any fears about the destructive 
habits of these insects, for even if they are 
not what we think they are, they are an allied 
species, genus or family. If they do not de- 
vour other insects the}' feed on some wild 
species of vegetation. These little in.sects 
have a little black head ami thorax, a small, 
red abdomen, long and slender black legs, and 
long, black antenna", at the outer 
end ; characters which also distinguish the 
infant state of Lijgaeus aulicvs and tnrcirus, 
which infest the Asricjiiiis, or wild cotton. 
All of these insects hibernate in the winter 
and deposit on vegetation in the spring or in 
the previous autumn. 

3fr. E. K. II., Cre^noeU.—The small, black 
insects on the cherry leaves you submitted to 
our inspection, are the "cherry aphis," or 
"" of the cherry {Aphis cerassi). 
If the whole tree is infested the same as the 
few leaves you submitted to us, you have not 
only tlie huiie but also the unlklatr, for we 
counted thirteen specimens of the larva' of a 
species of .S'!(rji'ii'.----fly. feeding right vigorously 
upon them. Wo do not think we shall he 
able to develop the fly. because from the man- 
ner in which they gobble up the aphids, we do 
not think we shall have provender enough to 
last them for half a day. Some leaves had 
from two to three of these Stirjilixs larva' upon 
them : therefore, we do not think a better 
remedy for the destruction of the aphids need 
be, or c'lii be, reconiracnded. 

Mr. H. M. E., Marietta, Pa.— Your peach 
leaves are infested by the " peach aphis," or 
"plant" of the peach (Aptiis prr.sica), 
but, unfortunately, we detected no Siirphus 
larva; among them, therefore your case is 

more precarious than the above. Drenching 
them with a tobacco decoction or a solution 
of wiiale-oil soap would bo an extinguisher, 
but heavy rain.s would also destroy inany of 

The mild past winter was very friendly to 
the insect world, and licnce, until the natural 
checks iiave an ojiportunily to operate against 
them, we may expect a redundancy of the 
noxious kinds. If we could only ctdiuiize the 
"Willow Wrens" as easily as we can the 
" English Sjiarrows," they would soon " make 
way" with the aphids. 

Mr. If. W. (I., Lnnrnxter, Pa.— In refer- 
ence to the gastronomical habits of the family 
Canii),i:, Dr. (iodman (p. HW, A. X. 11.) 
.says: "Their food varies acconling to cir- 
cumstances, and is compo.sed wholly, or in 
part, of animal matter, either recently 
killed or in a jiutrid state." But they are 
less positive in this respect than the VvA.mM, 
and yet we know cats, in a domestic state, 
will feed on vegetable matter— and even fruit 
and pickles— hut this is of rare occurrence. 


Mk. Editor — Dear Sir: I herewith send you a 
box of Mushrooms (Moricles) for a holiday dinner. 
I trust they will tickle your palate suflicieni to move 
your pen once more in t>ehalf ()f the rultivatioii of 
thi.s delicious eseulont, which may be produced in 
rpiantity to supply any demand for W.—Kexpeel fully 
yuunt, 11. M. Fiii/le, Marietta, jiprll -lind, 1878. 

The highly flavored "Morells" (MerrrhtUa